Conlang
Advertisement


General information[]

Ligging.jpg

Borchennymendi is the native language spoken by approximately 3,200,000 inhabitants of the Kingdom of Borchennymi, situated in the Atlantic Ocean, to the south of the Azores and to the west of the Canary Islands. The island country has been a constitutional monarchy since 1253. Its name means: 'mainland in the ocean', although it is never spoken of as 'Sealand'. Borchennymendi is a language isolate, featuring complex verbal constructions. Its orthography retained an archaic character, while its modern pronunciation is the result of a clearly phased development under the influence of the Portuguese tongue in the 15th and 16th centuries and the English language in the late 17th and early 18th, although Borchennymi was never colonized. A British attempt to do so in 1768 failed after 44 years, when the foreign oppressors were expelled after a short and rather peaceful insurrection in 1812. The Borchennymendi vocabulary shows some Latin influences as an effect of missionary activities from Gaul as early as the 5th century and from the British Isles in the 9th. A few words are derived from the Portuguese.

Phonology[]

Consonants[]

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Plosive p b t d
Fricative ϕ f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ʁ h ɦ
Affricate
Approximant ʋ r ɹ j w

Lateral fric.

ɬ ɮ

Lateral app.

l

ʎ

Vowels[]

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close

i y

u

Near-close

ɪ ʏ

ʊ

Close-mid

e ø

ɘ

o

Mid

ə

Open-mid

ɛ œ

ʌ ɔ

Near-open

æ

ɐ

Open

a

ɑ ɒ

Alphabet[]

The alphabeth consists of only seventeen letters:


a b c d e g i (h only in digraphs) l m n o p r s t

Digraphs:æœ bh ch dh gh lh mh nh ph rh sh th

In books printed in Borchennymi h looks like ß, ſ is used for s except at the end of a syllable, q represents the digraph ch, and h at the end of a word looks like an undotted j. Uncial scripts and fonts are widely used. Capitals are not in use. There is only one punctuation mark (.) or (:).

Phonotactics[]

Although the syllable structure of Borchennymendi gives the impression of complexity, it is in fact very transparent. It allows the following possibilities:


- / V / -

C / V / -

CC / V / -

CCC / V / -

- / VV / -

C / VV / -

CC / VV / -

CCC / VV / -

- / VVV / -

C / VVV / -

CC / VVV / -

CCC / VVV / -

- / V / C

C / V / C

CC / V / C

CCC / V / C

- / VV / C

C / VV / C

CC / VV / C

CCC / VV / C

- / VVV / C

C / VVV / C

CC / VVV / C

CCC / VVV / C

- / V / CC

C / V / CC

CC / V / CC

CCC / V / CC

- / VV / CC

C / VV / CC

CC / VV / CC

CCC / VV / CC

- / VVV / CC

C / VVV / CC

CC / VVV / CC

CCC / VVV / CC

- / V / CCC

C / V / CCC

CC / V / CCC

CCC / V / CCC

- / VV / CCC

C / VV / CCC

CC / VV / CCC

CCC / VV / CCC

- / VVV / CCC

C / VVV / CCC

CC / VVV / CCC

CCC / VVV / CCC


V stands for vowel; C for consonant; - for none.

The seeming opacity is mainly caused by the written digraphs consisting of a vowel and h, which in fact is nothing more than a diacritic. They are regarded as one vowel in the pronunciation.

In the onset of a syllable Borchennymendi allows:


  • no consonants, which implies the absence of an onset;
  • one consonant: b, c, d, g, l, m, n, p, r, s, t and bh, ch, dh, gh, lh, mh, nh, ph, rh, sh, th;
  • two consonants: bl, br, cl, cr, dr, gl, gr, pr, st, tl, tr; bhl, blh, brh, chl, chr, clh, crh, dhr, drh, ghl, ghr, glh, grh, phr, prh, shl, sht, slh, sth, thl, thr, tlh, trh and bhlh, bhrh, chlh, chrh, dhrh, ghlh, ghrh, phrh, shbh, shlh, shth, thlh, thrh.
  • three consonants: str and shtr.

A vowel cannot be part of the syllable onset in the written language. The glottal stop is not a part of the consonant inventory and the spoken Borchennymendi shows a strong tendency to avoid it altogether. Words with an opening syllable as represented in the leftmost column of the table above are often preceded by a palatal approximant (j), a voiceless (h) or a voiced (ɦ) glottal fricative as indicated in the diagram. This does not apply to syllables of this type within a word.

VowelsBC2.jpg









The nucleus may encompass:


  • one vowel: a, e, i, o, u, ae oe;
  • two vowels: ai, ao, au, ea, ei, eo, eu, ia, ie, oa, oi, ua, ue, ui;
  • three vowels: aou, eai, eoi, iai, iei, oai, uai.

In a three-vowel cluster only the one in the middle position is a genuine vowel. Both the first and the last are semivowels; the labiodental approximant (ʋ) in oai, uai and the palatal approximand (j) in eai, eoi, iai en iei.The only exception is aou, in which -ao- is a diphthong: aːw or the long open-back rounded: ɒː and u the semivowel ʋ.

No consonants are permissible in the nucleus.

In the coda three possibilities are allowed:


  • no consonants, which implies the absence of a coda;
  • one consonant: c d g l m n r s t and bh, ch, dh, gh, lh, mh, nh, ph, rh, sh;

( The consonantal digraphs ch, dh and gh are often (but not always) inaudible.)


  • two consonants:
ct, lb, ld, lt, mb, nd, nt, rd, rm, rn, rt, st,
bhr, cht, cth, dhl, dhr, drh, ghl, ghm, ghr, ghs, ght, lbh, lch, ldh, lgh, lht, lmh, lth, mbh, mtg, mth, nbh, nch, ndh, ngh, nhd, nsh, nth, pht, rbh, rch, rdh, rgh, rhs, rht, rmh, rsh, rth, sht, sth, tch, trh,
chrh, chth, dhrh, ghsh, ghth, lhth, mhbh, mhth, nhdh, nhgh, phth, rhmh, rhsh, rhth, shth, thch, thgh, thrh.
  • three consonants:ntg, rtg, ghtg,

Over syllable boundaries the theoretical maximum length of a consonant cluster can be six positions (orthographically eight), but such a length is an extremely rare phenomenon. There are no radices that show it, so that it could appear only as a result of adding a suffix to a radix. The rule that no single vowel, vowel group, consonant or consonant group may be doubled often reduces the length of syllable clusters. If the application of this rule would obscure the meaning of a verbal of a nominal construction, a synonym for the radix is chosen from the extensive vocabulary. This is one of the main causes for the existence of irregular conjugations and declensions.

