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Name: Bovonian

Type: Flexional

Alignment: Nominative-Accusative

Head Direction: Final

Number of genders: 3

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

The language[]

One of the most spoken languages in the North continent of Drion, Bovonian is the religious, cultural, literary and legal language of nothing less than ten countries. Historically, several nations have used Bovonian either as a special language or as their national language.

Considered by their speakers as the most beautiful language in the world, Bovonian literature is one of the most prolific in Drion, rivalizing with Dahur, Tláymyts and Ravumi in this field. Bovonian poetry is, indeed, the strongest and most influent in all Drion. In many countries (even in those which, in other aspects, are not influenced by Bovonian culture at all) it is considered the language of poetry par excellence. One of the reasons for that is the extremely rich vocabulary with which the language is endowed.

The name "Bovon" is actually a Prondaset word. The native name of the language is Bubhauna, whose origin and meaning are obscure.



Modern Bovonian is a development of Classical Bovonian. Although the lexicon and the phonology remain practically the same, the morphology has been somewhat simplified and some innovations have arisen.



IPA Pulmonic consonants chart
Place → Labial Coronal Dorsal Radical Glottal
↓ Manner Bila​bial Labio​dental Den​tal Alve​olar Post​alv. Retro​flex Pal​a​tal Ve​lar Uvu​lar Pha​ryn​geal Epi​glot​tal Glot​tal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p b t d k ɡ
Fricative s z ʃ ʒ h
Trill r
Flap or tap ɾ
Lateral Fric.
Lateral Appr.
Lateral flap


In the traditional transcription these consonants are represented as follows:

p [p] t [t] tsh [tʃ]
b [b] d [d] j [dʒ]
s [s] sh [ʃ]
m [m] n [n] r [ɾ] l [l]
h [h]

The bilabial, alveolar and velar stops can be aspirated, thus adding ph, th, kh, bh, dh and gh to Bovonian consonantal inventory.

The consonant r is pronounced either as a trill or as a tap.

The old semivowels y [j] and w [w] have been fully vocalized in most dialects, and are now regular vowels i and u. Diphthongs ay/ai and aw/au have been simplified to vowels e and o.


Vowels are:

a [a], [ɑ] â [a:], [ɑ:]
i [i], [ɪ] î [i:], [ɪ:]
u [u], [ʊ] û [u:], [ʊ:]
e [e], [ɛ] o [o], [ɔ]
M [m̩] N [n̩]
R [r̩] L [l̩]

Diphthongs ay and ai have turned to e (pronounced [e] or [ɛ]), while aw and au have turned to o (pronounced [o] or [ɔ]).

This pronunciation is used by some speakers when reading Classical Bovonian as well, although it does not correspond to the correct pronunciation of the old language.



There are three gender of nouns: masculine, feminine and neuter. Nouns are declined according to three numbers: singular, dual and plural, and to seven cases, viz.:

  1. Nominative (subject)
  2. Accusative (direct object)
  3. Dative (indirect object)
  4. Ablative
  5. Genitive (possessive)
  6. Instrumental (takes the place of Locative and Commitative as well)
  7. Ergative (agent for passive voice)

Noun declension is extremely regular, with no exceptions.

Short and Long Vowels[]

The declension shown below presents only short vowels. Words ending in a long vowel keep the ending vowel long through the declension. E.g.: nahâ "mother", accus. nahâw, gen. nahîtsh, dat. nahâk, abl. nahûm, nom. pl. nahê &c.

Masculine Nouns[]

Number Singular Dual Plural
Nominative -(u) -uh -i
Accusative -a -aj -an
Dative -uk -aksh -agh
Ablative -um -an -un
Genitive -itsh -itsha -itta
Instrumental -ar -aj -ang
Ergative -am -anj -and
Example: ûnanu "man", "person"
Number Singular Dual Plural
Nominative ûnan ûnanuh ûnani
Accusative ûnana ûnanaj ûnanan
Dative ûnanuk ûnanaksh ûnanagh
Ablative ûnanum ûnanan ûnanun
Genitive ûnanitsh ûnanitsha ûnanitta
Instrumental ûnanar ûnanaj ûnanang
Ergative ûnanam ûnananj ûnanand

Feminine Nouns[]

Number Singular Dual Plural
Nominative -a -ah -e
Accusative -o -aj -an
Dative -ak -aksh -agh
Ablative -um -an -un
Genitive -itsh -itsha -itta
Instrumental -ar -anksh -ang
Ergative -am -anj -and
Example: bhanârâha "family"

