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Words of 1500
Creator Exospheric-Pressure

Batavian, also known as Bachtish or, historically, Upper Batavian, is a West Germanic language spoken by roughly 2 million people as a first language and 500,000 as a second language, primarily in the Federal Republic of Batavia, southern areas of the Netherlands, and northwestern Germany.

Classification and Dialects[]


Standard Batavian[]

Standard Batavian is based off the Batavian spoken between Mesträicht (Maastricht) and Eachen (Aachen).

Northern Dialect[]

Associated with Endhoven (Eindhoven) and Hellmud (Helmond) rural areas

Central Dialect[]

Associated with Mesträicht (Maastricht) and Eachen (Aachen)

Southwestern Dialect[]

Associated with Liek (Liège) and Äspe (Spa)

Intercity North[]

Associated with downtown, impoverished areas of Endhoven (Eindhoven) and Hellmud (Helmond)

Mergers and isoglosses[]


The pronunciation of these four diphthongs is often considered the strongest signal for where a person is from. In general, in the Northern dialects, ee, ei, and äi are pronounced as /ei/ while ij/y is pronounced as /ai/, whereas in the South, äi and ei pronounced as /ai/ while ee and ij/y are pronounced /ei/. In the Intercity North dialect, all four are usually pronounced as /e:/, while in the dialects in and around Äspe (Spa) pronounce each differently: äi /εi/, ei /ei/, ee /e:/, and ij/y /ai/. The standard dialect officially calls for what-is-now the Äspis pronunciation, as it had once been the majority pronunciation at the beginning of the Republic, and many do use it, but most high register speech defaults to the Northern isoglosses for these vowels.


Proto-West Germanic *sk had three main reflexes in the modern language. In the Northern dialects, s dominates, while sch dominates in the Southern dialects. The Central dialects prefers the sch onset, but s in the coda, which is relfected in the standard language. Some northern rural areas demonstrate /sx/ and /sk/, but, even there, it is mostly restricted to elderly speakers.



Labial Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n (ŋ)
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative f v s z ʃ ç x (ʁ) h
Affricate t͡s
Approximant l (r) (ɻ) j


Front Central Back
High i ɪ u: ʊ
Mid e: ɛ (ə) o:
Low a: a

Writing System[]


Letter Aa Ää Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk
Sound /a/ /ε/ /b/ see below /d/ /e/, [ε] /f/, [v] /g/ /h/ /i/, [ɪ] /j/ /k/
Letter Ll Mm Nn Oo Öö Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Üü
Sound /l/ /m/ /n/ /o/, [ɔ] /ʊ/ /p/ loans only /r/1 /s/, [z] /t/ /u/, [ʊ] /ɪ/
Letter Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Sound /v/ /w/2 /ks/ /ei/ /z/

Vocalic Digraphs[]

Letter Aa aa Ai ai Au au Ah ah Äi äi Äu äu Ea ea Ee ee Ei ei Eh eh Ie ie IJ ij
Letter Oa oa oe Oi oi Oo oo Ou ou Oh oh Ui ui Uh uh Öh öh Üi üi Üh



Consonantal Digraph[]

Letter Ch ch Cz cz



Orthographic conventions[]

YCCy, but Ccijcc (e.g., yzen "iron", but tijd "time")

Vy, but ViC (e.g., säy "sea", but lüig "lie, falsehood"), though there are a few exceptions (e.g., aai "egg")

Developmental orthographic phonology[]


PWGmc Proto-Batavian Old Batavian Middle Batavian Early Modern Batavian Modern Batavian
Northern Southern
a: ɔ: o: /o:/ <oa>
a...i ε /ε/ <e>, <ä>
a:...i εi /ei/ <äi> /ai/ <äi>
a...u ε /ε/ <e>, <ä>
a:...u ε: ei e: /e:/ <ea> /i:/ <ea>
ai a: /a:/ <aa> /ɔ:/ <aa>
ai...i εi /ei/ <äi> /ai/ <äi>
au aw ow o: /o:/ <oa>
au...i εy ei e: /e:/ <ea> /i:/ <ea>
e: /e:/ <ee>
eu ew ø: /ɜ:/ <öh>
i: əi əi /ei/ <ij>, <y> /ai/ <ij>, <y>
iu ju y: /u/ <üh>
o...i ø ø ø /ʊ/ <ö> /ʌ/ <ö>
o:...i ø: œy ay /ay/ <au> /au/ <au>
o:...u u: /u:/ <ou>
u...i y y ɪ /ɪ/ <ü>
u:...i y: øy ei /ei/ <ei> /ai/ <ei>
u...u u: /u:/ <ou>
u: y: i: /i:/ <ie>
uNF ũ:F u:F /u:/ <u>



Batavian nouns are separated into three genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter. This is maintained mostly in archaisms and in explaining some irregularities in modern parlance. Today, the only grammatical function is demonstrated by the combination of masculine and feminine into a "common" gender and the neuter gender, though even this is falling out of favor in colloquial Batavian, particularly in the southwestern region.


Verb Conjugation[]

Regular conjugation[]
karmen (to cry, to get choked up; weak)[]
present past
singular 1st karm karmd
2nd karms
3rd karmt
plural karmen karmden
present past
singular karme kärmd
plural karmen kärmden
singular karme
plural karmd
present past
karmen gekarmt
jechen (to chat, to discuss; strong 5)[]
present past
singular 1st jech jach
2nd jechs
3rd jecht
plural jechen jachen
present past
singular jeche jäiche
plural jechen jäichen
singular jech
plural jiecht
present past
jechen gejechen
Irregular forms[]
wezen (to be)[]
present past
singular 1st em was
2nd er weer
3rd is was
plural sind weer
present past
singular sie weer
plural sijn weren
singular weze
plural weest
present past
wezen gewezen
sallen (will, shall, would, should)[]
present past
singular 1st sall sold
2nd sals
3rd salt
plural sollen söllen
present past
singular sülle solde
plural süllen solden
present past
magen (may, can, might, could, able)[]
present past
singular 1st mag macht
2nd mags
3rd magt
plural magen machten
present past
singular mäig mächd
plural mäigen machden
present past
haben (to have)[]
present past
singular 1st hab had
2nd has
3rd habt
plural haben haden
present past
singular häbe häde
plural häben häden
singular hab
plural habt
present past
häben gehabt
werden (to become)[]
present past
singular 1st werd ward
2nd werds
3rd werdt
plural werden wurden
present past
singular werde würde
plural werden würden
singular werd
plural wirdt
present past
werden geworden
present past
singular 1st gah jeng
2nd gäis
3rd gäit
plural goan jengen
present past
singular gange jänge
plural gangen jängen
present past




Batavian English
progressive past simple Ik ward cigarette rauczen. I was smoking cigarettes.
perfect Ik habt cigarette rauczen geworden. I had been smoking cigarettes.
present simple Ik werd cigarette rauczen. I am smoking cigarettes.
perfect Ik hab cigarette rauczen geworden. I have been smoking cigarettes.
future simple Ik sall cigarette werden rauczen. I will be smoking cigarettes.
perfect Ik sall cigarette haben werden rauczen. I will have been smoking cigarettes.
simplex past simple Ik rauczte cigarette. I smoked cigarettes.
perfect Ik hab cigarette gerauczt. I have smoked cigarettes.
pluperfect Ik habt cigarette gerauczt. I had smoked cigarettes.
present Ik raucz cigarette. I smoke cigarettes (here and then).
future Ik sall cigarette rauczen. I will smoke cigarettes.
habitual past Ik plach cigarette te rauczen. I used to smoke cigarettes.
present Ik plech cigarette te rauczen. I smoke cigarettes (regularly).
future Ik sall cigarette plechen te rauczen. I will be smoking cigarettes (regularly).


Batavian English
progressive past simple Vörs ik cigarette würde rauczen, ik sull föll daan gefechen gehabt. If I were smoking cigarettes (earlier), I would have enjoyed them a lot.
perfect Vörs ik cigarette hab rauczen geworden, ik sull föll daan gefechen gehabt. Had I been smoking cigarettes, I would have enjoyed them a lot.
present simple Vörs ik cigarette werde rauczen, ik sull föll daam gefechen. If I were smoking cigarettes, I would enjoy them a lot.
perfect If I have been smoking cigarettes, I would enjoy them a lot.
future simple If I would smoke cigarettes,
perfect If I were to be smoking cigarettes, I would enjoy them a lot.
simplex past simple Vörs ik cigarette röcze, ik sull föll daam gefechen gehabt. Had I smoked, I would have enjoyed them a lot.
perfect Vörs ik cigarette häbe rauczen, ik sull föll daam gefechen gehabt. If I have smoked, I would have enjoyed them a lot.
pluperfect Vörs ik cigarette häde rauczen, ik sull föll daam gefechen gehabt. If I had been smoking, I would have enjoyed them a lot.
present Vörs ik cigarette raucze, ik sull föll daam gefechen. If I smoked cigarettes, I would enjoy them a lot.
future Vörs ik cigarette sulle rauczen, ik sull föll daam gefechen. If I were to smoke cigarettes, I would enjoy them a lot.
habitual past Vörs ik cigarette pläiche te rauczen, ik sull föll daam gefechen. Were I smoker (before), I would have enjoyed them a lot.
present Vörs ik cigarette pleche te rauczen, ik sull föll daam gefechen. Were I a smoker (now), I would enjoy them a lot.
future Vörs ik cigarette sulle plechen te rauczen, ik sull föll daam gefechen. Were I to be a smoker (in the future), I would enjoy them a lot.


The habitual mood is marked by the verb plechen. However, it is not a strict habitual. In general, it is translated with "keep" or "always" and/or marked by an adverb that would indicate habit. Consider the following:

Sie plecht searsdags die ördlich czerke te helpen. "She always helps the local church on Saturdays."

Note that in many cases where habitual marking may be necessary in other languages, it is not marked in Batavian. For this reason, some grammarians have challenged the title of "habitual" in lieu of a more fitting title, such as "iterative" or "semelfactive". Consider the following:

Der voarman plecht thies mei te upropen, dus sogant arbäid ik svoar underdags. "My boss keeps calling me at home, even though I work hard during the day."


singular plural
m/n f
possession singular -s -er -en
der genoats baat "the comrade's boat" der maigder rüig "the girl's back" die gäiten häihoap "the goats' haypile"
plural -en -ern -ene
die genoten bate "the comrade's boats die maigden rüige "the girl's backs" die gäiten häihope "the goats' haypiles"

Feminine singular form developed from a univerbation of the nominal and her "her" (e.g., der maigd her rüig, lit. "the girl her back").

Derivation and Extraction[]

From Latin[]

Latin loans exploded during the Middle Ages. Many of these loans are similarly derived as they are in German and Dutch, partially through linguistic overlap and partially through standard convention among learned circles of the era, particularly in the Church. Although some terms were loaned in their exact form, most were adapted.

ae and oe[]

For <ae>, older texts and affected type use <æ>, it is usually rendered as <ai>, or occasionally <äi>, in modern spelling, though preservation of the digraph is not uncommon, especially when in line with . For <oe>, there are mixed strategies, often based on intra-European standards.

Latin Batavian definition notes
praesidium präisidium outpost, defensive position, guard station Der Präisidium is often used metonymically for the Federal Intelligence Service (Gemäinsnehmandungdeignst, GND).
oeconomia economie economy

Latin's effect on internationalist vocabulary is obvious and regularly derived. Earlier spelling conventions tended towards Dutch-styled orthography, and some still persist, but the majority is Germanicized for ease of use.

Latin Batavian definition notes
theologia theologie theology
theologus theolog theologian Feminine form theologien not derived from a Latin feminine form or from French.

Often, a Latin term would be loaned, but aspects of the original would be replaced with native affixes while maintaining the Latin root as a loan.

prae- "before" + occupō "I occupy" + -tiō "-tion" → voaroccupierung "preoccupation, distraction"

Latin Batavian examples notes
-āre, -ēre -ieren bordonieren "to hum, to sing the blues" Conflated with the loans from Old French -ier.
-tiō -ung demokratizierung "democratization"

dormierung "domition, slumber"

From French[]

Old French[]

Early Modern and Modern French[]

Modern French terms are largely constrained to diplomacy and trade, two areas where French was often used as a lingua franca. Often, they are borrowed unadapted, but there are examples where a term is borrowed from French, but the affix is obviously associated with an already existing Batavian one and the affix is Batavicized.

Latin Batavian definition notes
theologia theologie theology
theologus theolog theologian Feminine form theologien not derived from a Latin feminine form or from French.
French Batavian examples notes
-tie -cze diplomatiediplomaczie "diplomacy"
-ique -ik républiquerepublik "republic"

diplomatiquediplomatik "diplomatic"

Sometime adapted to -ig.