In the pronunciation the last consonant of a group of two generally becomes inaudible if it is written as bh, ch, dh, gh, lh and th at the end of a syllable followed by a syllable with a consonant or of consonant cluster in its onset.For instance: albh is pronounced as halʋ, but thalbhoir is: θaˈ.ʋoɹ.


Phonology[]

The Portuguese and English influences caused several and considerable changes in the pronunciation of medieval Borchennymendi. Before the 15th century it already lost all palatal, velar and uvular plosives and fricatives (except the uvular fricative often represented by rh in written texts). The velar plosives k and g were gradually replaced with lateral fricatives. The Portuguese merchants, who settled predominantly in the southern coastal regions, introduced the further nazalisation of vowels followed by the digraphs mh and nh. Influences from the English pronunciation may be seen in the elision of end-consonants like gh and dh and in the treatment of the dental fricatives th and dh, wich used to be aspired plosives.

Important characteristics of modern Borchennymendi are the modification of consonants by following vowels and the modification of vowels by subsequent consonants. The correct pronunciation, however, is fairly irregular and can be represented by the following tables, which are only indicative. Exceptions are as numerous as the rules.

The tables indicates the pronunciation of every possible VC combination within one syllable. The column on the rightmost side represents the modification of the original sound of c (k), when it precedes one of the combinations in the rows left of it. In the right column of each pair the regular pronunciation is indicated according to IPA.

Table 1[]

Vowels not modified by subsequent consonants.

B IPA c B IPA c B IPA c B IPA c B IPA c B IPA c

a

a

h

ai

i

ɬ

ao

ɔ

h

au

aw

h

æ

æ

ɬ

æi

iː

ɬ

e

e

ɬ

ea

ɪːɐ

ɬ

ei

i

ɬ

eo

ɪɐ

ɬ

eu

ɛw

ɬ

i

i

ɬ

ia

iːɐ

ɬ

ie

iːə

ɬ

io

ɪɐ

ɬ

o

ɔ

h

oa

ʋa

-

oi

i

ɬ

ou

ow

h

œ

ø

ɬ

u

u

h

ua

wa

-

ue

-

ui

iː

ɬ


Table 2 Modification of vowels by subsequent consonants and digraphs within syllables.

