Conlang
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Budinian
Budiniârsi
Type Fusional
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Head direction Final
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 0%
Statistics
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words of 1500
Creator [[User:|]]


Classification and Dialects[]

Budinian is spoken in Budinia and is a Northeastern Iranian language.

Writing System[]

Letter a â b c ç d e f g ğ h ћ
Sound /a/ /ɒ:/ /b/ /ts/ /tʃ/ /d/ /ε/ /f/ /g/ /dʒ/ /h/ /x/
Letter i j k l m n o p r s ş t
Sound /i/ /j/ /k/ /l/ /m/ /n/ /o/ /p/ /r/ /s/ /ʃ/ /t/
Letter u v z
Sound /u/ /v/ /z/

Grammar[]

Nouns[]

Nouns can be inflected in four cases and in the plural.

Declension[]

Cases

(ver=man)

Singular Plural
Nominative ver vere
Accusative verân vere
Dative e-veri e-vere
Genitive e-vera e-verej

The general declension in Budinian is quite simple and regular, but there are some defective noun cases like the vocative case or the locative case :

  • The vocative case, which is formed by adding -o at the end of the word, just exists for indigenous names, otherwise it is just expressed by the vocative exclamation "o", e.g. Davudo, beraj iğa! (=Davud, come here! - indigenous name), but : O Steve, beraj iğa! (=Steve, come here! - foreign/English name does not have a vocative case) and : O mân ћavât, boçâde de ând dârve! (=Oh my god, the plates are broken! - nouns have no vocative case)
  • The locative case, which is formed by adding at the end of the word, just applies to cities or towns and the noun "dom" (=house), otherwise the location is expressed by the preposition "be" (=in, at) followed by the genitive case, e.g. Davud mideştâ Berlinâ. (=Davud lives in Berlin. - city) and : Âz âm domâ. (=I am at home. - "dom" has a locative), but : Âz âm be e-daskela. (=I am at school. - regular noun without locative case)
  • The instrumental case, which is formed by adding -i for the singular and -is for the plural at the end of the word, just exists for family members, otherwise it is expressed by the preposition "ve" (=with) followed by the dative case, e.g. Mirâvâm be parkân de mân ћoştari. (=I am going to the park with my sister. - family member), but : Mirâvâm be parkân de ve mân e-dojşti. (=I am going to the park with my girlfriend. - regular noun with no instrumental case)
  • The partitive case, which is formed by adding the prefix e- and the suffix -u at the word, just applies for edible or drinkable nouns which are wanted (=so followed by verb like to want, to desire etc.), otherwise it is expressed by the accusative case, e.g. Miћaştâm e-çaju. (=I want some tea. - drinkable noun which is wanted), but : Miћaştâm ağapân. (=I want some love. - regular noun which is wanted, but has no partitive case) and : Minuşidâm çajân. (=I am drinking tea. - drinkable noun, but which is not wanted)

Notice that the vocative, locative and partitive case are always in the singular and cannot be put in the plural.

Definiteness[]

The definiteness is expressed by clitics at the end of the word :

  • The normal definiteness is expressed by the clitic "de", e.g. dom de (=the house)
  • The proximal definiteness is expressed by the clitic "le", e.g. dom le (=this house)
  • The distal definiteness is expressed by the clitic "ğe", e.g. dom ğe (=that house)

Notice that the clitics are invariable, so they do not have a special case or plural form.

Adjectives[]

Adjectives in Budinian decline exactly like nouns in the different cases and the plural, e.g. Midezâm zevân ğenân. (=I see a beautiful woman. - the adjective "zev" is there in the accusative case).

Comparative[]

The comparative is formed by adding the suffix -tar to the adjective stem, e.g. zevtar (=more beautiful). The comparison is done by putting the adjective in the comparative form and the compared noun in the genitive case, e.g. Dom le aşt zevtar e-doma ğe. (=This house is more beautiful than that house.).

Superlative[]

The superlative is formed by adding the suffix -tarun to the adjective stem, e.g. zevtarun (=most beautiful). The comparison is done by putting the adjective in the superlative form and the compared noun in the genitive case, e.g. Âz âm umtarun daskelar de e-avejej e-daskelarej. (=I am the cleverest student of all the students.)

Verbs[]

Conjugation[]

As sample verb the verb "berân" (=to come) will be taken to show the regular conjugation, but notice that the verb "budân" (=to be) is irregular :

Indicative[]
Present[]
Personal

Prounouns

berân budân
âz miberâm âm
tu miberâşt âşt
şe, şa, şoha miberâ aşt
ma miberâme âme
de miberâd âd
şej miberând ând
  • expresses present actions, e.g. Miberâm be domâ. (=I am coming home.)
  • expresses scheduled future actions, e.g. Otobus de miberâ be 15:15 satâ. (=The bus comes at 15:15 o'clock.)
  • the negation is formed by removing the present prefix mi- and adding the negative prefix ni-, e.g. Nikonâm be domâ (=I am not coming home.)
Perfect[]
Personal

Prounouns

berân budân
âz âm birade âm bude
tu âşt birade âşt bude
şe, şa, şoha aşt birade aşt bude
ma âme birade âme bude
de âd birade âd bude
şej ând birade ând bude
  • expresses past actions leading to a result in the present, e.g. Âm gemade âçarân de. (=I have lost the key. - I lost the key in the past, but I still do not have them in the present)
  • expresses uncertain past actions, e.g. Şe aşt çetade katâbân de. (=He might have read the book. - uncertain past action)
  • the perfect is formed by the auxiliary verb "budân" in the present tense and the past participle of the main verb
  • the negation is formed by putting the auxiliary verb "budân" in the negative form, e.g. Şe njaşt çetade katâbân de. (=He might not have read the book.)
Imperfect[]
Personal

Prounouns

berân budân
âz beram budam
tu beraşt budaşt
şe, şa, şoha bera buda
ma berame budame
de berad budad
şej berand budand
  • expresses past habits, e.g. Seki ğeçânbe ğene de nuşidand çajân be e-kafeja de. (=Every Sunday the women used to drink tea in the café.)
  • expresses ongoing past actions, e.g. Kad çitam katâbân de, telefoni me. (=When I was reading the book, he phoned me.)
  • the negation is formed by the negative prefix ni-, e.g. Niçitam zâd, kad budam ğavân. (=I did not use to read a lot, when I was young.)

Syntax[]

Lexicon[]

Example text[]

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