From English[]

Most English terms in Batavian are entirely unadapted, but may have senses that are not in line with modern English.

English Batavian definition notes
parking parking parking lot



1st person 2nd person 3rd person
m. f. n.
Singular Nominative ik do hie sie it
Oblique mei dei him je
Possessive free my(n) dy(n) jans her das
inflected mine dine janze here daze
Plural Nominative wei jei da
Oblique us daam
Possessive ur ühr deir/daams1

1 Daams is considered to be incorrect in most circles; it is akin to Inland North/Pennsylvania youse, yinz. Nevertheless, it remains common in everyday parlance, especially rural speech.

Proximal Distal
demonstrative locative demonstrative locative
Singular dies hier dat dar/doar
Plural deze dem1/dette

1 Variant dette (coll. det) became more common during the late Middle Ages to distinguish it from the dative singular definite article, dem. That said, it remained common in the east and, with the collapse of the case system, saw a reemergence and was deemed valid in the 1910 standardization efforts as the common gender plural demonstrative.

word plural definition origin notes
oacht anything *aiw + *wihti Compare English aught, identically derived.
nicht nothing *ne + *aiw + *wihti
word definition origin notes
wo who *hwaʀ
wat what *hwat
woar where *hwār
wenn when *hwannē Variant wennäir no longer common in common speech, but used in archaisms (compare use of wherefore in English), especially when implying about the past. Also used for sense "if, when".
woarvör why *hwār + vör "about, around" Compare English wherefore "why", Dutch waarvoor. Term is based on the preposition necessary (woaröm), but woarvör is the most neutral. Preposition is separable (e.g., Woar waars do dei vör? "What are you getting dressed for?")
woe how *hwō


Word plural paradigm definition origin derivatives notes
kie küy f/c cow, bovine *kū
ezel ezelle m/a donkey, ass, easel *asil
beer beren m/an bear *berō
czirk czirke f/ōn church *kirikā
mecze mecze n/a (food) knife *matisahs
gemäinschip gemäinschippe f/i society, community *gamainiskapi
lüig lüige f/ō lie, falsehood *luginu
mies meis f/c mouse (all senses) *mūs
müird müirde f/ō love, passion, (arch.) mirth, joy, happiness *murgiþu ermüirden "to love, to have passion for"
inbröck inbröke f/ō burglary, break-in *breku
gewäir gewäre f/i rifle ge- + *warīniz begewäiren "to arm, to conscript"

→ begewäirung "conscription"

gewäirman "rifleman"

jente jente f/loan girl, lass, broad *genetā (Gaulish) Somewhat more common in the southwest; see maigd
czerl czerle m boy, lad, bloke *karil
froh frohe f lady, woman, ma'am *frawjā Does not have the flexibility of German Frau; only used for women older than the speaker or whom are married, irrespective of age.
oalm olme m gentleman, sir, mister aal "noble" + man Cognate with ädelman "nobleman". Originally a northern variant.
reach reacze m smoke, fume *rauki Form rück (← *ruki) is probably more common, but reak is officially standard.
schoap schoap n sheep *skāp schoapfolk "sheeple"

wolf im schoapsklade "wolf in sheep's clothing"

baat bate m boat, ship *bait
glaam m twilight, (arch.) melancholy *glōm glaamswäin "(arch.) depression"
oal ole m eel *āl
eel elle f awl, (slang) shiv *ālu
yf ive m/wa yew *īhu Also dialectical eif~eive
aak ake f/c oak *aik Aakman "Eichmann (surname)" Plural regularized through disuse. Earlier aacze still recognized in the phrase drang die aacze "insane, stark raving mad" (literally, "among the oaks").
hülst hülste m/a holly *hulis
eern erne m/a maple *ahurn
ivig m/i ivy *ibig
pijn pine f/ōn pine, (dial.) fir *pīnā
dan danne f/ōn fir, (dial.) pine *dannā dannenboam "Christmas tree" Also dialectical furch~furche (from *furhu)
fürcht fürchte f/i wood, woodland, forest, wald *furhiþi Related to dialectical furch "fir"; also used in compounds in forests with a predominate tree type (e.g., aakfürcht "oak forest")
boam bome m/a branch, beam, rafter *baum
sparre sparren m/an tree, beam, log *sparrō From a root originally meaning "spruce"; commonly used in compounds.
spier spire n/u spear *speru
taach tache f/ōn toe *taihā
brake braken m/an hound, sleuthhound *brakkō
kempe kempen m/an veteran, former combatant *kampijō
sieg sige m/i victory *sigi
haal hale n/z omen, portent, (in phrases) hail! *hail Most often used in üilhaal "bad omen, bad luck"
gehüicht f/i thought, cognizance, thoughts collectively *gahugdi
höch höche m/i desire, spiritual appetite Dutch heug Cognate with native hüig "mindset, temper, inclination"
üil üile m/a evil, moral turpitude *ubil
kemp kempe m/a mustache *kanip
sniet snitte m/a snout *snūt
äiczel äiczle f/ō acorn, glans, (vulg.) dickhead *aikilu Sense "glans" from Latin glāns.
nord n/a north *nord
sud n/a south *sunþr
oast n/a east *austr
west n/a west *westr
ys n/a ice *īs
fürcht fürchte f/i forest, woodland *furhiþi
holt holt n/a wood, trees collectively *holt Common in compounds (e.g., aakholt, yfsholt, etc.) in articulating species or generalities (Ik denk
kürbiet kürbite m/a pumpkin, gourd, squash *kurbit ackelkürbiet "acorn squash"
hur hure f/ōn whore, prostitute, slut *hōrǭ hurhies "whorehouse"

hurdom "adultery"

Probably influenced by Dutch hoer, German Hure.
aaterkop aaterkoppe m/a spider *aitrkopp
gefängness gefängnesse f/īn prison, jail, (coll.) prison sentence *gafangnassī Compare German Gefängnis, Dutch gevangenis
plicht plichte f/i duty, object of care *plihti See also plîcze "darling, sweetheart", plechen "to do habitually, to take care of"
mist miste m/u manure, (coll.) bullshit *mistu Related to mijgen "to disrespect"; see below.
gefeche gefechen m/an joy, gladness, mirth *gefehō
wolk wolke f/ō cloud *wulku
joar jeer n/a year (all senses) *jār
fark fark n/a piglet *farh färczen "to have a litter of piglets" Preferred in the north for "pig" over svijn, where färcze is preferred for "piglet". Some southwestern speakers prefer farch, the expected reflex.
Prousfark Prousfark n/a (vulg.) a term of abuse for Germans literally "Prussian piglet" Alternative form Proushund "Prussian dog", though this is considered rather dated.
örd örde f/ō earth, soil, world *erþu Expected plural *erde regularized through disuse.
sijt sijte f/i shit, feces *skiti
böver böver m/u beaver *bebru
wijn wine m/a wine, (in compounds) alcohol *wīn (n/a) For sense "alcoholic drink", see honigwijn "mead", badwijn "moonshine (lit. bathwine)", appelwijn "hard cider", bischopswijn "mulled wine", etc.
wijnbeer wijnbeer n/ja grape, esp. those used in wine *wīnabaʀi Generally restricted to affected speech and poetry. The usual term is wijndrief.
gefaule gefaulen m/an feeling, sense, instinct ge- + faulen "to feel" Often used in compounds; see mudgefaule "mouthfeel", riemgefaule "spacial awareness", etc.
jersep jersep n/a barn See notes Originally dialect, probably derived from *gerstu "barley" + *skupi "shop, shed".
jörst jerst f/ō barley *gerstu
arbäid arbäde f/i work, labor, job, toil, hardship *arbaiþi Gelove ean arbäde is doad. "Faith without works is dead."
hüig hüige f/i mindset, temper, inclination *hugi Cognate with höch "desire, spiritual appetite"
encyclopädië encyclopädiën f/loan encyclopedia Latin encyclopaedia
czöl czöle m/a keel *kelu Sometimes used in compounds poetically and metonymically for sense "ship, boat", especially as a means of discovery
stüre stüren m/an sturgeon *sturjō
czaff n/a chaff, (fig.) jetsam, anything discarded, debris *kaf Soft/k/ is unexpected from *kaf, but attested by West Frisian tsjêf "chaff". Northern variant kaff "trash bag, (fig.) asshole" is probably influenced by Dutch.
hört hörte m/a deer, hart, stag *herut
himmel himmle m/a heaven, sky *himil
saap sape f/ōn soap *saipā sapen "to wash with soap"
rijch rijche n/ja nation, state, realm, empire, kingdom *rīkī kazerrijch "empire"

köningrijch "kingdom"

underköningrijch "viceroyalty"

Österrijch "Austria"

dag dage m/a day, daytime *dag
nacht nächt f/i night, nighttime *nacht
hän hänne f/ō hen, female chicken *hannju Spelling with -ä- from connection with now obsolete coordinate term hane ("rooster, cock"), though this was displaced by kreekock.
ampt ampte m/loan office, department, post, function See notes Unclear ultimate origin, but either from Dutch ambt or German Amt. Doublet of mecht "profession, vocation" (from earlier ammecht).
mecht mechte m/a profession, vocation, labor, (plural, dated) the trades *ambaht mechtbund "trade union, labor union" Not to be confused with mächt "might, force, violence, crime".
mächt mächte f/i might, force, violence, (law) crime *mahti mächtig "mighty, powerful, criminal"

overmächt "higher power, judge"

Not to be confused with mecht "profession, vocation". Derivation overmächt now restricted to God, especially as the Judge of the Living and the Dead, though humorously applied to professional superiors.
bund bunde m/loan alliance, federation, union, league German Bund
policze f/loan police Latin polītīa policzeman "policeman"
däid däide f/i deed, act, action, (law) crime, offense *dādi
aczet aczete m/a vinegar *aket
kried kride n/a herb, vegetable, spice, (in compounds) edible plant *krūd bijkried "weed, unwanted plant"

kriednäigel "clove"

Incredibly common and, to some extent, still productive in modern vernacular.
loach loche m/a grove, thicket *lauh
hert herte n/an heart, (euph.) fellow, guy, bloke *hertā Sense "fellow" from nicknaming a person after a characteristic, common in modern surnames (e.g., Yzenhert "Ironheart", etc.), leading to generalization.
haaf have m/a hoof *hōfaz
erger ergre m/loan trouble, problem; source of annoyance, anger, or agitation German Ärger
dack däck n/a roof *þak däckel "roof shingle"
kün künne n/ja gender, sex, (arch.) lineage, bloodline *kuni
köning köninge m/a king, sovereign *kuning köningrijch "kingdom"

folksköning "champion of the people"

underköning "viceroy"

souverein souvereine m/loan sovereign French souverain
folk folke n/a people, nation, country, folk *folk
keid keide m/u kith, kin, close friends and family *kunþiþu keidgemaute "family get-together"
hüll hülle m/i hill, mound *hulliz
skorpien skorpine m/loan scorpion Latin scorpiō
hoad haud n/irr. head *haubud/*haubid voarhaud "forehead (pl.)"
broe broën m/an brow *brūwō (f.)
oag ogen n/an eye *augā
nes neze f/i nose *nasi
oar oren n/an ear *auʀā
mud mude m/a mouth *munþ
lip lippen m/an lip *lippjō lipbard "mustache (dated)"
czin czinne f/u chin *kinnu glasczin "glass chin"
bard barde m/a beard *bard
czüik czüike f/ōn cheek, (dial.) jaw *keukā
koë koën m/an jaw, mandible *kauā
toad täid m/c tooth *tanþ
skäil skäle f/u skull *skaidilu
nacke nacken m/an neck, nape *hnakkō
hals halze m/a throat *hals
schulder schuldre f/ō shoulder *skuldru
echsel echsle f/ō armpit, (dial.) shoulder *ahslu
land länd n/a land, nation, country, area *land faarland "fatherland, homeland"

→ faarländer "fellow countryman"

outland "foreign nation"

outländer "foreigner"

däil däile m/i part, piece, section, slice *daili
büit büite m/a mushroom, fungus *bulit
staal stale m/a chair, seat, stool *stōl kroudstaal "toadstool"

köningstaal "throne"

kräftstaal "seat of power"

vehlstaal "wheelchair"

vehl vehle n/a wheel *hwehwl
deignst deignste m/a service (subsection of an ampt or other government agency) *þewanōstaz Older spellings deanst and dehnst superceded due to association with deign "servant" and, later, deignsman "serviceman".
gemäin gemäine m/a community, nation, people, (in compounds) national, federal *gamainī Judengemäin "Jewish community" De-adjectivized from earlier gemäind. Now largely restricted to the Batavian federal government, though archaisms and fossilizations are not unheard of.
gezelle gezellen m/an companion, friend, fellow, (coll.) dude, bro *gasaljô gezellig "friendly, inviting"

vergezellen "to accompany"