B IPA B IPA B IPA B IPA B IPA B IPA c

ab

ɑb

abh

ɑw

ac

ɑ

ach

ɑː

ad

ɑt

h

æb

ɑːb

æbh

æːw

æc

æ

æch

æː

æd

æd

ɬ

aib

ɛv

aibh

iːw

aic

ɪ

aich

aid

iːd

ɮ

aobh

ɔːw

aoch

ɔː

aod

ɔːt

h

aubh

ɑːw

auch

ɑː

aud

ɑːt

h

eb

ɪv

ebh

ɪw

ec

ə

ech

ɪ

ed

ɪd

ɬ

eab

iv

eabh

ɪːw

eac

ɐ

each

ɪː

ead

ɪːd

ɮ

eaib

iːb

eaibh

iːw

eaic

i

eaich

eaid

iːd

ɮ

eibh

iːw

eich

eid

iːd

ɮ

eob

œv

eobh

œw

eoc

ø

eoch

œ

ɬ

eoibh

iːw

eoich

ɮ

eubh

œːw

euch

œː

ɬ

ibh

ɪ

ich

ɪ

id

ɪd

ɬ

iab

ɪv

iabh

ɪw

iac

ʌ

iach

ɪ

iad

ɪd

ɬ

iaibh

iːw

iaic

iaich

iaid

iːd

ɮ

iech

ɪ

ɬ

ieich

ɮ

ob

ɒb

obh

ɒw

och

ɒ

od

ɒt

h

oabh

ʋɑːw

oach

ʋɑː

oad

ʋɑːt

-

oaibh

ʋiːw

-

oaich

ʊː

h

œbh

ɛːw

œch

ɛː

œd

ɛːd

ɬ

oibh

i:w

oich

ɮ

uch

ʊ

h

uabh

wɑw

uach

wɑː

-

uaibh

yːw

uaich

uaid

yːd

h

uibh

i:w

uic

ʊ

uid

wɪd

h

adh

ɑː

agh

ɑː

al

ɑ

alh

ɑʎ

am

ɑm

h

ædh

æː

ægh

æː

æl

æl

ælh

æj

æm

æm

ɬ

aidh

ɮ

aigh

iː

ɮ

ail

ɪl

ailh

ij

aim

ɪm

ɬ

aodh

ɔː

aogh

ɔː

aol

ɔl

aolh

ɔʎ

aom

ɔm

h

aough

aːw

h

audh

ɑː

augh

ʊː

aul

ʊl

aulh

ʊʎ

aum

ɒm

h

edh

ɪð

egh

ø

el

ɛl

elh

ɛj

em

ɛm

ɬ

eadh

ɪːð

eagh

ɑː

eal

ɑl

ealh

ɑː.j

eam

ɑm

h

eaidh

ð

eaigh

eail

iːl

eailh

iːj

eaim

iːm

ɮ

eidh

eigh

ɮ

eil

il

eilh

ɛʎ

eim

ɛm

ɬ

eodh

œːð

eogh

œː

eol

ʏl

eom

ʏm

ɬ

eoidh

ð

eoigh

eoil

iːl

eoilh

iːj

eoim

iːm

ɮ

idh

ɪː

igh

i

il

ɪl

ilh

ɪʎ

im

ɪm

ɬ

iadh

ɛː

iagh

ia

ial

jɑl

ialh

iːʎ

ɮ

iam

ɛːm

ɬ

iaidh

iaigh

iail

iːl

iailh

iːj

iaim

iːm

ɮ

iedh

ijɛː

ol

ɒl

om

ɐm

ɬ

ieidh

ieigh

ɮ

iodh

ijɔː

ɬ

odh

ɒ

ogh

ɒ

ɬ

oadh

ʋɑː

oagh

ɒː

oal

ʋɑl

oalh

wɑʎ

oam

wɑm

-

oaidh

ː

oaigh

oail

iːl

oailh

iːj

oaim

iːm

ɮ

œdh

ɛː

oegh

œː

œl

œl

œlh

œːj

œm

œm

ɬ

oidh

oigh

iː

oil

iːl

oilh

iːj

oim

iːm

ɮ
ough u ɬ

udh

ʊː

ɬ

uadh

wɑː

uagh

wɑ

ual

wɑl

uam

əm

h

uaidh

uaigh

wiː

uail

wiːl

uaim

yːm

-

uedh

wɛː

uegh

wɛ

uel

wɛl

uelh

wɛj

-

uidh

wiː

uigh

wiː

uil

wil

uilh

wiː

-

amh

ɑʋ

an

ɑn

anh

ɑŋ

aph

ɑf

ar

ɑʁ

h

æmh

æw

æn

æn

ænh

æŋ

ær

æ

ɬ

aimh

ɪw

ain

ɪn

ainh

ĩː

air

ɛːɹ

ɬ

aomh

ʏːw

aon

ʏːn

aonh

ɒŋ

aor

ɒʁ

ɬ

aumh

ɒʋ

aun

ɒn

aunh

ʊŋ

aur

ʊʁ

ɬ

emh

ɛw

en

ɛn

enh

øŋ

eph

ɛf

er

əɹ

h

eamh

ʏw

ean

ʏn

eanh

ɛŋ

eaph

ʏɸ

ear

ɪːəɹ

ɬ

eaimh

iːw

eain

iːn

eainh

ĩː

eaiph

iːɸ

eair

ɪːɹ

ɮ

eimh

ɛw

ein

ɛn

einh

ɛŋ

eiph

ɛːf

eir

iɹ

ɬ

eomh

ʏw

eon

ʏn

eonh

œː

eor

iːɐɹ

ɮ ɬ

eoimh

iːw

eoin

iːn

eoinh

ĩː

eoiph

iːɸ

eoir

iːɹ

ɮ

eum

əʋ

eun

ən

eunh

əŋ

ɬ

imh

ɪw

in

ɪn

inh

ɪŋ

iph

ɪf

ir

ɪɹ

ɬ

iamh

ɛːw

ian

ɛːn

ianh

ĩː

iaph

ɛːf

iar

ɹ

ɬ

iaimh

iːw

iain

iːn

iainh

ĩː

ɬ

iaiph

iːɸ

iair

iːɹ

ɮ

omh

ɒʋ

on

ɒn

onh

õ

oph

ɒf

or

ɒɹ

h

oamh

ɑːʋ

oan

ɑːn

h

oanh

ʋɑŋ

oar

ʋʌʁ

-

oaimh

ʏːw

oain

ʏːn

oair

iːɹ

h

oainh ʋɐ̃ oaiph wiːɸ -

œmh

œʋ

œr

œʁ

ɬ

oimh

iːw

oiph

iːɸ

oir

oɹ

h

ur

ʏɹ

ɬ

uamh

ʏʋ

uaph

ɑːf

uar

ɑːɹ

h

uaimh yːw uainh ɐ̃ uaiph yːɸ uair yːəɹ h

uain

yːn

ɬ

uenh

wẽ

uer

ɹ

-

uimh

iw

uin

in

ɬ

uiph

iɸ

ɬ

arh

ɑːɹ

as

ɑʃ

ash

ɑ

at

ɑth

ath

ɑːθ

ɬ

ærh

æːɹ

æs

æʃ

æsh

æ

æt

æth

æth

iːθ

ætg

ɪdʒ

ɮ

airh

iːɹ

ais

iːʃ

aish

ɛʃ

ait

ɛth

aith

iːθ

aitg

ɛdʒ

ɮ

aorh

ʁ

aos

ɒʃ

aosh

ɒʃ

aoth

ɒθ

aotg

ɒdʒ

h

aurh

ʊːʁ

aus

aush

ɔːʃ

auth

ɔːθ

h

erh

ɪʒ

es

ɪʃ

esh

ɪʃ

et

eth

eth

ɪθ

etg

ɪdʒ

ɮ

earh

ʏʁ

eas

ɪːʃ

eash

ɪːʃ

eat

ɛːth

eath

ɛːθ

ɮ

eairh

iːʒ

eais

iːʃ

eaish

iːʃ

eait

iːth

eaith

iːθ

eaitg

iːdʒ

ɮ

eirh

iːʒ

eis

iːʃ

eish

eith

eitg

idʒ

ɮ

eorh

iːʒ

eosh

øʃ

eoth

øθ

eotg

ødʒ

ɮ

eoirh

iː

eois

iːʃ

eoish

iːʃ

eoith

iːθ

eoitg

iːdʒ

ɮ

eush

œʃ

euth

œθ

ɮ

irh

ɪʒ

is

ɪʃ

ish

ith

itg

idʒ

ɮ

iarh

iːʒ

ias

iːʃ

iash

ɛːʃ

iath

ɛːθ

iatg

iːdʒ

ɮ

iairh

iːʒ

iais

iːʃ

iaish

iːʃ

iaith

iːθ

iaitg

iːdʒ

ɮ

orh

ɒʁ

os

ʌs

osh

oth

ʌθ

h

oarh

ʋʒ

oas

ʋʌs

oash

ʃ

oath

θ

-

oairh

wiːʒ

oais

iːʃ

oaish

wiːʃ

oaith

wiːθ

oaitg

wiːdʒ

-

œrh

œʒ

œsh

ʌʃ

œth

œθ

h

oirh

iːʒ

ois

iːʃ

oish

iːʃ

oith

oitg

idʒ

ɮ

urh

ʊʒ

ush

ʊʃ

uth

ʊθ

ɬ

uarh

ɑːʁ

ɬ

uash

wɐʃ

uath

wɐθ

-

uairh

yːʒ

uais

yːʃ

uaish

wiːʃ

uait

ʋiːth

uaith

wiːθ

uaitg

wiːdʒ

-

uerh

wəʒ

ues

wəʃ

uesh

wɛʃ

ueth

wɪθ

-

uirh

iːʒ

uis

iːʃ

uish

iːʃ

uith

iːθ

uitg

iːdʒ

ɮ

Table 3[]

Vowels modifying precedent consonants.


Front

Near-front

Central

Near-back

Back

Close

i y

u

Near-close

ɪ ʏ

ʊ

Close-mid

e ø

ɘ

o

Mid

ə

Open-mid

ɛ œ

ʌ ɔ

Near-open

æ

ɐ

Open

a

ɑ ɒ


Table 4[]

Modification of consonants.


original

modified

b

b

v ʋ w

c

- ɬ h

ɮ

d

d

ð ʒ

g

ɦ

l

l

w

m

m

v ʋ

n

n

ɲ

p

p

f ɸ

r

r

ɾʒ

s

s

ʃ

t

t

Grammar[]

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Nouns No Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

First Reader[]

In the twentieth century, something like McGuffey's First Reader has been published:

McGuffey2.jpg

The Borchennymendi texts appeared in the traditional alphabeth. ß is the sign for h; the sharp s takes the place of the normal s within or at the outset of a syllable and h is written with a decorative curl at is tail at the end of a word.

The words generally are of considerable length, because Borchennymendi is an agglutinative language, although it has some flexions.

Read aloud, this text sounds like:








Parts of speech[]

Words are divided into four parts of speech: substantives, verbs, adverbs and interjections.

