|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
- 1 General information
- 2 Classification
- 3 Phonology
- 4 Sound Changes
- 5 Nouns
- 6 Adjectives
- 7 Pronouns and Determiners
- 8 Verbs
- 9 Vocabulary
Barejine (native Barzhinrizhe /bɑɾʒɪ̃ɾíʒə/) is a spoken language of the alien Patronans (Parneve /pɑɾnéɸə/) on the planet Patrona (Parune /pɑɾʊ̃́nə/). It is the official language of the country of Barejinia (Barshine /bɑɾʃɪ̃́nə/), and its many former colonies. Barejinia is situated in the Chevin peninsula (Tshevi), a sub-peninsula of the Edalith peninsula (Âzlez), which is itself a subcontinent of the largest continent of the planet, Chiwar (Tshivar).
Barejine is a Chevin language (see Proto-Chevin), closely related to Alemarese. It is a direct descendant of True Chevin (Proto-Alemar-Barejine). As a Chevin language, it is also a member of the Edalith macrofamily (see Proto-Edalith).
|stop||p b||t d||tʃ dʒ||k g|
|fricative||ɸ||s z||ʃ ʒ||x||h|
m, n, ny, p, b, t, d, tsh, dzh, k, g, q, g, f, v, s, z, sh, zh, j, h, l, ly, r
- [q] is an allophone of /k/ before back vowels.
- [ɢ] is an allophone of /g/ before back vowels.
- [β] is an allophone of /ɸ/ between vowels.
i, oi, u, e, eu, o, ê, êu, ô, â, a, in, oin, un, an, e, en
- There are only four non-marginal nasal monophthongs, not included in the table for brevity: /ɪ̃/, /ʏ̃/, /ʊ̃/, and /ɐ̃/.
- /u/, /o/, and /ɔ/ are allophonically unrounded to [ɯ], [ɤ], and [ʌ], respectively before the liquids: /l/, /ʎ/, and /ɾ/.
- There are two marginal phonemes: /ə/ & /ə̃/, which occur only in unstressed word-initial and word-final syllables. Most word-final instances are the result of weakening of low vowels.
oe, oê, oâ, oa, oian, oan, -oie, -oe, -oien, -oen
- There are also two nasal diphthongs, not included in the table for brevity: /yɐ̃/, and /uɐ̃/.
- [yə], [uə], [yə̃], and [uə̃] are allophones of /yæ/, /uɑ/, /yɐ̃/, and /uɐ̃/ when unstressed word-finally.
Stress is usually on the last syllable of a stem, unless that syllable contains a reduced vowel, in which case the penultimate is stressed. Some suffixes attract stress. Stress is marked if it occurs earlier than the penult, if it occurs on a final vowel, if it occurs before a word final <n> or <g>, or if it occurs on the penult of a word ending in a consonant that is not <n> or <g>.
- Initial and final epenthesis of /ǝ/
- First palatalization
- Palatalization of /k/ and /g/ before front vowels
- /k/ becomes /j/ before an obstruent
- Intervocalic & word-final non-geminate obstruents and those preceding /l/ and /r/ lenite except when they begin stressed syllables: voiced fricatives > 0, voiced stops > voiced fricatives, voiceless obstruents > voiced obstruents.
- [θ, ð] > [s, z] / V_, > [t, d] elsewhere
- [t, d, h, x]u > [ts, dz, ɸ, ɸ] / _[V, #]
- /p/ & /k/ > /h/ / _[m, n]
- pC > C:
- Second palatalization
- jn, nj, gn, ng > ɲ & ni word-finally
- jl, lj, gl, lg > ʎ & li word-finally
- jt, tj, ts > tʃ & jd, dj, dz > dʒ & ti/tsi/di/dzi word-finally
- js, sj, jx, xj, jh, hj > ʃ & jz, zj, ɣ > ʒ & si/zi/xi/ɣi/hi word-finally
- monophthongs disappear word-finally after a liquid immediately following a stressed vowel
- [u, i] > [β, ʒ] before a vowel unless directly following a consonant
- [u, i] > 0 before a mid-vowel of the same roundedness
- lowering of monophthongs & diphthongs with a first element of /u/ & /i/ before obstruent and liquid codas
- /ei/ > /e/
- /ou/ > /o/
- /au/, /ao/, /uau/, /uao/, /oau/, /oao/ > /ɔ/
- /ia/, /ea/, /ae/, /ai/, /iae/, /iai/ > /æ/
- /eu/, /eo/, /ueu/, /ueo/, /io/ > /ø/
- [u, o] > ɥ / _F and > w / _B
- /iu/, /ɥi/ > /y/
- /iɔ/ > /œ/
- unrounding of vowels before liquids
- nasal consonants induce nasalization of preceding vowels
- coda nasal consonants disappear
- nasal vowels collapse to /ɪ̃/, /ʏ̃/, /ʊ̃/, and /ɐ̃/
- consonants are lost before liquids
- Loss of intertonic (between a stressed syllable and the beginning or end of a word) vowels
- Unstressed low vowels become /ǝ/ when word-final (/ə̃/ when nasal)
- final /h/ and /hǝ/, as well as /ǝ/ after a vowel disappear
- /k/ and /q/, as well as /g/ and /ɢ/ merge
- [q, ɢ] > [k, g]
- [k, g] > [q, ɢ] / _B
- length distinctions are lost
- /ɸ/ and /β/ merge
- β > ɸ
- ɸ > β / V_V
In dictionaries, regular nouns are given with their genitive singular form if they are inanimate, which along with the nominative is enough to decline any noun fully. Irregular nouns are given with their genitive plural, as well as their allative singular if it is not predictable from the other two or three forms.