Derivation vergezellen is likely a direct loan from Dutch. Colloquial sense typically employs the singular gezel.
nehmanung f/ō intelligence (information, often secret, about an enemy or about hostile activities) see notes nehmanungdeignst "intelligence agency" Probably calqued from German Nachrichtendienst. Synchronically, neah "near" + manen "to warn" + -ung.
genead genede f/u grace, mercy, (law) clemency *ganāþu abgeneadfall "fall from grace"
faar fear m/r father *fader voarfaar "forefather, ancestor" Plural fear developed from regularization (cf moar/mear). Older form fäir now uncommon.
moar mear f/r mother *mōder
braar brear m/r brother *brōþer
svester sviester f/r sister *swester
dochter döchter f/r daughter *dohter dochterspreak "daughter language"
son sonne m/u son *sunu
spiel spile m/a game, exercise *spil gedoachtspiel "thought exercise" Long -ie- likely influenced by German Spiel, Yiddish שפּיל‎.
gedoacht gedoachte m/a thought, idea, belief *þą̄ht gedoachtloss "thoughtless, inconsiderate"
gaast gaste m/a ghost, spirit *gaist Haalig Gaast "Holy Ghost"

tijdgaast "zeitgeist"

vrald vralde m/a world *weraldi Originally a f/i noun; it is unclear why the word developed as it did, but compare West Frisian wrâld and English world for contraction.
loan lone n/a wage, (plural) salary *laun Despite the similarity, unrelated to English loan. Phrase dagswerk, dagsloan "day's work, day's wage" commonly used by trade unions, but also used in colloquial speech for fair play.
laan lane n/a lease, (historical) fief *laihn Compare related English loan.
sauk saucze f/i (law) jurisdiction, (religion) parish, area of expertise *sōkni Related to seak.
seak sake f/ō cause, interest, matter, sake, business, (legal) case *saku urseak "cause, origin, source"

→ verurseken "to cause, to induce"

→ urseklich "causal, causing"

ordnung f/loan law, legal framework, orderliness, ordination, order Latin ōrdinō + -ung Compare German Ordnung.
flet flette n/a floor, story, level of a building *flatti flethies "cottage, bunker, (dated) farmhouse" In poetic language, can also be applied to fields in compounds (e.g., krieflet "battlefield").
woapen weapen n/a weapon, arm *wāpn gewäipne "weaponry, armaments"

woapenhies "armory"

kernewoapen "nuclear weapon"

miel mile n/a snout, muzzle, mouth (of an animal or hum. of a person) *mūlą One of the most famous Batavian isoglosses. Standard uses miel-mile, Northern dialects prefer moul-moule, Southwest dialects prefer mule-mulen, and Intercity North tends towards moul-moulen, though miel-mile is increasingly common.
kerne kernen m/an kernel, core, nucleus, essence *kernō
korn kourn n/a corn, grain, cereal *korn kornhies "granary"

kürnel "kernel, a single grain"

kat katte f/ōn cat *kattā
hund hunde m/a dog, hound *hund blaadhund "bloodhound"

policzehund "police dog"

hündling "puppy"

Variant hiend is exceedingly common in Northern dialects. It was seriously considered as the standard during the 1910 standardization efforts.
blaad bloud n/a blood *blōd blaadärmd "anemia" Derivation blaadärmd calqued from Dutch bloedarmoede, German Blutarmut.
dröhr dröre m/a gore, guts, entrails, insides, (fig.) dirty secret *dreuʀ dröhrig "violent, berserk, mad, insane" Derivation dröhrig often used in slang (e.g., Sah do jesternacht der conczert? So dröhrig! "Did you see the concert last night? So rad!"). It is no longer considered acceptable to refer to the mentally ill with dröhrig outside of criminal insanity in an extremely narrow legal context (e.g., Hie is ungeschickt an gründe der dröhrigness. "He is unfit by reason of criminal insanity.")
mezer mezere m/a wood, grain *masur mezrig "woody, gritty"

mezren "wooden, made of wood"

Specifically for the usable wood of a plant.
schijrung schijrunge f/i explanation, clarification *skīrīniz Earlier schijren misinterpreted as a verb. Related to schier "pure, honorable, virgin" and schijren "to explain, to clarify"
darm darme m/a intestine, gut, entrail *þarm aarsdarm "rectum" Usually in the plural except in compounds.
wehr were m/u ware(s) *waru wehrhies "warehouse, storage" Derivation wehrhies also used in thieves' cant to describe a fight club or other illegal activity by extension, based on similarity with German Wehr.
vrist vriste m/u joint, appendage *wristu
früit früit n/loan fruit Old French fruit früitbar "fruitful, fertile, viable"

früitbarheid "fertility, viability"

staanfrüit "stonefruit"

nead nede f/i trouble, distress, emergency, disaster *naudi neadoutgang "emergency exit"
gang gange m/a walk, way, course, gait, way, corridor, going *gang outgang "exit"

ingang "entrance"

hoadingang "main entrance"

durchgang "passage, throughway, transit"

taagang "access, admission"

taagangsgeld "entrance fee"

abgang "departure, discharge"

voargang "process, way of doing"

overgang "crossing, transition, overpass"

rüiggang "hands-on training, ride-along"

niergang "decline, downfall"

Derivation rüiggang developed from the sense of a child riding on someone's back to get a better view.
czüker czükre f/loan sugar Old French çucre früitczüker "fructose"

melkczüker "lactose"

ord orde m/a (slang) digs, crib, living quarters, (rarely, in compounds) site, spot *oʀd arbäidsord "worksite"

kampord "battlefield"

ördlich "local"

Welkom in myn eamädlig ord. "Welcome to my humble abode."
maad made m/a mood, mind, sense, courage *mōd mädig "brave, strong-headed"

eamad "humility"

eamädig "humble"

gemäd "feeling, heart, soul, mind"

gemadstestand "state of mind"

Long -a- originally obsolete by the 15th century. Reemerged in the nominative singular due to the plural indicating length, but derivations and compounds remain largely unaffected by this reemergence.
hülp hülpe f/i help, assistance, aid *hulpiz hülploss "helpless, useless" See also helpen from *helpan.
kläy kläië m/a clay *klaij
weder n/a weather *wedr unweder "bad weather, storm"

wederlicht "lightening"

licht licht n/a light, (euph.) sight *leuht auglicht "eyesight"

lichtbreken "to refract, to obfuscate the truth"

lichtbrekung "refraction"

mean mene m/an moon *mānō meanfoll "insane, barking at walls" Original plural monen regularized by disuse.
küid küide f/i arrival, coming *kumþiz teküid "future"

teküidig "futuristic"

→ teküidsverwachung "expectations for the future"

teküidroman "sci-fi novel"

Uncompounded, only found in archaisms (e.g., Der Weerküid "The Second Coming"). Use in compounds undoubtedly influenced by Dutch komst and German -kunft.
bell belle f/ōn bell, goal, aim, objective *bellā Sense "goal, aim, objective" is from an old folktale about a young man taking a bet to strike a bell with his bow and arrow.
öhst öhste f/i virtue, goodness, moral correctness *ansti
dürft dürfte f/i necessity, requirement *þurftiz
därf därve f/ō want, demand *þarbu Related to darben "to want, to lack".
braign braigne n/a brain, mind *bragn
packe packen m/an pack, bundle, package, parcel *pakkō
geberung geberunge n/a condolences, apologies see notes Used for somber events such as funerals. Literally "(we are) carrying together", from the sense that one's suffering is carried together with the apologist.
hies hieze house, home, place of, -ery *hūs gehieze "housing, casing"

deadhies "morgue"

voarhies "foyer, entrance area"

posthies "post office"

badhies "bathhouse"

hiesdier "pet, house animal"

Semi-productive in modern parlance.
yzen yzen n/a iron *īsarn Forms yren and yrn are common in the southwest.
weig weige m/a way, path, road, going *weg arbäidsweig "commute to work"

rüigweig "shortcut"

waterweig "waterway"

faatweig "footpath, hiking path"

Still productive in modern parlance. For derivation rüigweig, contrast German Rückweg.
rüig rüige m/ja back, ridge, spine, return *hrugi rüigbaan "spine, backbone"
foul fule m/a bird, fowl, (fig.) a woman *fugl strousfoul "ostrich"

strousfoulpolitik "ostrich politics"

foulsoad "birdseed"

frijfoul "a released convict"

foulsnest "bird's nest, ratty hair"

nest neste n/a nest, (coll.) bed, den *nest Expected *nöst is not attested, likely from disuse. For sense "bed", consider Ay gez, iem am nest gaan. "Hey bro, I'm going to hit the sack."
tijd tiden f/i time, tide, period, era, tense *tīdiz tijdgaast "zeitgeist"

Yzentijd "Iron Age"

bed bedde n/ja bed *badi
genoat genote m/a fellow, associate, comrade, companion *ganautaz bedgenoat "bedfellow, sex partner" Generally preferred among lofty language against gezelle and hert. Related to now-archaic noat "possession, property".
fenster fenstere n/a window *fenestr
soal sole f/ō soul. spirit *saiwalu
dead dede f/ō death *dauþu, see deaden frijdead "suicide" (← German Freitod)

overdead "overkill"

deadsurseak "cause of death"

Used for both the concept (e.g., Dead jiet mei der früchte. "Death scares me.") and instances of (e.g., Der timberindringung verorsekte 55 dede. "The building collapse caused 55 deaths.")
lied liede m/a sound, noise, song, hymn *hlūd geleid "sound (in general)"

liedloss "soundless, silent, quiet"

liedlossness "silence, quietude"

liddel "peep, chirp"

liddeln "to peep, to chirp"

liedheid "loudness, volume"

liedlich "phonetic, out loud"

See also lied (adj.), lieden, leiden; all related. Sense "song, hymn" conflated with German Lied; cognate with löd "tune, song".
löd löde n/a tune, song *leuþ Compare lied, conflated with unrelated German Lied.
mah mahe n/a effort, struggle, hardship *mōþuz
sicht sichte f/i sight, view, vision *sihti gesicht "face, capacity for vision"

nachtsicht "night vision"

nachtsichtschuczbrille "night vision goggles"

oan one m/c evening, dusk *ābanþ mörnoan "tomorrow evening"

oans "in the evening, at night"

moal meal n/a meal, time, instance, occurrence *māl moaltijd "mealtime"
madel mädel n/a assembly, council, (arch.) conversation *maþl Now mostly used to describe houses of parliament or congress, especially the Batavian Gemäinsmadel ("National Assembly"). Compare archaic German Mahl. Archaic sense "conversation" still calcified in some modern turns of phrase (im mädel "in conversation", mädlig "conversational"), which are not to be confused with the modern equivalents (im madel "in the assembly, under consideration", mädlich "relating to the assembly").
mäign mäigne n/a power, main, sovereign, master *maginą mäignkraft "strength, power" Related to magen "may, can" and mächt "power, force". Cf. Old English mæġen, Modern English main.
timber timbere n/a building, structure, institution *timr timberman "carpenter"
kraft krafte f/i power, strength, skill *kraftu kraftdom "dominance, superiority"

wäirkraftdom "military superiority"

svördkraft "gravity"

kräftig "strong, powerful"

kräften "to construct, to build"

Originally a f/u noun, but conflated with i-stem nouns. Derivation svördkraft is a calque of Dutch zwaartekracht. Derivation kräften is distinct from timbern, despite both often being translated as "to build, to construct"; kräften is used in the sense of building abstract nouns like power, consensus, or coalitions, whereas timbern is preferred for building concrete nouns like a building, a rocking chair, or a vehicle. However, timbern can be — and often is — used in the abstract sense, as kräften can often be used derogatorily.
staan stane m/a stone, rock *stain stäinen "to stone, to bully"

stäinen "made of stone"

odem odme m/a breath, breathing, inhale, inhalation *āþm odemhalen "to draw breath"

odmen "to breathe"

Derivation odmen only common in the North; the preferred form in the South and in the standard language is sijchen. Separable verb odemhalen considered archaic in the sense "to breathe" and thus common in Biblical translations and other archaisms.
dövark dövarke m/a oaf, idiot, lout, fool, moron see notes dövarkig "clumsy, oafish"

dövarkheid "oafishness, clumsiness"