  • A substantive is a part of speech inflected for number and case, signifying a concrete or abstract entity.
  • A verb is a part of speech without case inflection, but inflected for at least tense, person and number, signifying an activity or process performed or undergone. An adjective is any qualifier of a noun, without case, tense, person or number inflection. It is disputable whether verbs are inflected adjectives of adjectives are verbs without inflections. A participle is a part of speech, derived from a verb (or an adjective), sharing the features of the verb, the adverb and/or the noun. There are no equivalents for the common English verbs ‘to be’ and ‘to have’.
  • An adverb is a part of speech without inflection, in modification of or in addition to a verb, adjective, clause, sentence, or other adverb
  • An interjection is a part of speech expressing emotion alone. Borchennymendi is unfamiliar with expressions for ‘yes’ and ‘no’. The answer to a question and the confirmation or denial of a statement are formulated by resuming the principal verb in the preceding question or statement.

In Indo-European languages a pronoun is a part of speech substitutable for a noun and marked for a person. Borchennymendi pronouns are always pronominal suffixes and never stand alone.

The Borchennymendi language does not allow any prepositions.

Conjunctions[]

A conjunction binds together the discourse and filling gaps in its interpretation. It is always a prefix or an affix to some part of speech.


Operators[]

The primary conjunctions between two or more verbal constructions are not separate words, like the English ‘and’, ‘or’, ‘but’ etc. They are expressed by conjunctive suffixes, which may be added to verbs and, to a certain extent, also to substantives. William Bidewell in his 18th century grammar book did not call them ‘conjunctions’ but ‘operators’, as to avoid any confusion with the specific operator he called ‘conjunction’. The five operators in the primary class are:

Conjunction

and

-agh

Disjunction

or

-eir; -eirtg

Opposition

but

-bhuir

Implication

when ...then

-eish

Condition

if and only if … then

-eith

Conjunction according to the Bidewell terminology is performed by the suffix -agh. It corresponds to the English ‘and’:

pamhnhe rhaetgidh: chapheaidhnhe saeighuithidhagh: I eat some bread and I drink some coffee.

(The suffix -nhe is that of the partitive case. The absolutive case would imply that the bread would not change its appearance be being consumed and the resultative case cannot be used because it would mean that I have eaten all of the bread.)

The disjunctive operator is -eir:

pamhnhe rhaetgidh: chapheaidhnhe saeighuithidheir: I eat some bread or I drink some coffee.

The two possibilities mentioned do not necessarily exclude each other. The sentence may mean that no real choice between bread and coffee is made: having both of them at one and the same occasion is still possible.

When this exclusion has to be expressed the suffix -eirtg must be added:

pamhnhe rhaetgidh: chapheaidhnhe saeighuithidheirtg: Either I eat some bread or I drink some coffee, but never at the same time.

In the sentence: pamhnhe rhaetgidh: chapheaidhnhe saeighuithidhbhuir: I eat some bread but I drink some coffee, an opposition of the verbal clauses and the nouns is achieved: bread, being food, is eaten but coffee is drunk as it is a beverage.

There are two conditional operators, which correspond to ‘if’ (or ‘when’) and to ‘if and only if’. In: pamhnhe rhaetgidheish: chapheaidhnhe saeighuithidh: When I eat some bread, I drink some coffee, the operator suffix for the sufficient condition is -eish, while the suffix for the necessary condition or conditio sine qua non is: -eith: pamhnhe rhaetgidheith: chapheaidhnhe saeighuithidh: If I eat some bread, then and only then I drink some coffee. In conditional clauses like these, the suffixes must be added to the part in which the fulfillment of the condition is stated, not to that in which the condition itself is mentioned. The precise distinction between the suffixes -eish and -eith is of great importance, since -eith always expresses a necessary condition. A flight attendant saying ‘(When we land at Bojarochne Airport, please) remain seated …” (aithoaghredhmuicechoareighemeish) is making a standard announcement. If ‘remain seated’ would be: aithoaghredhmuicechoareighemeith, the communication would imply: “If we land …”, which probably would have a disquieting effect on the passengers.

All these operator suffixes can be added to both verbs and nouns:

pamhnhe chapheaidhnheagh: Bread and coffee (for a breakfast).

tathnhe chapheaidhnheir: Tea or coffee (are served at breakfast).

tathnhe chapheaidhnheirtg: Either tea or coffee; not both of them.

pamhnhe chapheaidhnhebhuir: I would like some bread, but also a cup of coffee.

pamhnhe chapheaidhnheish: Having some bread means: always a cup of coffee to go with it.

pamhnhe chapheaidhnheith: No coffee without bread; no bread without coffee.

Adjunct[]

The general modifier da- as a prefix to a verb/adjective adds a property to a noun.In some respects, is is an operator, for its basic meaning is: 'of which is true: ...' The Borchennymendi allows the addition of only one adjective to a radix, e.g.: chaseth - a house (ergative case), chasmaugheth - a big house. For the expression 'a large green house' there are three possibilities. The first is an attributive adjunct introduced by the affix da- to the radix nusaigheachthaun: chasmaugheth danusaigheachthauneth: (ergative case for both the subject of the sentence and for its attributive adjunct) has a restrictive meaning: the big house, that is green, would imply that there are more big houses than the green one, but only the green house is occupied by the the person one is looking for. The second possibility chasmaugheth danusaigheachthechathes: (an adverbial adjunct expressing an extension: the large house, of which is true that it is green at this moment, has been green in the past and is likely to stay green in the future) is a verbal construction, because the radix nusaigheachthaun is regarded as the verb: 'to be green'. The meaning of this clause is: the big house which is green. Aspects may be added to the verb, which is not allowed in the attributive adjunt. The big house which is now being painted green would be: chasmaugeth danusaigheachtroananes: it begins (the inchoative aspect) te be green right now (-an is for the common present), the expected result being nondescript or altogether irrelevant. A restriction in an attributive adjunct is the third possibility: the big house that is green could also be: chasmaugheth: danusaigheachthmaith: with the punctuation mark after each of the words and the adjunct in the adverbial case. A clause like this may mean: the big house, whose only characteristic is its green colour.

Verbs[]

Gender

There is no grammatical gender, neither in nominal, nor in verbal constructions. In the second and third persons of the verbal conjugation, a distinction is made between concrete and abstract categories. This will be explained in the section dealing with nouns.


Number

Borchennymendi involves a three-way number contrast between singular, dual and plural.

In the sentence: The apple is fresh - almhaen paertearotganes:the subject almha- takes the suffix of the nominative -en, because paertearotg-, denoting both the adjective ‘fresh’ and the verb ‘to be fresh’, is in this case considered to be an intransitive verb. Two suffixes have to be attached to the radix: -an- for the common present and -es for the third person singular for concrete items.