- E nouns' nominative singular is -0 for stems ending in a stressed vowel followed by a liquid, a vowel, or a historical /h/ which resurfaces if any other suffix is added.
- O nouns' nominative singular is -e after consonant clusters or historical consonant clusters. Clusters of an obstruent plus a liquid got simplified. ex. qôle "lower back"
- O nouns' whose stems ended in an /h/ historically have the /h/ resurface if any other suffix is added.
- I nouns' nominative is -0 for nouns whose stem ends in /n/, /l/, /t/, /d/, /s/, /z/, /x/, or /h/. These stem-final consonant will palatalize. It is also -0 for stems ending in a stressed vowel followed by a liquid. ex. suntsh "tail(s)" and rizor "eye(s)"
- O nouns' genitive plural is -oi after /r/ and -u after /l/, where the /l/ palatalizes. ex. andaroi "cities'" and qôlyu "lower backs'"
- Preceding vowels usually lower before inanimate null suffixes, the presence and degree of lowering is not predictable from the nominative singular. ex. noêzh "game" (stem noezh-)
- Suffixes which attract stress can change vowels and voicing. ex. olze "arm" > ôlsà (gen. pl. & voc. sg.)
Adjectives come in two classes, with the True Chevin first declension merging with the second. They have similar irregularities to nouns.
- Pronouns are the only part of speech which have a separate accusative case. These are also used after prepositions where nouns would use the nominative.
- Possessive pronouns are determiners, and agree with following nouns in case, gender, and number.
- The reduced forms are used before words beginning with vowels.
In dictionaries, regular verbs are given in their 3s along with a specification of their class. Irregular verbs are given with their 1s, as well as any other forms unpredictable from the other two.
The present tense is used for ongoing current events and states.
- 1s is -0 for nouns whose stem ends in /n/, /l/, /t/, /d/, /s/, /z/, /x/, or /h/. These stem-final consonants will palatalize. It is also -0 for stems ending in a stressed vowel followed by /r/. ex. s aqaly "I am singing" and soi for "I am lying"
- 3s is -0 for stems ending in a stressed vowel followed by a liquid. ex. joa ler (stem lir-) "he is inventing"
- Preceding vowels usually lower before 1s null suffixes, but the presence of lowering is not predictable.
oze/ôdzh (A) "give"
an/ami (O) "to be"
The 3s has a reduced form, en.
oz/z (and), e...e... (either or), tâ...tâ... (and/or), no (but/yet), gâ/pirêl (because/for), uve (if)
Though Patronans have ten fingers in total, the most common base for numerals (talantoi) is 8 (octal) which was spread by Alemarese and Barejine-speakers across most of Patrona. Typically, finger-counting starts with the thumbs out, the first finger being the index, etc.
Numbers are nouns declined according to form. The item they tell the quantity of is rendered in the genitive before them. ex. rante dzhan "nine people"
- jêroizhe "body"
- qal/qaloi "skin"
- rajne/rêjnì "hair"
- firoine "head"
- meudzhume "face"
- pôldù "mouth"
- fuzhe "lip"
- odzhe "tongue"
- edzh/itshì "tooth plate"
- kè/keui (irr. O-class, gen. pl. keu, all. sg. keun) "head ridge"
- osoanre/osoanroi "nose"
- tshêr "outer ear"
- zheshâr "inner ear"
- rizor/rizurì "eye"
- qamôzh/qamoshì "neck"
- folề/folehoi "throat"
- delyêz/delyedoi "shoulder"
- qôle/qôloi "lower back"
- suntsh/suntì "tail"
- limù (irr. an., gen. pl. limohà, all. sg. limuhen) "buttock"
- mane "chest"
- fale "belly"
- olze (irr. an., gen. pl. ôlsà) "arm"
- far "hand"
- tshez/tshedoi "back of the hand"
- esanze "digit"
- leve/levoi "nail"
- zage "leg"
- jambe "foot"