Origin obscure. Often attributed to univerbation of do fark "you pig", which is still used in common parlance. Otherwise attributed to a corruption of the common name Dörik. Other theories exist, but these two predominate. Variant dörk and its variations (e.g., dörkig, dörkheid, etc.) also common, especially in informal parlance, at least partially under influence of English dork, dorky.
schap schäp n/a cupboard, cabinet *skap geschap "shape, form, appearance, condition" Related to schäppen, -schip.
butter buttere f/ōn butter *buterā
äppel äppel m/u apple, (in compounds) fruit *applu ördäppel "potato"
narans naranse f/loan orange, (derogatory) Dutchman Arabic نَارَنْج‎ blaadnarans "blood orange" Gained popularity during the late 18th century, displacing goldäppel, an older calque of Old French pome orenge.
sap säp n/a juice, sap *sap äppelsap "apple juice"

naranssap "orange juice"

gold guld n/a gold *golþ svart gold "oil"

gülden "ornate, decadent, ostentatious"

gölden "golden"

gölden "to gild, to adorn"

Earlier gülden displaced in sense "golden, gilded" by association, but still exists in the original sense in archaic speech (e.g., Biblical passages).
teid teide f/i guild, association, brotherhood *tumþiz goldsmidsteid "goldsmith's guild" Largely considered dated in modern parlance, but continues in the names of certain associations and institutions.
valm välm n/a arch, vault, bow *hwalbą välmen "to bow, to vault" Related to välben "to writhe, to agonize".
klaad klade n/a cloth, towel, (plural) clothes, garment, apparel *klaiþą handklaad "hand towel"

badklaad "bath towel"

Sense "clothes, clothing" now largely considered dated and mostly displaced by vechtung in colloquial speech; see vechten for more.
prezick prezicke m/a peach *persik
drang drange f/ō crowd, (w/ def.) the masses *þrangwō
ear -- f/ō honor, honesty *aiʀu earlich "honest, truthful"

earen "to honor, to praise"

earbar "honorable, valiant"

geloat gelote n/a hallway, hall see notes Related to German Gelass "small chamber" and Old English ġelǣte "intersection, crossroads".
bock böck f/loan book, tome see notes bockwürm "bookworm" Probably not directly from PWGmc *bōk, but borrowed from (or at least significantly influenced by) a local dialect (compare German Buch, Dutch boek, Low German Book). Expected reflex *baak exhibited in some archaic derivations.
würm würme f/i worm *wurmi gewürm "vermin, varmint"
roman romane m/loan novel, work of literature German Roman
küir küire m/i choice, decision *kuʀi geküir "election"

geküircyclus "election cycle"

küiren "to elect, to choose"

beküiren "to vote for, to elect"

ömküiren "to determine, to distinguish"

Derivation küiren now obsolete, displaced by beküiren. Related to közen "to choose, to elect".
nachgebier nachgebieren m/an neighbor, fellow citizen *nēhwagabūrô nachgebierheid "neighborhood"

nachgebierschip "neighborship, friendliness"

nachgebierlich "neighborly, local"

nachgebierig "neighboring, next"

nachgebierigheid "proximity, closeness, nearness, adjacency"

nachgebieren "to neighbor"

Related to biehen "to build, to construct".
haan hane f/ō whetstone, sharpening tool *hainō Related to häinen "to sharpen, to hone, to fence intellectually".
recht rechte n/a right, privilege, law, legal measure *reht arbäidsrecht "labor law"

gemäinsrecht "federal law"

rechtschaal "law school"

rechtsbock "law book"

enüig enüige n/loan injury, pain, agony Old French enui enüigen "to injure, to pain, to agonize, to suffer"

enüigung "suffering, injury"

abenüigen "to annoy, to bother, to pester, to vex, to molest"

abenüigung "annoyance"

→ → abenüigsam "bothersome, annoying, vexing"

verenüigen "to torture, to cause anguish to"

erenüigen "to ache, to bother"

urenüig "an ache, a cramp"

It is generally accepted that the term is derived from Old French enui "pain, suffering, anguish", though it is unclear how much, or if, the original Latin inodiō "to irritate, to bother, to cause hate" affected semantic drift towards "injury, pain" against "boredom, listlessness" (cf. French ennui, ennuyer) or "anger, bother" (cf. Old French enoiier). In any case, derivations tend towards sense "bother" more than "bore". The final -g is unetymological, but probably developed from a mix of pronunciation and conflation with written -y.
würd würde f/i foxhole, trench, ditch *wurþiz Ironically, from a PIE root meaning "to raise"; development derived from the sense of looking over the "elevated" earth around the solider.
spell spelle n/a story, tale, recounting of events *spell spellen "to tell a story, to recount"

bespell "gossip, exaggeration"

bespellen "to tell tall tales, to exaggerate, to embellish, to gossip"

bespelt "exaggerated, embellished"

bespellung "tall tale, a piece of gossip, exaggeration, embellishment"

bespeller "exaggerator, gossiper"

board bourd n/a table, desk *bord bedboard "nightstand, bedside table"

spijzenboard "dining table, dinner table"

disch dische m/a plate, dish, course *disk papierdisch "paper plate"

driedischspijs "three-course meal"

spijs spijze f/an meal, food, cuisine, fare Late Latin spēsa staatspijs "national cuisine" Not related to English spice.
staat state m/loan state, country, nation, government Latin status staatlig "national"

staatloss "stateless"

policzestaat "police state"

gemäinstaat "federation"

staatsbürger "citizen"

burg bürg f/c city, town, (hist.) fortification, fortified city, citadel, castle *burg bürger "citizen, burgher, inhabitant, resident"

bürgerlich "middle class, civil, civic"

bürgerschip "citizenry, populace"

bürgerheid "citizenship"

bürgerwäir "national guard, military reserve"

→ → bürgerwäirman "national guardsman, reservist"

hoachburg "stronghold, fortress"

Historically, the Bürgerwäir was the nationalization of historically decentralized militiamen under the aegis of mayors and city councils. From a modern legal perspective, it now largely functions in much the same way as other military reserves. Derivation hoachburg calqued from German Hochburg.
dief dieve f/ōn dove, pigeon, (coll.) darling, sweetheart *dūbā Related to verb deiven "to dive, to submerge"
kriech krieche m/loan war, combat, conflict Low German Krig, Krieg kriechlich "warlike, combative"

kriecher "combatant, warrior"

nichtkriecher "non-combatant"

blaczkriech "Blitzkrieg"

friegiebungkriech "war of independence"

vraldkriech "world war"

Fürst Vraldkriech "First World War"

Tvaad Vraldkriech "Second World War"

kold kriech "cold war"

bürgerkriech "civil war"

kriechstijd "wartime"

kriechspiel "wargame"

urlach urlache n/a hell, condemnation, doom *uzlagą urlachfüir "hellfire"

urlachfärd "harrowing of hell"

Urlach is ohre män.
färd färde f/i journey, voyage, travel *fardi maigdenfärd "maiden voyage"

abfärd "departure, origin"

toefärd "arrival, destination"

anfärd "approach, access road"

outfärd "exit on a road"

infärd "entry, driveway"

upfärd "ascension, ascent, upward"

rüigfärd "return, journey back"

Related to faren "to travel to, to go to".
fear fere f/ō trek, hike, journey, pilgrimage, jaunt, (coll.) drug trip *faru gelovenfear "religious pilgrimage"

fürchtfear "hike through the woods"

drech dreche m/ja dirt, filth, muck, schmutz *þraki dreczig "bad, negative, unfavorable"

dreczlich "dirty, filthy, mucky"

drechfoll "dreadful, terrible, awful, bad"

wolf wolve m/a wolf *wulf wolf im schoapsklade "wolf in sheep's clothing"

wölvien "she-wolf"

wölven "savage, fierce, voracious"

wolflich "wolf-like, lupine"

Derivation wölven still sometimes used as "wolf-like, lupine", but this is often considered archaic; its use as "savage, fierce" is attested in early biblical translations, though sense "voracious, devouring" is newer (c. 1850's).
jock jocke n/a yoke, (fig.) burden *juk underjocken "to subjugate"

gejock "companion, comrade"

dijchgejock "trenchmate"

Derivation gejock (and feminine coordinate gejockien) usually restricted to people who suffer something together. Colloquially, it loses its initial ge- prefix, though this is proscribed.
dijch dijcze n/ja trench, ditch, dike, hole *dīkiją kriechdijch "(war) trench"

indijczen "to entrench, to get dug in"

→ → indijczung "entrenchment"

placze placzen n/loan place, spot, area, zone, site Old French place
teld telde n/a curtain, drape *teld
fläisch fläische f/i flesh, meat *flaiski kiefläisch "beef"

roudfläisch "beef"

svijnfläisch "pork"

infläischen "to incarnate, to embody"

weerinfläischen "to reincarnate"

→ → weerinfläischung "reincarnation"

infläischung "incarnation"

fläischig "fleshy, meaty"

fläischlich "carnal, corporeal"

? unfläischlich "incorporeal"

fläischer "butcher"

roud rouder n/z any bovine animal, cow, ox, cattle *hrunþaz roudperk "cowpen, a messy or rambunctious area or situation"
perk perke m/a pen, enclosure, sty, fold *parruk
tüig tüige m/i pull, draw, drag, tug, feature, characteristic, trait, (games) move, play, go *tugi Related to töchen "to draw, to drag, to pull, to lead"
souvel souvel n/a snack, side dish *sufl süilen "to snack, to graze, to chow"

souczel "snack, treat"

Derivation süilen developed out of earlier süvlen, from *suflijan.
soup soupen m/an soup, stew, broth, stock *supô
wölk wölke m/a shell, exoskeleton, armor *weluk wölksnäigel "snail" Particularly used of invertebrates given its historical association with marine gastropods.
snäigel snäigle m/a snail, slug, gastropod *snagil snäigelhies "snailshell"
vläid vläiden m/an disgust, loathing, repulsion *wlātiþō vläiden "to loathe, to repel, to hate"

anvläiden "to hate on, to detract, to insult"

kloak kloke f/loan sewer, (zoology) cloaca Latin cloāca Compare Swedish kloak, Norwegian kloakk


Word present 1s present 3s past sing paradigm definition origin derivatives notes
lögen lög lögt loag s2 to lie, to tell a falsehood *leugan belögen "to lie to, to lie about (w/ öm)"
tellen tell telt telde w1 to count, to enumerate *talljan
drijven drijf drijft draaf s1 to drive, to compel, (vulg.) to fuck *drīban
gewachen gewach gewäft gewoaf s6 to mention, to bring up, to notify *gawahwan
rauczen raucze rauczt rauczte w1 to smoke (cigarettes, etc.), to smoke (food, etc.) *raukijan For smoking food, verrauken is more common.
röken rök rökt roak s2 to reek, to smell like, to smell (+??) *reukan
sneiten sneit sneit sneide w1 to blow one's nose, (dial.) to sneeze *snūtijan
fangen feach feacht fäng s7c to catch, to take, to seize *fą̄han
plechen plech plecht plach s5 to do habitually (+ te form) *plehan
mijgen mijg mijgt maig irr. to disrespect, to not give a fuck about (+ aan) *mīgan Exceptionally course language.
gefechen gefech gefecht gefach s5 (reflex.) to rejoice, to enjoy, to enliven *gafahan
meten met medt mat s5 to measure, to mete out (punishment) *metan
verveppen vervep vervept vervepte w1 to strangle, to choke someone ver- + veppen
razen raas räist rees s7a to set out, to travel, to journey, to depart *raisōn gerazen "to accompany, to travel with (sb.)"

geräzer "companion, fellow traveler"

Originally a w2 verb.
gieben gieb giebt gab s5 to give *geban abgieben "to give up, to relinquish, to concede, to hand over to hand off"

angieben "to indicate, to point out, to notify, to demonstrate"

angiebung "indication, demonstration"

ingieben "to turn in, to submit, to relinquish to"

ingieben "to type, to enter"

friegieben "to release, to liberate, to let go"

friegiebung "liberation, emancipation, independence"

→ → friegiebungkriech "war of independence"

For derivation ingieben, sense "to type, to enter" is distinguished by its inseparability.
jeven jeu jiet gaff s5/irr. to exist, there is, there are *geban First- and second-person restricted to calcified phrases (e.g., So jeu ik! "Here I am!") and are otherwise exceptionally rare.
slopen sleap släipt sleep s7d to sleep, to rest *slāpan
gewirczen gewircze gewirczt gewirczte w1 to do together, to make together, to build together *gawirkijan
verellen verell verelt verelde w2 to encourage (sb.), to embolden (sb.), (reflex. or imp.) to psych oneself up *alljanōn It verelte mei and Ik mei verelte are both considered grammatical.
friën frie friet friede w2 to go out, to date, to be a couple *frijōn Often used with werden (e.g., Sie end ik hadden fief jeer friën geworden. "She and I had been dating for five years.")
andagen andag andagt andagde w3 to discover, to come across Calque of Danish opdage
nemmen nem nemt nam s4 to take, to grasp *neman genemmen "to gather, to take up, to learn"

benemmen "to arrest, to capture"

abnemmen "to rob, to take away, to remove"

vernemmen "to hear (a case), to examine"

taanemmen "to increase, to add"

ergern erg ergt ergde w1/loan to agitate, to anger, to annoy German ärgern Reflexive meaning "to be annoyed, to be angered", etc.
däczen däcze däczt däczte w1 to cover, to shade, to house, to home temporarily *þakkjan verdäczen "to mask, obfuscate, hide"
däilen däil däilt däilte w1 to divide, to cut up, to divvy *dailijan
hauren hear hearte hörd suppletive to hear *hauʀijan gehauren "to obey"

gehaursam "obedient"

ungehaursam "disobedient"

gehaursamheid "obedience"

ungehearsamheid "disobedience"

toehauren "to listen"