In: The apples are fresh - almhaemen paertearotganeshem: the suffix -em for the plural number appears twice: in the penultimate position of almhaemen and as the final suffix of the verbal construction, as the grammatical number is an agreement category. The distinction between abstract and concrete nouns is a category of the same type. The two apples are fresh - almhasoidhnen paertearotganeshough: In the dual, nouns normally are classified by -soidhn, whereas the verbtakes the suffix -ough. The plural classifier is -em for the noun as well as for the verb. Some nouns form their dual through apophony or phonetic modification: two - steidhm four (two times two) - staedhm. This type of nouns may appear in a second dual form: staedhmsoidhn (2 x 2 x 2) - eight.


The dual of almha is formed in the normal way, but sechoedhr, a lady’s shoe, shows apophony in the dual: seachadhr. sechoedhren uibhshetloeianes: - The shoe is black; seachadhren uibhshetloeianeshough: - The pair of shoes is black. ‘Two pairs of shoes’, seachadhsoidhn, make up four shoes, so that the double dual for the noun requires a plural form in the verb:

seachadhsoidhn uibhshetloeianeshem:

and not: seachadhsoidhn uibhshetloeianeshough:


A collective noun is a word that designates a group of objects or beings regarded as a whole, such as "flock", "team", or "corporation". In Borchennymendi, just as in English, they may be interpreted as plural or incidentally when their meaning is that of a couple consisting of two items, persons or concepts (e.g. auth - ‘a pair’, aidhreguige - ‘a married couple’, aothmeraidh ‘duality, ambiguity’) as dual, which affects the conjugation of the verb according to the above mentioned rules. In Borchennymendi, phrases such as ‘The committee are meeting’ are even more common than in British English. The so-called agreement in sensu (i.e. with the meaning of a noun, rather than with its form) is highly favoured. This type of construction varies with the level of formality.

Person[]

For verbal constructions, six persons are distinguished:

singular

dual

plural

1.

I

incl.

you (sg.) and I

incl.

you (pl.) and I

excl.

he/she and I

excl.

they and I

2. concr.

you

both of you

you (pl.)

2. abstr.

id.

id.

id.

3. concr

he, she

both of them

they

3. abstr.

it

both of them

they

4.

someone, something

two persons, two things

people, things

5.

everyone, everything

both, both things

all of them

6.

no one, nothing

none of both

none of them

Gender being no category in Borchennymendi, there are no distinct suffixes for 'he', 'she' and 'it' for animate creatures.In the second and third persons concrete and abstract agents of the verb require different sufiixes. Concrete are really existing persons, animate and inanimate objects. Abstract are all the others. The categories, however, are interchangeble to a certain extent. omenh as a concrete noun means 'a human being', so it takes the third person concrete in a verbal construction of which it is the subject. As an abstract noun it means 'mankind', so its suffix will be that of the third person abstract.

Originally concrete animals or items that have existed but have ceased to do so are regarded as belonging to the abstract category. This semantic shift affects the choice between the two possibilities in the second and third person.

The apple is fresh - almhaen paertearotganes:

implies that the fresh apple is still present. About a stolen or consumed apple that has been fresh one should say:

almhaen paertearotgechaithesth:

while

almhaen paertearotgechaithes:

would imply that the apple is still there and once had been fresh, but now has lost its original quality.

Prudence is called for when adding the suffixes -adh (2sg. abstr.), -esth (3sg. abstr.), -adhough, -esthough (dual.), -adhem or -esthem (plur.) to a verbal radix if a person is the subject. Very often it implies pejorative appellations. It is not customary to speak about deceased persons as if they were abstract notions, not even when their demise happened centuries ago. Such usage would express a considerable doubt about their historicity. 'Saint Nicolas' as a 4th century bishop, although he might be somewhat legendary, is concrete, but 'Santa Claus' safely may be regarded as an abstract noun by those who do not believe in his real existence. (Mind the children!) In the context of litterary fiction the names and designations of non-historical personalities are treated as concrete nouns. Fairies, gnomes etc.are abstract; angels are so for non-believers, but religious people regard them as concrete beings. When a living person is the subject, special precautions must be taken in the third person singular of the spoken language, as in practically all instances the difference between abstraction and concreteness is indicated merely by the stressed syllable: 'he/she is afraid' - uidhranes - ˈʌɹɐnɛʃ; 'it (abstr.) is afraid' - uidhranesth - ʌɹɐˈnɛʃ. The use of the abstract form for living people shows undisguised contempt. A concrete woman is a lady, an abstract one is a tramp.

The fourth person refers to a nondescript member of a class. The fifth includes all members of that class, while the sixth indicates that the class is void.

The suffixes, placed at the end of the entire verbal construction, are:

singular

dual

plural

1.

-idh

incl.

-idhough

incl.

-idhem

excl.

-arhough

excl.

-arhem

2. concr.

-eigh

-eighough

-eighem

2. abstr.

-adh

-adhough

-adhem

3. concr

-es

-eshough

-eshem

3. abstr.

-esth

-esthough

-esthem

4.

-ain

-ainough

-ainem

5.

-elhe

-elhough

-elhem

6.

-melhe

-melhough

-melhem


Function[]

The functional suffix is the first to be added to the verbal stem, called radix. There are four of these functions:

  • indicative, with no mark;
  • negative marked by -me;
  • affirmative, with to possible suffixes:
    • -es

when the answer to a question is affirmative: 'Is this a tree? Yes, it is.' Borchennymendi has no equivalents for 'yes' and 'no'. When replying to a question, the verb is repeated with the affirmative suffix.If the answer would be of the type: 'Is this a tree? No, it is a plant.', the suffix:

  • -iointegh

has to be attached to the radix in the first possible position, which is, generally (though there are exceptions) the one immediately after.

The interrogative function is reached by adding

  • -riaidh

to the radix.


Voice[]

There are five voices:

active, unmarked;

middle, with the suffix:

  • -moigh,

indicating that the action or experience is to the benefit of the agens;

reflexive,

  • -er;

reciprocal, with the suffix

  • -epher.

The reciprocal mood presupposes a dual or plural subject or a subject formally in singular, but semantically plural, like as 'people, class, cattle, police etc.'.


Mood

The ten moods are:

moods

expression

example

-

indicative

fact

I walk

-agh

conjunctive

I

supplemental verb

and I walk

-tagh

II

coincidence

while I walk

-siaidh

subjunctive

I

condition

if I walk; when I walk

-chuiaidh

II

reason

as I walk

-peraidh

III

cause

because I walk

-medhraidh

IV

contradistinction

although I walk

-midhraidh lest I walk

-ghedhraidh

V

consequence

so that I walk

-raedh

optative

desirability

in order that I walk

may I walk!

The first conjunctive mood is nothing more than a simple conjunction of two coordinate verbal constructions. As a rule, its suffix does not follow the radix, but finds itself at the end of an entire construction.


Tense

The next position in a verbal construct is taken by one of the fourteen tenses, if they are applicable:

The terms given in the second column of the table do not cover those of e.g. the Latin grammar. Tenses are defined by three criteria: the time when the action commences, the moment on which it takes place, and that on which it is or is likely to be terminated.

suffix

tense

outset

moment

end

-

simple present

indefinite

present

indefinite

-anaiph

momentaneous present

present

present

present

-an

common present

past

present

indefinite

-echain

aorist

past

past

indefinite

-echath

imperfect

past

past

without result

-echaith

perfect

past

past

with result

-redh

future

present or past

future

indefinite

-redhath

future imperfect

present or past

future

without expected result

-redaith

future perfect

present or past

future

with expected result

-than

conditional present

indefinite

present

unsatisfied condition

-thoun

conditional aorist

past

past

unsatisfied condition

-ghedh

conditional perfect

past

past

satisfied condition

-thedh

conditional future

present or past

future

satisfied condition

Examples of their use are:

tense

example clauses

simple present

I’m just walking around.

momentaneous present

I fall down.

common present

I walk.

aorist

Suddenly I fell down the stairs.

imperfect

I walked but I couldn’t find her house.

perfect

I walked a while and I found the house.

future

I shall walk.

future imperfect

I’ll have to stay forever.

future perfect

I’ll take look.

conditional present

I walk till a have found her house.

conditional aorist

I walked to see if I could find her house.

conditional perfect

I walked till I had found her house.

conditional future

I shall keep walking till I have found her house.


Aspect[]

The verbal aspects are quite numerous. Integration of a complete verbal radix in the penultimate position of a construction is possible. It would result in a more refined aspect than the abbreviated radices give. Aspects given by truncated radices are:

Initial aspects:

-sea

counterfactual potential

I can, but I don’t.

-sear

potential

I’m capable and willing.

-bu

counterfactual voluntative

I want to do it, but I can’t.

-bur

voluntative

I want to do it, and I will.

-cron

deontic

I’m allowed to take measures.

-odhr

imperative

You have to do your duties.

-ain

optative

May it be for ever!

-eirn

sperative

I hope to be an officer.

-loa

dubitative

Perhaps I’ll be promoted.

-loagh

eventive

I expect to be promoted in the next year.

-baith

momentaneous

I go home as soon as it is finished.

-airth

prospective

I am about to begin.

-roa

inchoative

I start working.

-eatg

conative

I try to cook a meal.

Progressive aspects:

-sin

progressive

I’m washing the dishes.

-singheoth

stative

I’m doing my homework, but it is not finished yet.

-coin

continuous

I keep doing efforts.

-coingeth

iterative

I have read ‘The Lord of the Rings’ several times.

-coinrand

frequentative

I explain it repeatedly.

-siadh

generic

I always wear a blue jacket.

-siadher

habitual

I wash may car every Saturday.

Intentional aspects:

-aodh

intentional

The charlady cleans up every corner in our house.

-taemhaodh

perfective

She cleans up the whole of it.

-taim

accidental

Accidentally, she has broken a window.

-liad

interruptive

Every now and then she takes a break.

-liadhrant

parcitive

My husband incidentally shares in the cleaning up.

-muicech

delimitative

We have been cleaning up for several hours.

-muicechor

defective

I’m cleaning up for half an hour and then I return to write.

-muicechoar

durative

I’m cleaning up till three o’clock.

Retrospective aspects:

-tug

terminative

I have finished my homework.

-tuig

cessative

I stopped doing my homework, finished or not.

-tuigor

pausative

I stopped doing it for half an hour.

-tugh

resumptive

I’ve done it again.

Jussive aspects:

-gitg

connivitive

I tolerate someone to steal my horse.

-ghais

desiderative

I wish she would come.

-ghaior

jussive

The sergeant ordered the soldiers to march.

-ghaiorin

permissive

I admit my neighbours to sit down in my backyard.

-lein

admonitive

I advise them to do so.

-leinoar

exhortative

I even prompt them to have fun in the garden.

Cogitative aspects:

-nea

cogitative

I think it is true.

-neath

creditive

I believe it is true.

-neathoin

apparitive

He looks like a wealthy man.

-bhatg

similative

He seems to be wealthy.

-thuirdg

evenitive

He appears to be wealthy.

-ci

conclusive

He draws the conclusion that he is wealthy.

-cit

evidential

It’s obvious that he is wealthy.

-loch

mentitive

He lies about his wealth.

Nominalisation[]

Adjectives can be treated as intransitive verbs without the verb itself being nominalised. The sentences: ‘It is a house. The house is white.’ are verbal constructions:

chasanes: chasen chaindidhanes: (litt.: "It houses. The house whites.")


chas -

-an

-es

radix

common present tense

3d person sing. concr.

chas -

-en

radix

nominative case

chaindidh -

- an

- es

radix

common present tense

3d person sing. concr.


Conjugated verbs are transformed to nouns in five different ways:

-uin

gerund

verb to

substantive

the opening

-der

infinitive

verb to

adverb

easy to understand

-natg

participle

verb to

noun (substantive or adjective)

Let sleeping dogs lie.

-menduigh

gerundive

verb to

noun (substantive or adjective)

a readable book

-urh

supine

verb to

adverb

(I have come ) to take it with me.


Nouns[]

Singular

The singular form of a noun remains unmarked.

Dual

The dual is normally formed by adding the suffix -soidhn to the radix.

Twenty-nine radices have irregular dual forms:

chuidhnalh

three

chudhnalh

six

citla

turn, occasion

caetle

coirne

horn, conch

caerne

cuth

hand (obsolete)

choith

deoch

part, share

daich

eochaildh

eye

eachaeldh

ertg

seven

aertg

fourteen

gaecheshaen

lip

guicheshin

gloir

arm

glaer

idanach

leg

doinecheadh

lamhthaith

basket

liamtheth

leaoith

chair

leithe

leintg

twenty

lantg

forty

madan

wall

maeduin

maircheth

stick

merchaith

manh

hand

mainh

mhointe

mountain

mhuinte

omenh

human being

oamainh

plural: oamenh

phauthi

foot

phaeth

pheigoart

doorpost

phagart

sechoedhr

shoe

seachadhr

(of a woman)

shaipuith

shoe

shapath

(of a man)

sheith

fish

shath

siulaim

kidney

sialam

steidhm

two

staedhm

four

taisteal

cheek

togtailhae

tlachtga

ship

tluicht

tledhl

five

tlaedhl

ten

tunui

son

tanae

Fifteen dual forms indicate semantic shifts:

achran

season

ichrain

summer and winter

ainidhmadh

heart

ainidhmaedh

intimacy

aodhghin

fist

edhghin

combat

bhairheitg

chest

bharhatg

household goods

buartha

bed (obsolete)

beirth

double bed

comhghan

coin

coimhghain

a piece of 14 or 36 pence

diamh

day

diaumh

twenty-four hours

gochtaomh

tooth

geichtamh

set of dentures

indrechtach

bed

indrachteich

double room in a hotel

mhaetloetg

finger

mhatlotg

thumb and index finger

rhotathrain

wheel

rhoetathrin

bicycle (in literary language)

saeighuith

beverage

sagath

wine and water

shaerhphein

claw

sharphin

calamity, doom

teichndopoi

jaw

tachndeiph

lower and upper jaw

thelhsuntitg

bedsheet

thalsunteitg

bedclothes

In the singular of these words the first syllable is stressed; in the dual it is the final one that bears the stress, except comhghan - coimhghain: <ˈhɐvɘn> - <ˈɬɪːvɪn>. When the regular dual of these words is used the semantic shift will not occur: achransoidhn - two seasons, ainimadhsoidhn - two hearts, etc.