Suppletive verb (au form from the South, ea from the North). Derivation toehauren a softer form of the term "to obey" in colloquial language (e.g., Haur mei taa. "Listen to me."). Interjection gehaurung is a formal or respectful word meaning "okay, affirmative, yes" from earlier (Ik em) am gehaurung meaning "(I am) a-obeying". Phrase with am still found in dated or affected speech.
witten waat waat wiss pp to know (see notes) *witan The term witten is constrained to facts and memorized information, whereas knoan is constrained to familiarity with concepts, ideas, or backgrounds. Compare German wissen vs kennen and French savoir vs connaître, respectively.
knoan knoe knäit knie s7d to know (see notes), to be familiar with *knāan
denken denk denkt doacht irr. to think, to imagine *þankijan aandenken "to think about, consider"

durchdenken "to think through, to reflect on, to deliberate"

denkbar "thinkable, imaginable"

→ undenkbar "unthinkable, unimaginable"

srijven srijf srijft sraaf s1 to write, to spell (a word) *skrīban taasrijven "to ascribe, to attribute, to credit"

taasrijft "ascription, attribution"

oversrijven "to title, to overwrite, to assign"

oversrift "title, assignment"

undersrijven "to sign, to vouch (+ vör)"

undersrift "signature, caption, subtitle"

versrijven "to prescribe"

versrift "prescription"

waren waar waart waard w2 to watch out, to keep guard *warōn ward "guard, warden"

wardhies "guardhouse, watchtower"

bewaren "to keep, to save, to hold onto"

verwaren "to store, to keep safe"

verwarung "safekeeping"

wachten wacht wacht wachte w3 to keep watch, to be vigilant *wahtwēn wächt "watch, shift, duty, guard"

wächtman "watchman, security guard"

nachtwächtman "nightwatchman"

helpen help helpt halp s3 to help, to assist, to aid *helpan helper "helper" See also hülp "help, assistance, aid" from *hulpiz
dvijten dvijt dvijt dvaat s1 to strike, to smite (esp. from the sky) *þwītan loftdvijtung "air support" Cognate with English whittle.
räiden räid räidt räidte w1 to prepare, to arrange *raidijan geräiden "to order, to bring order to"

geräid "ready, prepared, arranged"

ungeräid "unready, unprepared"

Derivation räidig is also common, but non-standard. It is not constrained to a region.
drücken drück drückt drückte w1 to press, to indent, to apply pressure to *þrukkijan indrücken "to impress, to press, to press down on"

indruck "impression"

säigen säig säigt sagde w3 to say, to tell *saggjan besäigen "to mean, to signify"

bysäigen "to exemplify"

bysäig "example"

→ bysäigweis "for example"

→ durch bysäig "for example"

säigbar "speakable, pronounceable"

unsäigbar "unspeakable, unpronounceable"

versäigen "to forbid, to deny"

versäigt "forbidden, verboten"

vörsäigen "to gossip, to slander"

Derivation versäigen often used in the reflexive (e.g., Ik versagde mei alkohol vöm Fasttijd. "I gave up alcohol for Lent.")
durven darf darft durft pp to need, to require, to have to, must *þurban
därven därf därft därvde w3 to need, to want, to lack, to be bereaved *þarbēn verdarven "to starve" Infinitive därven regularized through use; older darven now obsolete.
rotten rott rott rotde w3 to rot, to decompose *rotēn Only intransitive. For the transitive, see derven.
derven derf derft darf s3 to cause to rot, to cause decomposition *derban Only transitive. For the intransitive, see rotten. Often used of moral decomposition. Not to be confused with the unrelated därven or durven.
loten leat läidt leet s7d to let, to allow, to permit *lātan verloten "to leave, to depart"
böden böd bödt boad s2 to offer, to allow *beudan verböden "to forbid, to prohibit"

verböhd "prohibition, forbidding"

anböden "to command, to order"

anböhd "command, order"

wonen woan woant wonde w3 to live, to stay, to dwell, to inhabit *wunēn wonung "abode, residence"

wonhies "apartment, domicile"

deaden dead deadt dedde w1 to kill, to murder *daudijan verdeaden "to kill, to put down"
lieden lied liedt liedde w3 to read, to contain, to sound, to ring (as true), (religion) to sing a hymn *hlūdēn For modern sense, compare Dutch luiden, German lauten. For religious sense, see German Lied.
leiden leid leidt leidde w1 to ring, to toll, to sound, to make noise, (slang) to have sex *hlūdijan geleidt "knell, ringing"

deadgeleidt "death knell"

mahen mah maat made w1 to exert, to toil, to struggle *mōjan maht "effort, exertion, struggle"

mahtloss "effortless, easy"

mäid "sadness, grief"

vermahen "to exhaust, to fatigue"

abmahen "to tire, to become exhausted"

Derivation mäid is a double nominalization. Original unattested *mah + * "-th" became mäië, attested twice in two unrelated Middle Batavian texts. Eastern dialects began adding -d (← *-iþu), equating physical and emotional exhaustion. Expected form mäd found in some southern dialects.
sehen sie siet sah s5 to see, to look, to meet up, to view *sehwan absehen "to overlook, to disregard"

ansehen "to look at, to have a look, to watch"

durchsehen "to look through, to review"

outsehen "to appear, to look"

Related to sicht "sight, vision". Sense "to meet up" can be seen in German and English.
räiczen räicz räiczt räiczte w1 to reach, to hand, to pass, to serve *raikijan
timbern timber timbert timberde w2 to build, to construct *timrōn ömtimbern "to support, to strengthen, to fortify"
läiben läib läibt läibte w1 to leave, to leave behind, to abandon *laibijan
werpen werp werpt warp s3 to throw, to cast, to toss, to strew *werpan werp "throw, toss"

staanswerp "stone's throw"

vätten vät vätt vatte w1 to sharpen, to hone, to whet *hwattjan vätstaan "whetstone, good partner" Sense "good partner" is derived from the sense that "steel sharpens steel" and has a modest association with police. It almost never romantic in traditional language, though it is enjoying use among youth today.
halen haal halt halde w2 to fetch, to get, to haul, to catch (train, bus, etc.) *halōn Used in a similar fashion as English "to get" in the sense "to become, to achieve". Compare halen geslammt "to get laid", halen thies "to get home", etc.
sijchen sijch sijcht saach s1 to breathe, to inhale *sīkan Transition from -k- to -ch- attested by the 14th century and probably of imitative origin. Preferred in the standard language over odmen.
odmen odem odemt odemde w2 to breathe, to inhale *āþmōn
giernen giern giernt giernde w1 to long, to pine, to yearn *girnijan Related to gierne "gladly, with pleasure".
ropen roup raupt reep s7e to yell, to holler, to shout *hrōpen upropen "to call, to telephone"
sväiren sväir sväirt sväirde w1 to weigh down, to retard, to slow *swārijan besväiren "to oppress, to keep down" Only used in the transitive sense; for the intransitive, see svoaren. Both related to svoar "heavy, (of work) hard".
svoaren svoar svoart svoarde w3 to slow down, (slang) to take it easy *swārēn
schäppen schäp schäpt schoap s6j to make, to create, to develop *skappjan beschäppen "to form , to give shape to"

beschäppung "formation"

verschäppen "to transform, to metamorphose"

verschäppung "metamorphosis"

Related to schap, -schip.
välben välb valbt valbte w1 to writhe, to contort, to agonize (+ over) *hwalbijan bevälben "to torture, to cause agony to"

bevälbt "contrived, artificial, forced"

Related to valm "arch, bow".
vechten vecht vecht vechte w/loan to clothe, to dress Old French vestir vechtung "clothing, clothes, vestments, apparel"
drängen dräng drängt drängte w1 to push, to shove, to throttle *þrangwijan
dringen dring dringt drang s3 to drop, to fall *þringwan outdringen "to fall out, to drop out"

outdringung "falling out"

indringen "to fall in, to drop in, to collapse"

indringung "collapse"

indringen müird "to fall in love"

abdringen "to fall off, to drop off"

updringen "to trip, to fall over"

triën trie triet triede w3 to trust, to believe *trūwēn vertriën "to believe in, to trust in (+ up)"

vertrielig "confidential, secret"

→ → vertrieligheid "confidentiality, secrecy"

vertriër "confidant"

Related to trüh "faithful, loyal, true".
közen köss köst koas s2 to choose, to sample *keusan Related to küir "choice, decision".
häinen häin häint häinde w1 to hone, to sharpen, (poetic) to study *hainijaną meihäinen "to better, to improve" Derivation meihäinen is always reflexive in the transitive (e.g., Ik häin mei m' him. "He betters me."; literally, "I hone me with him.").
gelden geld geldt geldte w1 to geld, to castrate, to fix, to neuter, (fig.) to weaken, to emasculate *galdjaną geldling "castrated animal"
wäiren wäir wäirt wäirde w1 to defend, to ward off, to repel *warjan bewäiren "to defend against, to withstand"

bewäirt "defended, guarded"

→ → unbewäirt "undefended, unguarded"

wäirloss "defenseless"

wäirhaft "defended"

Related to waren "to watch out, to keep guard" and, more obviously, wäir "military defense, combat", from which the spelling is influenced (from expected *wären).
biehen bie biet biede w1 to build, to construct *būaną anbiehen "to build on, to continue, to carry on (work)"

anbiehung "continuation, contingency"

upbiehen "to set up, to establish, to be constituted, to accumulate"

upbiehung "set up, constitution, establishing"

→ → upbiehungsord "construction site"

upgebiedt "established, constructed, built, accumulated"

ömbiehen "to remodel, to convert, to reconstruct"

ömbiehen "to wall, to fortify, to strengthen, to get dug in"

ömbiehung "fortification"

ömbiedt "a fortification, a fort"

inbiehen "to install, to download"

inbiehung "installation, download"

ingebiedt "built-in, installed, downloaded"

gebeidt "building, edifice, structure"

beir "builder, construction worker, mason"

staanbeir "stonemason"

biehies "establishment, institution"

  • Excrescent -d- apparently from German influence; compare German bauen "to build, to construct" → Gebäude "building".
  • Derivation upbiehen has a significant number of interpretations from what someone is constituted from (Der gemänt sind upgebiedt von celle. "People are made up of cells.") to when something was established (Der mechtbundsystem was in 1964 upgebiedt. "The trade union system was established in 1964.").
  • Derivation ömbiehen has two senses distinguished from their prefix separability; the separable form has the sense of "to remodel, to convert" (Ik biede my riem öm, soals it 'n bureau is. "I remodeled my room into an office."), while the inseparable form has the sense "to fortify, to wall in" (Ik ömbiede my riem m' mezren bredde. "I fortified my room with wooden planks.").
knüllen knüll knült knülde w1 (vulg.) to fuck, to have sex (with) *knuzlijaną knüll "a fuck"

knüllung "fucking (verbal noun)"

knüllen "fucking (adj.)"

upgeknült "fucked up, FUBAR"

dieben dieb diebt doab s2 to dive, to sink, to descend *dūban indieven "to dive in, to indulge oneself"

indievung "indulgence, consumption"

andieven "to dive on, to surprise, to ambush"

andievung "an ambush"

Derivation indievung is completely divorced from the sense "indulgence" in the religious sense; it mostly relates to indulgence of things one enjoys (e.g., Hie deift Star Trek in! "He is obsessed with Star Trek!")
deiben deib deibt deibte w1 to submerge, to dunk, to cause to sink *dūbijan
bergen berg bergt barg s3 to adopt, to take on, to assimilate to *bergan Has disparate translations to English. Consider:
  • Hie is geborgen. "He was adopted."
  • Hie habt 'n nüie job geborgen. "He's gotten a new job."
borgen borg borgt borgde w2 to borrow, to lend, to *borgōn outborgen "to lend out, to let borrow"
faren fär färt faar s6 to travel, to go, to journey *faran abfaren " to depart, to originate"

toefaren "to arrive"

anfaren "to approach, to access"

outfaren "to exit off a road"

infaren "to enter"

upfaren "to ascent, to go upward"

rüigfaren "to return, to journey back"