Several words without a dual form or even a strictly dual meaning will always cause the conjugation of the verb of which they are subjects according to the dual number:

aidhreguige

a married couple

aemhceithpheichaeth

health

aeneaetg

blessing

aithnigh

gorge, ravin

aonach

outline of a rectangle (not the circumference of a circle)

aothmeraidh

duality, ambiguity

aunhrecuith

fork

auth

a pair

bandnoigha

beak (of a bird)

belh

war, battle

bhurhui

abomination, disgust

cairbre

gate

chodhstum

suit, costume (of a man)

daich

catastrophe, disaster

(daigh, accident is singular)

dhostaithe

fate, destiny

duiseacht

hunger and thirst at the same time

eaechloeirnabhaen

prosperity

eigeantach

king and queen as a couple

enelant

England (not Great Britain)

gaulhmai

electric current

geanelh

window

geotg

street, avenue (in a city, not in a smaller town)

ghaoitheacht

coat

ghlaeibhe

sword

ghuiari

saw

lermaeaitheath

profit

lhaeoectuitlbheishae

anxiety

lheinhlin

gesture, bearing

lhemotaibh

interruption, breakdown

lheothu

quarrel, strife

lhibaithinteanuin

girdle, belt

lhoatntaubhui

debt

lhuilhpheichpaeitg

profit, earnings

liath

conflict

luishraemh

parents

maodhg

trousers

mhaeceatu

scissors

mhaeiemaei

size (of clothing and footwear)

mhaethaetg

wrinkle, furrow

mhoebhaeoenphetg

conspiracy

mhorhtea

danger, risk

micheopaersoatg

a pair of pincers

muirhaeoetg

dance

nauntnhetrheitg

regal, reed organ

nhuithcuthbaeth

frontier, boundary

ocanhtaur

outward appearance

pheabgheolhaord

pants, trousers

phoishoir

a two pound bank note

raetamhphar

a pair of tongues

raoghsathau

symbol

shaeoechleaeshoei

gun, rifle

shaognhauntnethen

problem, question

shothluirhnhoatlon

parliament

taimiai

damage

teiaelhae

person

thotg

incision

thuindealbh

character, quality

tlaubnhabhoitg

surprise

tlaucai

grief, regret

tluinhmhuirghaurd

war

toiglethgoatg

risk

All these words have a regular dual form when two of these entities or concepts are referred to: teiaelhaesoidhn - two persons, tluinhmhuirghaurdsoidhn - the two World Wars, phoishoirsoidhn - two 2-pound notes etc.

The use of the dual with sheidhlinh, shilling (1/10 pound), arose from the revision of the monetary system in 1963, prior to which a shilling had the value of one twentieth part of a pound. The existing coins were not retracted, so that after the 1st of September of that year they doubled their value. Younger people, who have not experienced the revision, generally use the singular again.

Plural

The regular plural form of nouns is accomplished by adding -em to the radix.

Several radices, especially those ending with a vowel, form their plural in different ways:

singular

plural

-ae

-ai

tlinhpithae

fine, penalty

tlinphitai

-ai

-es

triabhai

form, shape

triabhes

-aolhe

-ai

phearhtaolhe

catholic

phearhtai

-au

-ai

pheghau

cloud

pheghai

-bhu

-bher

shaibhu

rope

shaibher

-ei

-eis

thoecphei

top

thoecpheis

-eau

-as

nilheau

grandfather

nilheas

-eo

-ei

abhrimeo

spear

abhrimei

-ghe

-ghes

soalghe

ball

soalghes

-iath

-ieth

sciath

science

scieth

-oi

-ois

lhoacaiphrhautoi

miser

lhoacaiphrhautois

-ui

-ais

moilhui

feather

moilhais















Irregular plural forms are:

chairdseir

cherseres

gaol

cheimhshotrhunhaur

thruidhmserais *

heel

cheonpauthaor

chanpheidtair

spade

odhamnaith **

phroughmage

cheese

oephe

aiphe

side

oiph

oephe

egg

omhuiritg

chualdhshuish

chance

orhphailen

urphelen

orphelin

orhui

aerhai

coast, shore

paemhbhoein

paemhbhenes

shepherd

pelhath

palhaith

dish

peorhath

meidhrghenes

oar

pheichmoen

sepuildhchre ***

grave, tomb

phoidhneth

alhphenetes

pin

pochsaebh

pauchsuibh

nephew

puirelhea

parlhes

calf

rege ****

eigeantuich

king






















* thruidhmserui (sg.) is only found in a poetic context and is nowadays obsolete.

** odhamnaith is the material noun, whereas phroughmage means ‘pieces of cheese’.

*** sepuildhchre is often taken in the sense of ‘graveyard, cimetery'.

**** regei (pl.) only in: regeichuidhnalh, Three Kings, the name of a village near St Thegda EQ, which is regarded as a singular noun.

For the conjugation of verbs the following formally singular nouns are considered as plurals:

1. All substantives with a plural suffix or a plural declension.

2. The following substantives in a singular form with a plural meaning:

achmhain

parish, municipality

aeushmaeir

hair dress, hair

aibiocht

fauna, animal life

aighneash

flora, vegetation

bearhmhighr

forest, wood

chashnhanhaenh

story

chedhnymh

ocean, sea

chuidhnaelhdhioirdh

the amount of one pound, one shilling and one penny L 1: s 1: d 1

coetsaeghribrhein

crowd

dhiainer

money

etachuinidh

The United States of America

geichoethneoetlhoeaeth

worship, liturgy

gheidhlimidh

collection

ghuibhlach

bundle, bunch of flowers

goitpaughaoth

religion

ighneacha

passion

lhaithoathlheithoatg

church as an organisation

liathdhearg

flock

mhaemoimtaubhtloth

government

mhaeoelhnethoeaer

fleet

noibhnaph

building, edifice

peleibh

mob

phaimbeoth

tools, gear

poliaish

police

tilheadh

artillery

tloeir

human body

tluililhae

cattle

uincoashshoir

university



































3. The names of materials. If they are added the plural suffix or if they are declined as a plural their meaning is that of objects made or consisting or that material. Sometimes they undergo a semantic shift: phachoigh is silver, but phachoighem is cutlery, even if it is not manufactured of silver. Silver objects in general are boinhleiaithphachoighem. There are three exceptions to this rule:

cathaoir

manure

cathaoirem

dung, filth (very pejorative)

lhaipht

milk

lhaiphtem

dairy combined with meat, forbidden by the ecclesiastical dietary laws, so: illicit nutriments

oage

gold

oagei

fortune, capital








4. The names of Borchennymi’s twenty-three cantons.

5. The names of some cities and towns in and outside Borchennymi:

adghreoindheagh

Aronde IR

aithaurhei

Aithayrhei DI

The general noun aithaurhei, brook, however is singular.