Related to färd "voyage, journey" and fear "trek, hike, journey, pilgrimage".
felen feel felt feelde w1 to ramble, to jaunt, to roam see notes Probably related to faren "to travel, to go", through a frequentive suffix; compare English roamramble.
winden wind windt wand s3 to turn, to twist, to wrap *windaną
wenden wend wendt wendte w1 to wind, to stroll, to walk *wandijan
wandern wander wandert wanderde w2 to wander, to hike, to trek *wandrōną
wandeln wandel wandelt wandelde w2 to waver, to falter, to doubt *wandalōn
graben gräb gräbt graab s6 to dig *graban upgraben "to dig up, to excavate"

upgrabung "excavation"

→ → upgrabungplacze "excavation site"

waupen waup waupt waupte w1 to weep, to lament, to howl, to wail, to sob *wōpijan waupig "weepy, tearful, melodramatic"

waup "weep, lamentation, wail"

Related to English weep.
töchen töch töcht toach s2 to pull, to lead, to draw, to drag, to puff (a cigarette, etc.) *teuhan antöchen "to harass, to bother"

intöchen "to attract, to draw in"

abtöchen "to take out, to withdraw"

uptöchen "to yank, to wrench, to pull"

dragen dräg drägt draag s6 to drag, to haul, to carry, to be burdened with *dragan verdragen "to bear, to endure, to tolerate, to pull through"
siegen sieg siegt soag s2 to suck, to suckle *sūgan absiegen "to suck off"

insiegen "to suck in" upsiegen "to suck up, to absorb" ansiegen "to suck on"

Related to saigen "to suckle, to breastfeed", souvel "snack, side"
saigen saig saigt saigde w1 to suckle, to breastfeed *saugijan
siepen siep siept soap s2 to drink, to sip *sūpan upsiepen "to drink up, to absorb (a moment, etc.)"

besiepen "to get drunk, to booze"

Derivation besiepen likely a semantic loan or calque from German; compare German besaufen.


word inflected comparative superlative definition origin derivatives notes
middel middle middler middlest middle, center, average, middling *middl
böchsam böchsame böchsamer böchsamest flexible, pliable, (of a woman) loose, slutty *beugsam Compare English buxom, from the same origin.
bload blode bloder blodest feeble-minded, stupid, (arch.) faint-hearted *blauþ See bload maigd "damsel in distress"
jölf jölve jölver jölvest yellow, cowardly *gelu For excrescent /f~v/, see German cognate gelb.
road rode roder rodest red *raud
svart svarte svarter svartest black *swart
graun graune grauner graunest green *grōnī
bloe bloë bloër bloëst blue, bruised *blāu
vijt vijte vijter vijtest white, purity *hwīt
brien brinne brinner brinnest brown *brūn
blaak blake blaker blakest pale, bleak *blaik
black blacke blacker blackest burnt, overcooked *blak
heas heze hezer hezest grey, gray *hasu
frie frië friër friëst free, liberated *frī
döp döpe döper döpest deep, profound, low *deup
braad brade brader bradest broad, wide, large, ample *braid Sense “ample” often used in regards to women, giving rise to the nominal sense; see English broad for similar semantic development.
schöhn schöne schöner schönest beautiful, gorgeous, sexy *skaunī
fucht fuchte fuchte fuchtest wet, soaked, moist, humid, (of a woman) aroused *fų̄ht
seift seifte seifter seiftest easy, simple, gentle, agreeable *samfti
növlig növlige növliger növligest secret, clandestine, classified see notes nöhl "intelligence, a piece of intelligence" Originally a derivative of unattested *növel from PGmc *nebulaz "cloud, fog, haze" (compare Latin nebula). Also, vernövlen "to obfuscate, to obscure, to classify", both now entirely constrained to intelligence agencies. Renominalized by the intelligence community.
wärig wärige wäriger wärigest aware, conscious, sentient, sapient *warag warheid "wariness, heed"

gewärheid "awareness, consciousness, sentience, sapience"

miek mike mieker miekst soft, weak, mild, inoffensive, (of a man) effeminate, passive *mūkaz miekheid "weakness, passiveness" Cognate with English meek.
kühs kühse küsser kühst chaste, virginal, moral *kų̄skī küst "chastity, (arch.) virginity, purity"

küstheid "virginity"

frah frahe fräher frähst early, premature *frōwaz
gemäinsam gemäinsame gemäinsamer gemäinsamst common, mutual, shared, communal see gemäin
doad dode döder dödst dead, deceased, (euph.) drained *daud Expected derivation *doad meaning "death" not attested; original *dauþu was reinterpreted as *daudiþu.
lied liede lieder liedst loud, noisy *hlūd See lied in nouns.
föll fölle maar "more" maast "most" many, numerous, great (in number) *mikilaz
kräftig kräftige kräftiger kräftigest strong, sturdy, powerful, bold *kraftīg
svoar svore svörer svörest heavy, hefty, strong, big, potent, stark, not vague *swār svörd "heaviness, heft"

svördkraft "gravity"

stark starke stärker stärkest strong, powerful, intense, heavy, bold *stark starken "to gather courage, to persevere"

stärken "to encourage, to motivate, to support"

stärke "encouragement, motivation"

woar wore wäir wäirst true, reliable, factual, verified *wār woarheid "truth, veracity"

wäiren "to prove, to justify"

trüh trühe trüher trühest true, faithful, loyal, abiding *triwwī trüd "fidelity, faithfulness, loyalty"

trüheid "fidelity, faithfulness, loyalty"

tröh "pledge, vow, promise"

ordnungtrüh "law-abiding"

untrüh "untrue, unfaithful, treacherous"

werdig werdige werdiger werdigest worthy, valuable *werþaz werdigheid "worthiness, value"

werden "to value, to appraise, to estimate"

wierden "to value, to esteem, to hold dear"

bewierdt "esteemed, honorable, excellent"

→ → Ühr Bewierdtheid "Your Excellency"

Term werd "worth, value" is a rare back-formation. Related, obviously, to -werdig.
recht rechte rechter rechtest right, correct, moral, just *reht rechtweis "rightly, justly, morally, correctly" Related to, but not derived from recht "right, privilege, value".
verweis verweize verweizer verweizest witting(ly), informed, intentional, knowing(ly) see notes unverweis "unwittingly, uninformed, ignorant, unintentional"

unverweizer "stooge, lackey"

Compare Gothic 𐌿𐌽𐍆𐌰𐌿𐍂𐍅𐌴𐌹𐍃 "unwitting, without forethought".


word definition origin derivatives notes
aamer always, all the time *aiw + *maiʀō Usually in the third position
sicker of course, naturally *sikur Older form sücker now obsolete outside of dialects.
föll very, much, a lot *felu Also as a pronoun with the genitive (e.g., Has do föll von yzen? "Do you have a lot of iron?")
maar anymore, any longer, further, (with negative) no longer, never again *mairō Compare Dutch meer, German mehr. Sense with negative can use nicht (Ik sreif föll nicht maar), gaan (So jiet gaan öhst maar), or similar.
saar very, dearly, terribly *sair Compare English sorely, German sehr
dags during the day, first shift *dagas
oans in the evening, at night, second shift oan "evening, dusk" + -s
nachts at night, third shift *nachtas
ömder approximately, roughly, about, around öm + daar, lit. "around there"
vroaig forever vör "for" + *aiw + *-ag vrüig "all the time" Univerbation of earlier vör oaig "for always"; oaig now mostly obsolete, except in calcified phrases (e.g., vroaig end oaig "forever and ever"). Since vroaig and vrüig are homonyms, they are often interchangeable, though many online pedants still insist on the orthographic distinction for clarity's sake (see they're/their/there discourse in English)
gierne gladly, with pleasure *gernō Often used with a principle verb to indicate enjoyment or pleasure (e.g., Hie gräft gierne theologie. "He likes to study theology."). Also used to soften a statement of preference (e.g., Ik drünk gierne thies bier. "I prefer to drink beer at home."). Commonly said as an informal response to thanks. Related to giernen "to yearn".
thies at home, home te + hies thiesland "homeland"

thiesländer "fellow countryman"

Compare Dutch thuis, German zu Hause.


definite indefinite
singular plural
nominative der die 'n
genitive das der 'ns
dative dem 'm
accusative den des 'nen


preposition with sg def


with pl def with sg indef definition origin notes
von das der 'ns from, of *fan In archaisms, der is also found as the feminine singular. Original van displaced based on a developing phonetic similarity to vön (/vʌn/ [vən]).
m' meid meim mein with *midi Short form m' more common in regular speech and writing, both formal and informal; mie is only used in stressed speech and archaisms.
w' weid weim wein against, contrary to *wiþi See m'.
in im imme innen in, into *in
vör vöm vöm vön for, before, in front of *furi, *furē Spelling and sense "in front of" from conflation with *furē. Prefix form of *furē became voar-.
an am am anen on, onto, upon *an, *ana
aff off, of, from, away from *ab Constrained form ab is only used as a prefix. When it is separated from the main verb, it becomes aff (e.g., abfallenIk feel affabgefallen).
it ym ym yn at, located in *at
te teem taam ten to, towards *ta
by bijm bijm bijn by, at, near *bī Compare German beim.
öm ömen around, near, regarding, about, for, in order to *umbi
durch durm through, across, because of, by means of *þurhw
drang -- -- -- among, amongst, amid, amidst, between *þrangwaz Older adrang reduced by clipping. See corresponding noun drang, from the same source.


conjunction definition origin notes
ever but, however, yet, though *aber Cognate with German aber.
end and, still *andi Cognate with English and, Dutch en, German und.
als as, than, like, when, while *all "all" + *swā "so" Cognate with English also, Dutch als, German als.
soals like, as, such as, likewise, also Univerbation of so "so" + als "as"
dat that, so that *þat
doch though, yet, but, however, nevertheless *þauh
ean without *ānu (← PGmc *ēnu)



Separable (Prepositional) Prefixes[]

In subordinate clauses and nonfinite forms, the prefix remains attached; however, in main clauses and finite forms, the prefix behaves as a preposition. Some prefixes can be both separable and inseparable with semantic implications based on the form.

Ik ansah n' man vöm Köning. "I beheld a man before the King." or "I saw a man in front of the King." vs. Ik sah 'n man an vöm Köning. "I mistook a man for the King."

affix function/meaning origin examples notes
mei- co-, along with, comitative prefix *midi goan "to go, to walk" → meigoan "to go with, to accompany"
öm- around, near, by, surrounding *umbi timbern "to build" → ömtimbern "to fortify, to strengthen"
vör- for, before, in front of see vör
Inseparable Prefixes[]
affix function/meaning origin examples notes
ge- together, co-, with, collectively *ga- mauten "to meet" → gemautung "meeting, get-together"

hies "house" → gehieze "housing, casing"

bed "a prayer" → gebed "prayer (in general)"

Rarely productive and, when so, affected.
be- makes an intransitive verb into a transitive verb *bī- arbäiten "to work" → bëarbäiten "to work on (smt.), to edit"

halden "to hold" → behalden "to keep. to preserve, to save"

See also be- -d.
mäign- main, head, master, most important, chief, principal *maginą krop "crop" → mäignkrop "maincrop"

mäster "master" → mäignmäster "headmaster, principal"

Still productive. Compare English main.
er- indicates a successful conclusion, completion, or exhaustion *uʀ- läiren "to pour, to empty" → erläiren "to pour out, to empty" Rarely productive and, when so, affected. Related to ur- "up, out, over".
ur- variety of meanings, originally meaning "up, out, over" *uʀ- sprung "jump, leap" → ursprung "origin, source" No longer productive, largely detached from its original meaning. See also er-.


affix function/meaning origin examples notes
-bar -able, -ible *bēriz
-sam -some *-sam
-foll -ful *full
-d/-t -th *-iþu hoach "high" → hocht "height"

braad "broad, wide" → bräidt "breadth"

Causes umlaut.
-ness -ness, -ity *-nassī lied "loud" → liedness "loudness"
-heid -hood, -ness, -ity *-haidu faar "father" → faarheid "fatherhood" Archaic -häid displaced due to both contamination from Dutch and German, but also the conflation of ei and äi in Southern dialects.
-er -er, doer, -man *-ārī backen "to bake" → bäcker "baker" Causes umlaut.
-ig -y, -like, -ly *-ag melk "milk" → melkig "milky" Causes umlaut, but does not cause palatalization.
-el diminutives, esp. offspring or seeds *-il aak "oak" → äiczel "acorn" Causes umlaut and palatalization.
-el tools, instrumental nouns, -er *-ul Not to be confused other -el. Does not cause umlaut or palatalization, but is sometimes conflated due to -u- and -i-, having similar effects on preceding -a-.
-loss -less, without *-laus dread "wire, thread" → dreadloss "wireless"

nead "emergency, distress" → neadloss "safe, unthreatened"

-ien forms feminine nouns *-ini autor "author" → autorien "author"

hund "dog" → hündien "bitch"

Causes umlaut and palatalization, except in loans.
-werdig -worthy, -ible, -able, deserving of see werdig freag "question" → freagwerdig "questionable, janky"

säy "sea" → säiwerdig "seaworthy"

-weis -wise, -ly, in the manner of, creates adverbs from adjectives Corruption of wijs recht "right, correct" → rechtweis "correctly, rightly, justly"


affix function/meaning origin examples notes
ver- -en to make ADJ-er

to make into NOUN

see vör düivel "devil" → verdüiveln "to demonize"

dack "roof" → vergedäczt "covert, undercover"

Neutralization of -ö- common in prefixes. Causes umlaut in the stem. Inseparable prefix; the separable form uses the full vör- -en.
be- -t 'having been provided with X', or simply 'having X' see be- müird "love" → bemüirdt "beloved"

wäir "military defense" → bewäirt "guarded, defended"

ge- -t collective nouns see ge- boam "branch, beam" → gebaumt "woodland, forest"

man "man, person" → gemänt "people, folks, the public"

Causes umlaut in the stem.
be- -en to apply/provide (noun) to see be- -en gewäir "rifle" → begewären "to arm, to conscript"
and- -en to remove (noun) from, to rid of (noun), to de-(noun) *anda-


phrase literal meaning figurative meaning example notes
jeven [amd.] der früchte to give [smb.] the fear to scare Hie jiet mei der früchte. "He scares me." Compare Scottish usage.
overjeven vöm kloster to vomit in front of the monastery to feel guilt Ik jeu vöm kloster over it. "I feel so guilty about it." Derived from a well-known double entendre, first attested c. 1545 in an anti-Catholic pamphlet; overjeven means "to surrender" when reflexive, but "to vomit" when not.
czöhen felczen end bieden vör stane to chew rocks and pray for boulders to unwittingly self-sabotage Hie wirdt rauczen fanden te verseken, ma hie plicht cigarlounge te goan. Hie czaut felczen end biedt vör stane. "He's trying to quit smoking, but he goes to the cigar lounge regularly. He's chewing rocks and praying for boulders."
haben ogen oven sielfshoad to have eyes on top of one's head to be stupid, to have a low IQ Heer nicht him toe; hie habt ogen oven sielfshoad. "Don't listen to him; he has eyes on his head." From a well-known episode of the sitcom Erger in Hülstdorp ("Trouble in Hülstdorp", 1980-91), where the character Aarik describes his brother David as "'n total Muppet, soals hie sogant pingpongballen oven sielfshoad habt!" ("a total Muppet, like he even has ping pong balls on top of his head!"), alluding to Muppets having ping pong ball eyes.
So jiet berge invein us mit minder jeer. There are mountains with fewer years between them. long time, no see Now dated. Younger speakers tend towards English calque lang tijd, gaan sehung.
der Gestautstaat the State of Contention the Batavian Republic and/or its people Originally from the number of skirmishes between Catholics and Protestants during the the Reformation. Now mostly constrained to the perceived stubborn and parsimonious nature of the Batavian people.
Viezung, Mesträicht! Goodbye, Maastricht! good riddance Gaff hie sielfsendkühdung? Viezung, Mesträicht! "He quit? Good riddance!" Compare Spanish Adiós Madrid, que te quedas sin gente.
abhoppen der krücze vöm mezer to jump off the cross for the wood to stop a productive measure to introduce a short-term gain Slöps aff do weekends brade? Do wirds der krücze vöm mezer abhoppen vördat do Margiët terüig welle. "You're still picking up girls on the weekend? You're jumping off the cross for the wood if you want Margiët back."
Welkom im Republik! Welcome to the Republic! serves you right, that's what you get, a general remark about karma Margiët faand dei m' some nackte brade end greet? Welkom im Republik, do fark! "Margiët found you with some naked girls and broke up with you? That's what you get, you pig!" Originally attributed to Jakieb Wäitmede. The legend goes that when the King entered Mesträicht after the Revolution, he was seized by the Gemäinsgarde. When the King asked what authority Wäitmede was acting under, he responded: "Meid autoritet das folk, im name der Republik; wei welkommen Ühr Majestet im Republik." ("With the authority of the people, in the name of the Republic; we welcome Your Majesty to the Republic.")
false täid false teeth long face, esp. as feigned happiness Gierig sagd dat hie okay was, ever sah ik jans false täid. "George said he was okay, but I could see he was just pretending."
der äppel fält nicht vehr vöm sparre the apple doesn't fall far from the tree the apple doesn't fall far from the tree
der drang habt gaan müird vöm ear the masses have no love for honesty people are quick to accept what confirms their biases Hie beküirte vöm APAN wan da him gesagt ward dat 'n arabisch 'migrant' jans arbäid 'abnam'; der drang habt gaan müird vöm ear, als dat arab in Mesträicht was geborn. "He voted for APAN when they told him an Arab 'migrant' 'stole' his job; the masses have no love of honesty, as that Arab was born in Maastricht." Typically used with regards to politics.
in ohrweig in another way otherwise, elsewise Compare West Frisian yn oarwei "otherwise".


cardinal ordinal
aan fürst
tva tvaad
drie dried
föhr förd
fief fieft
sechs sechst
söven sövend
acht ächt
nöhn nöhnd
töhn töhnd

Days of the Week[]

Day origin
Sondag *sunnōn dag
Mendag *mānini dag
Teisdag *Tīwas dag
Waansdag *Wōdanas dag
Dursdag *Þunras dag
Frijdag *Frījā dag
Searsdag *Sāturnas dag

Specialized vocabulary[]

Given names[]

name diminutive equivalent gender origin notes
Haanrik Hanrig Henry, Heinrich, Hendrick m *Haimarīk
Räignald Ronald, Reinhold m *Raginawald
Dörik Dietrich, Derek, Dirk, Terry m *Þeudurīk
Aarik Ärcze Eric m *Aiʀarīk Aarijch is a common variant. Diminutive
Gaarhard Gärig Gerard, Gerhard, Geert m *Gaiʀahard
Geir Gunther, Gunner m *Gunþihari
Oaslaf no equivalent m *Ansulaib Often erroneously connected to name Olaf.
Rauf Rudolph, Rudy m *Hrōþiwulf
Börnhert Bernard m *Bernuhardu Original final -t from association with -hert, common in surnames
Raugar Roger, Hrothgar m *Hrōþigaiʀ
Aalf Adolf m *Aþalawulf
Roalf Ralph, Raoul m *Rādawulf
Jeroam Jerrig Jerome, Hieronymus m Latin Hieronymus
Joëm Jömig James m Latin Iacomus Joam is a common variant.
Jakieb Jaczig Jacob m Latin Iacobus
Jahn Jannig John m Latin Iōhannēs Older form Jachn common but somewhat dated.
Gierig George m Latin Geōrgius Jerie is a common variant, based on pronunciation.
Margiët Märie Margaret, Maggie f Old French Margaret Diminutive Märie is also the full form of English equivalent Mary, Marie.
Miriam Mirie Miriam f Hebrew מִרְיָם‎
Koudbrecht Kourt Cuthbert m *Kunþberht Compare Old English Cūþbeorht.


name translation variants notes
Yzenhert Ironheart Yrnhert, Eirnt, Eizert Forms with -r- in place of -z- are associated with the southwest.
Louhert Lionheart Liert, Liehert, Lourt, Liezert
Bier Farmer Bierman, Gebier, Gebierman Forms with Ge- associated with ethnic Germans.
Smid Smith Smie, Yzensmid, Goldsmid, Meczesmid, etc.
Hüll Hill Hoachhüll, Hücze
Graaf Graves Grave, Gräif, Graafsman, Gravesman
Baar Boar Baarsman, Baren, Baars, (rare) Bahr
Decker Roofer, Thatcher Däcker, Deckman, Däckman Dies is Karoline Decker von Corpus Christi.

Chemical elements[]

If the chemical is missing, it is identical to the English.

Word definition atomic number gender origin notes
waterstuff hydrogen 1 n Calque of Latin Compare Dutch waterstof, German Wasserstoff
sunstuff helium 2 n Calque of Latin
staanstuff lithium 3 n Calque of Latin
svautstuff beryllium 4 n Calque of Latin Calque of glucin(i)um, not beryllium
boar boron 5 n English boron
koalstuff carbon 6 n Calque of Dutch
vepstuff nitrogen 7 n Calque of German
sierstuff oxygen 8 n Calque of Dutch
smältestuff fluorine 9 n See *smaltī Also calqued as stroamstuff (flowstuff)
neon neon 10 n Also glaudstuff (glowstuff)
saltstuff sodium 11 n
magnees magnesium 12 n
aluminium aluminum 13 n
flintstuff silicon 14 n Humorously called tietstuff for its use in cosmetic surgery
fosfor phosphorus 15 n Obsolete brinstuff (burnstuff)
svevel sulfur 16 m
yzen iron 26 n *īsarn Forms yren and yrn are common in the southwest.
kupper copper 29 n Latin cuprum
zink zinc 30 n
kvicksilver mercury 80 n

Nations of Europe[]

Word definition gender adjective demonym origin notes
Öhtland Denmark n öhtländis ötländer *eut "Jute" + *land Officially Der Köningrijch von Dänmark.
België Belgium n belgis belg
Bulgarië Bulgaria n bulgaris bulgar
Czechië Czechia n czechis czech Also Czechis Republiek
Deitsland Germany n deits deitsländer
Nierland Netherlands n nierländs nierländer The terms Diets and Dietsländer are used as terms of derision, but not typically abuse due to its use in archaic language.
Roumanië Romania n
Rousland Russia n
Sveden Sweden n

Cities in Europe (Europise Städe)[]

Word definition gender origin notes
Streatsburg Strasbourg f *strātu + *burg Compare German Straßburg, Dutch Straatsburg
Czerkdorp Kirchdorf n *kirikā + *þorp

National Government (Staatsreigerung)[]

Ministries of Government (Overheiden)[]

Batavian English notes
Wäirsministrie (WM) Ministry of Defense (MoD)
Schaalungsministrie (SM) Ministry of Education (MoE)
Gesundheidsministrie (GsM) Ministry of Health (MoH)
Gerichtsministrie (GrM) Ministry of Justice (MoJ)
Arbäids- end Familieministrie Ministry of Labor and Family (MoLF)
Outlandsministrie (OM) Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MoFA)
Œconomieministrie (OEM) Ministry of Economic Affairs (MoEA)

Services of the Government (Deignste)[]

Batavian English Overseeing Department notes
Gemäinswäir (GW) Federal Defense (FD) Wäirsministrie (WM)
Gemäinsnehmandungdeignst (GND) Federal Intelligence Service (FIS) Wäirsministrie (WM)
Gemäinspoliczedeignst (GPD) Federal Police Service (FPS) Gerichtsministrie (GrM)

Military Ranks (Gemäinswäirgraden)[]

Army (Landwäir)[]
Commissioned Officer[]
Batavian English NATO code notes
Generaal General OF-9
Generaallieutenant Lieutenant General OF-8
Generaalmajor Major General OF-7
Brigadegeneraal Brigadier General OF-6

Parties of the Republic (Republikspartiën)[]

Batavian English Abbreviation Ideology notes
Christlijch Republiksbund Christian Republican Alliance CRB Christian democracy Established in 1964 through a merger between the Protestant Gemäinsam Direkcze ("Common Direction") and Catholic Katholijch Veraanung ("The Catholic League").
Arbäidspartie Labor Party AP Labor, left-wing
Democratis Verbund Democratic Union DV Civil nationalist, isolationism
Die Graunen The Greens GR Greens
Öhstpartie Virtue Party ÖP Christian democracy splinter Economically and internationally aligned with the CRB, but much more socially conservative.
Europis Aanheid European Unity OE European federalism Colloquially called Europists.
Aan Pad, Aan Naczie One Path, One Nation APAN Far-right, nationalism
Gehüftsveraanung Farmstead League GHV Farmer

Example text[]

"Your Jowls Bring Me Joy" (~1455)[]

Written in the margin of a commentary of on 1 Corinthians by a monk at a Franciscan monastery outside Aachen initialed T.d.B. The monk was writing about a dog that had been adopted by the monastery, whom they had named "Basilius".