asthterdau

Amsterdam

Note: nuighasthterdau, New York, is singular.

baethuidhrae

Bathyrae PÆ

The homonymous name of the river is singular.

bluiaitheadhe

Blytheadh BE

bodhreaighrioichneadh

Bojarochne ER

loughndresh

London

maidhnhaghriaidh

Mannaree DG

muighdarh

Mygda MN

The names of equally qualified groups of people (not that of animals or objects) may appear in the singular form, but if the verb of which they are the subject is conjugated in the third person of the abstract plural, they take a collective plural meaning:

gheiaer - a carpenter - the carpenters guild, now the organisation of building contractors;

gheichluth - a prostitute - prostitution;

thaophuibintroith - minister - Cabinet, Council of Ministers, The Crown.


Case endings

General

For the contrast between the subject and the object of a sentence Borchennymendi uses five cases. Two of them, the ergative and the nominative, are for the subject, Two others, the absolutive and the resultative cases, are for the object. The fifth, the accusative, may indicate both the subject and the object, which implies that the meaning of the term ´accusative case´ is totally different from what it is in the Latin grammar. The sixth, a subject case called the pegative, is used only with an indirect subject.

The following pairs occur in the first class of core cases:

subject

object

subject complement

indirect object

1. ergative case

2. absolutive case

7. dative case

1. ergative case

5. accusative case

7. dative case

1. ergative case

3. resultative case

7. dative case

5. accusative case

3. resultative case

7. dative case

4. nominative case

3. resultative case

6. pegative case

7. dative case

1. and 2.: Ergative and absolutive[]

For the subject of a transitive verb that describes an action or a perception the ergative case is used with the suffix -eth, if the voice of the verb is active, reflexive or reciprocal. In the reflexive and reciprocal voices the object is implicated in the verb itself. In the active voice the object takes the suffix of the absolutive case -am, unless it meets with a change that is the result or the consequence of the action:

omheth puirtgam bhidhanes: the man sees the boy.

If the verb is in the middle voice, the ergative case has a different form, -ethidh.

omhethidh puirtgam bhidhmoighanes: the man sees the boy ‘for himself’, may mean: only the man and no one else sees the boy.

In both of these instances, the pair of cases is that of the ergative and the absolutive, because the verb is transitive and the object undergoes no changes at all.

1. and 5.: Ergative and accusative[]

If the object is changed in some way, suffers from the action or ceases to be existent, the accusative is the appropriate case. It determinates the object by the suffix -ar.

The accusative case must not be used if the result of the action is mentioned.

omheth puirtgar braidhthanes: the man beats the boy, is a correct sentence but: omheth puirtgar braidhthanes: lhoughranghedhraidhanroanes: the man beats the boy so that he (i.e. the boy) begins to cry, is not. The boy’s crying is the result of the beating.

(A correct sentence would be: omheth puirtgar braidhthanes lhoughranghedhraidhanroanes, but this means: the man beats the boy so that he himself (i.e. the man) starts weeping. This is indicated by the omission of the punctuation mark in the middle of the sentence.)

1. and 3.: Ergative and resultative[]

The resultative case, -artg, takes the place of the accusative if the object experiences damage etc. and the character of this damage, or whatever it be, is specified in the same sentence. The correct rendering of the action of the cruel man spanking the weeping boy therefore is:

omheth puirtgartg braidhthanes: lhoughranghedhraidhanroanes:

A really abominable action like:

omheth puirtgnemhnainartg braidhthanes: the man beats the boy to death,

also requires the resultative case for the object, to the radix of which the verb-adjective -nemhnain- is added. omheth puirtgnemhnainar braidhthanes: would imply that the man is beating an already dead boy, because the action does not affect the state of the object.

The resultative case is never to be used for the object without a specification of the result.

5. and 3.: Accusative and resultative[]

One of the most remarkable features of Borchennymendi is the frequent use of the ‘constructio ad sententiam’.

The use of the passive voice of a verb implies that the patient of the action meets with damage or disadvantage. This requires the accusative -ar for the subject:

chasar mhaeigrhebhrothanes, the house is destroyed.

The passive voice, however, is normally avoided, because Borchennymendi has a fourth person for verbal constructions. Instead of this, one would rather say: chasar mhaeigrhebhanainem, ‘they’ devastate the house.

The accusativus pro ergativo appears with an intransitive verb in the active voice in the case that the mentioned performer of the action is in some way harmed or damaged.

ioghadhneth chasares mhaeigrhebhanes: John destroys his house, means that John ruins the house of some other person, while in: ioghadhnar chasartgeres mhaeigrhebhanes, John ravages his own property, and a ruined house is the result of what John is doing, so -artg-, the resultative, has to be added to the radix chas- before the pronominal suffix -eres, ‘his own’.

If John would have some advantage from the personal destruction of his dwelling, the middle voice has to be used for the verb, which causes the extended suffix -ethidh for the subject and the accusative for the object, because the result of the action is unmentioned: ioghadhnethidh chasareres mhaeigrhebhmoighanes:

If the affected object of a transitive verb is no longer existent as such after the action has been performed, the accusative suffix may be combined with that of the resultative case. In: chuistereagheth ghlhanluaidhartgar chuistereaghechaines, the butcher has slaughtered a cow, ghlanluiaidh- takes the suffix -artgar, because the cow as has ceased to be a living creature as a result of the butcher's work. When the furious in the foregoing paragraph destroys his own house to such an extent that nothing is left of it after his activities, the sentence 'John has destroyed his own house' becomes: ioghadhnar chasarartgeres mhaeigrhebhechatheres, with 'John' in the accusative and 'house' in the accusative-resultative case.

4. and 3.: Nominative and resultative[]

The subject of a nominal predicate takes the suffix of the nominative, -ur. The nominal complement, being the result of the predicate, is marked with that of the resultative -artg.

The nominative appears as the suffix for the subjects of the following verbs:

ceirenau

to be surnamed

eolaithe

to become