Original Bachtish Modern Batavian English
O lytel Baſilivs, vu di kaflas tu me gaffecho bringan. O lüttel Basilius, woe dy kavle mei gefeche bringen. O little Basilius, how your jowls bring me joy.
Di ſmult andelite bringid vs rou. Dy smolt andliet bringt us roe. Your calm countenance brings us peace.
Du vuaras vs, ve vuaran de. Do wars us, wei waren dei. You keep us safe, we keep you safe.
God ſigne di hottſin. God segne dy hodcze. May God bless your little head.

Der Wünnsam Wittenschip ("The Gay Science" by Friedrich Nietzsche, 1882; tr. 1890)[]

Batavian German English
God is doad! God blijft doad! End wei haben him gedeadt. HOW treasten wei us, die mürderen dar alle mürderen? Gott ist tot! Gott bleibt tot! Und wir haben ihn getötet! Wie trö God is dead! God remains dead! And we have killed him! How will we comfort ourselves, the murderers of all murderers?

Der Fremder ("The Stranger" by Albert Camus, 1942; tr. 1944)[]

Batavian French English
Hüidag is mem gestorven. Er machs jestern, ik waat nicht. Ik krijg out der sorghies 'n telegram: « Moar doad. Inördung mörn. Hertlich geberung. » It besäigt nicht. Machs was it jestern.

Der sorghies is in Marengo, ömder achtig kilometer von Algiers. Ik sall der tva-ur-autobus nemmen end sall am nehmiddag ankommen. Sodus sall ik hüinacht waren end em ik mörnoan weer terüig.

Aujourd'hui, maman est morte. Ou peut-être hier, je ne sais pas. J'ai reçu un télégramme de l'asil: « Mère décédée. Enterrement demain. Sentiments distingués, » Cela ne veut rien dire. C'était peut-être hier.

L'asile de vieillards est à Marengo, à quatrevingts kilomètres d’Algier. Je prendrai l’autobus à deux heures et j’arriverai dans l’après-midi. Ainsi, je pourrai veiller et je rentrerai demain soir. J’ai demandé deux jours de congé à mon patron et il ne pouvait pas me les refuser avec excuse pareille. Mas il n’avait pas l’air content. Je lui ai même dit: « Ce n’est pas de ma faute. » Il n’a pas répondu. J’ai pensé alors que je n’aurais pas dû lui dire cela. En somme, je n’avais pas à m’excuser. C’était plutôt à lui de me présenter ses condoléances. Mais il le fera sans dout après-demain, quand il me verra en deuil. Pour la moment, c’est un peu comme si maman n’était pas morte. Après l’enterrement, au contraire, ce sera une affaire classée et tout aura revêtu une allure plus officielle.

Maman died today. Or yesterday maybe, I don't know. I got a telegram form the home: "Mother deceased. Funeral tomorrow. Faithfully yours." That doesn't mean anything. Maybe it was yesterday.

The old people's home is at Marengo, about eighty kilometers from Algiers, I'll take the two o'clock bus and get there in the afternoon. That way I can be there for the vigil and come back tomorrow night. I asked my boss for two days off and there was no way he was going to refuse me with an excuse like that. But he wasn't too happy about it. I even said, "It's not my fault." He didn't say anything. Then I thought I shouldn't have said that. After all, I didn't have anything to apologize for. He's the one who should have offered his condolences. But he probably will the day after tomorrow, when he sees I'm in mourning. For now, it's almost as if Maman weren't dead. After the funeral, though, the case will be closed, and everything will have a more official feel to it.

Däidkolm ("Regret", 1957)[]

Batavia is well-known for its art films, especially short ones. One of its most famous is Däidkolm, a story about a member of the Batavian resistance who discovers years later that he killed his best friend's brother during the war. The term däidkolm is often translated into English as "regret", though the literal translation is "deed nausea" and was largely popularized by this film as a more constrained form of bedrieren, the usual term for "to regret". In the first scene, the main character, Aalf, meets his best friend, Gierig, after many years apart at a bar in their hometown, Gräfloch, on the German border (German: Grefrath). Writer and director Thoam Yzenhauer, whose own mother was German and father Batavian, wrote the characters to reflect the moral ambiguity of the era; Aalf was a part of the Batavian resistance against the Nazi occupation, but treats the barmaid poorly and acts boorishly, while Gierig is respectful and conservative, but seeks reconciliation with the German people.

Batavian English
Aalf: Tva biere, aask', jente. Aalf: Two beers, please, lass.
Barmaigd: Am gehaurung. Barmaid: Yessir.
Gierig: Och, Aalf, leat mei dies tournie, gezel. Gierig: Hey, Aalf, let me get this round, man.
Aalf: Och, Gierig, gaan schans. Aalf: Hey, Gierig, no chance.
Gierig: Ur moar rijze op vram graaf IF ik loate her krüppelson sielfsdränk kaupen. Gierig: Your mother would rise from the grave if I let her crippled son buy his own drink.
Aalf: Do koppels hard, ever it jiet dat dar gaan slichter lutte sind, dan dat ald häigt wiertesehn! Aalf: You drive a hard bargain, but I suppose there are no worse fates than seeing that old hag again!
Bode: [gelächter] Both: [laughter]
Barmaigd: Vergefült. Barmaid: Here you go.
[bühnanwijzung] [Gierig jiet der barmaigd 'n banknote] [stage directions] [Gierig hands the barmaid a bill]
Gierig: Dank jei, fraulijn. Bewehr der rest. Gierig: Thank you, miss. Keep the rest.
Aalf: Ja, bedankt, häschen! Aalf: Aye, thanks, sweet cheeks!
[bühnanwijzung] [Aalf klescht der barmaigd her hintern] [stage directions] [Aalf slaps the barmaid's ass]

"A Story about my Grandfather" (1984)[]

This story was transcribed from a 1984 recording of World War I veteran and then-pensioner Lazaar Vandack (1894-1988), telling a story about his grandfather, Gaart Vandack (1824-1912).

Batavian English
My groatfaar plach 'n pijp te rauczen. Hie plach aamer soals rijk tabak end motoröl te rüiken. My grandfather used to smoke a pipe. He always smelled like rich tobacco and motor oil.
Hie had 'n hund vat Oaslaaf heet; hie plach aan my faut te sitten end in slaap fallen als der stormwolks plachen te overrollen. He had a dog called Oaslaaf that would sit right on my feet and fall asleep as the storm clouds would roll over.
Ik mijmre aanmol, toun ik feirtön jeer ald was, brocht hie mei by, woe m' sielfsgewäir te abfüiren. Dat gewäir was jans stult end froad; hie had it geem friegiebungkriech dijcht bijn hart gekaupt. I remember one time when I was fourteen, he taught me how to fire his old rifle. That rifle was his pride and joy and he had kept it close to his heart during the War of Independence.
Hie saagt dat it vör an jung man wichtig sie te witen woe an abfüirt. He said that it was important for a young man to know how to shoot.
Hie befalch mei, dat ik sold durd vizier lieken end om jersepland aanvizieren. Och, smijt me, it was woarschijnlig 250 meter freen end ik hat gaan idea vat ich meid verdammt ding deed. He told me to look down its sights and aim for a big pine tree on the edge of the farmland. Oh, good grief, it must've been 250 meters away and I had no idea what I was doing with the damn thing.
Sicker, ik miste der fürst schot. Ik wüind nicht der rüigstamp end it war my schüte aff. Of course I missed on the first shot. I wasn't expecting the kick and it threw off my aim.
Hie liecht end saagt vör mei anmale abfüiren. I habt so noach gekommen am fürst end tvaad schot, ma ik habt nicht it gedreppen uptoe der feird schot. He laughed and told me to take another shot. I got very close on the second and third shot, but didn't hit until the fourth shot.
After a few more hits, the clip sprung out and my grandfather said, "Oh, I've seen enough." He snatched the rifle from my hands.
He pulled out his pocket knife and started etching out something on the side of the rifle. "L. Vandack", just below "G. Vandack".
Ik raum enso over it; dat was in 1908. Hie svalt in 1912 end bit 1915, ik was am frontlijn w' Prousfark geschoten. I still get choked up about it; that was 1908. He died in 1912 and by 1915, I was on the front lines shooting at those German bastards.
ferch is gaan film. [gelächter] I'd love to tell you that I carried that rifle onto the Western Front, but life is no movie. [laughter]

"Batavian 4chan post" (2019)[]

Batavian English
> weze ik, student im universitet das Amsterdam > be me, student at the University of Amsterdam
> aanlig batavis student in medievaal europis literatur > only Batavian student in Medieval European Literature
> batavis outspreak toe diek öm te heiden in englis > Batavian accent too thick to hide in English
> professor gewäft dat wei der Klagkrize sollen werden studieren. > professor says that we will study the Lamentations
> wörd foll m' staatsstult > become full of national pride
> hab müird vöm Klagkrize, Klagkris 79 is my geprefert stück BECAUSE it der complex spannung betvis der gaast end der flaas toam outdruczing bringt > love the Lamentations, Lamentation 79 is my favorite piece because it expresses the complex tension between the spirit and the flesh
> letsfuckinggo_batavianflag.gif
> Nierl*nder heft op sielfshand > D*tchman raises his hand
> "Sind ni't der Klagkrize aan hazig geweigtboak foll m' heilene sriftwörk von losers im 15e joarhunderd?" > "Aren't the Lamentations a vague collection of works full of whinging writings by losers in the 15th century?"
> outsäig "ömder aan derde sriftwörk sind hier in Amsterdam gesreven" > burst out "almost a third of the entries were written here in Amsterdam"
> "Oh, pardon. Sind ni't der Klagkrize aan hazig geweigtboak tva derden foll m' heilene sriftwörk von losers im 15e joarhunderd?" > "Oh, sorry. Aren't the Lamentations a vague collection of works two thirds full of whinging writings by losers in the 15th century?"
> der haal klas begint te lachen, sogant der professor hat sielfsgelächter te heiden > the whole class laughs, even the professor has to hide laughter
> mrkrabs_blur.png
> nou pliegt der haal klas lachter te maken over woe wei droch der Nazis sind geslachen sneller dan België von wei gant ur tijd m' heiling drochbringen > whole class now regularly makes jokes about how we got run over by the nazis faster than the Belgians because we spend all our time crying
> begint mei "Below-the-Maginot Joe" te nemmen > start calling me "Below-the-Maginot Joe"
Ik weis dat dies haal land im säy sinke. I wish this whole country would sink into the sea.

Mass Effect (2007), Scene II "Nihlus' Presence on the Normandy"[]

English Batavian
NIHLUS Commander Shepard. I was hoping you'd get here first. It will give us a chance to talk. Kommandant Schäiper. Ik habt gehopt, dat jei äirst ankommen süllen. It jiet us 'n schans öm te bespreken.
SHEPARD What about? Wat over?
NIHLUS I'm interested in this world we're going to -- Eden Prime. I've heard it's quite beautiful. Ik bin gëinteressert öm dies vrald wat wei toe faren -- Eden Prime. Ik habt geheart, dat it föll schön is.
SHEPARD I've never been there. Ik bin noaig der gewezen.
NIHLUS But you know of it. Eden Prime has become something of a symbol for your people, hasn't it? Proof that humanity cannot only establish colonies across the galaxy, but also protect them. But how safe is it, really? Ever jei knohen dervon. Eden Prime habt stark symbol vör dy folk geworden, nicht? 'N prove dat der Gemänt kan nicht nüir kolonië upbiehen, ever daam oak schüdt. Ever woe neadloss is it, echtweis?
SHEPARD Do you know something I don't? Waten jei wochts, wat ik nicht waat?
NIHLUS Your people are still newcomers, Shepard. The galaxy can be a very dangerous place. Is the Alliance truly ready for this? Dy folk sind nüitoefärlinge, Schäiper. Die Galaxis magt 'n saar früchtfoll placz wezen. Is Der Gemäntsbund im woarheid geräid?
ANDERSON I think it's about time we told the commander what's really going on. Ik denk, dat die tijd gekommen is dat wei t'er kommandant die woarheid säigen.


Ik hab m' die gehölt spreken geworden, conversieren m' die imme geworden, end da alle säigen der sam verdammt ding. "I've been talking to the trees, conversing with the bees, and they all say the same damn thing."

So jiet gaan 'n freag maar vörs leven salt verslechten, ever föller woe lang ik it noch sall loten verslechten. "It's no longer a question of if life will get worse, but rather of how long I will allow it to get worse."

Die mäid sall oaig dieren. "The sadness will last forever."

Ever seich ik m' gaan hülp! "But I'm breathing with no assistance!"

Batavis literatur habt 'n saar proczig nomenclatur. Wo gäiche sielfsbock Der Rechtweis Ape er Lebensvläidt? "Batavian literature has such a pretentious nomenclature. Who would call their own book The Just Ape or Living Nausea?"

Gewald is die hauchest autoritet, woarvon all autoritet abgestammt is. "Violence is the supreme authority, from which all authority is derived."