Number Singular Dual Plural
Nominative bhanrâh(a) bhanrâha bhanrâhe
Accusative bhanrâho bhanrâhaj bhanrâhan
Dative bhanrâhak bhanrâhaksh bhanrâhagh
Ablative bhanrâhum bhanrâhan bhanrâhun
Genitive bhanrâhitsh bhanrâhitsha bhanrâhitta
Instrumental bhanrâhar bhanrâhanksh bhanrâhang
Ergative bhanrâham bhanrâhanj bhanrâhand

Neuter Nouns[]

Number Singular Dual Plural
Nominative -(i) -is -(i)sa
Accusative -u -ij -(i)si
Dative -utsh -iksh -ija
Ablative -um -in -inja
Genitive -itsh -iksha -iksha
Instrumental -ar -aj -ash
Ergative -im -insh -insha
Example: dhâtati "city", "town"
Number Singular Dual Plural
Nominative dhâtat(i) dhâtatis dhâtat(i)sa
Accusative dhâtatu dhâtatij dhâtat(i)si
Dative dhâtatutsh dhâtatiksh dhâtatija
Ablative dhâtatum dhâtatin dhâtatinja
Genitive dhâtatitsh dhâtatiksha dhâtatiksha
Instrumental dhâtatar dhâtataj dhâtatash
Ergative dhâtatim dhâtatinsh dhâtatinsha


Adjectives are declined exactly the same way as nouns. Each adjective inflects for gender, number and case.

Mupph "new", "young"[]

Number Singular Dual Plural
Nominative mupph mupphuh mupphi
Accusative muppha mupphaj mupphan
Dative mupphuk mupphaksh mupphagh
Ablative mupphum mupphan mupphun
Genitive mupphitsh mupphitsha mupphitta
Instrumental mupphar mupphaj mupphang
Ergative muppham mupphanj mupphand
Number Singular Dual Plural
Nominative mupph(a) muppha mupphe
Accusative muppho mupphaj mupphan
Dative mupphak mupphaksh mupphagh
Ablative mupphum mupphan mupphun
Genitive mupphitsh mupphitsha mupphitta
Instrumental mupphar mupphanksh mupphang
Ergative muppham mupphanj mupphand
Number Singular Dual Plural
Nominative mupph(i) mupphis mupph(i)sa
Accusative mupphu mupphij mupph(i)si
Dative mupphutsh mupphiksh mupphija
Ablative mupphum mupphin mupphinja
Genitive mupphitsh mupphiksha mupphiksha
Instrumental mupphar mupphaj mupphash
Ergative mupphim mupphinsh mupphinsha

Comparative Form[]


The suffix -âval- is added to the stem of the adjective, resulting in a new adjective. Ex.:

  • kalamt "large", kalamtâval "larger"
  • mupph "new", mupphâval "newer"
  • pun "good", punnâval "better"


The suffix -âdhân- is added to the stem of the adjective, resulting in a new adjective. Ex.:

  • kalamt "large", kalamtâdhân "the largest"
  • mupph "new", mupphâdhân "the newest"
  • punn "good", punnâdhân "the best"


Pronouns follow the same declension system used for nouns and adjectives, with little differences in some forms.


Although there are dual forms for all pronouns, they were not always used, plural forms being preferred. Dual forms are used mostly when the speaker wanted to emphasize the fact that the elements are exactly two, whenever this information is absolutely necessary.

There are reduced forms in some cases.

Nominative Accusative Dative Ablative Genitive Instrumental Ergative
1st sing. e nu nutsh num nitsh nar nim
2nd sing. da du dutsh dum ditsh dar dim
3rd sing. m. jîr ja juk jum jitsh jar jam
3rd sing. f. jîr jo jak jum jitsh jar jam
3rd sing. n. jîr ji jutsh jum jitsh jar jim
Nominative Accusative Dative Ablative Genitive Instrumental Ergative
1st dual mudd mij miksh minsh miksha maj minj
2nd dual phudd dij diks din diksha daj din
3rd dual m. jîr jaj jaksh jan jitsha jîraj jîranj
3rd dual f. jîra jaj jaksh jan jitsha jîraj jîranj
3rd dual n. jîris jij jiksh jin jitsha jîraj jîrinj
Nominative Accusative Dative Ablative Genitive Instrumental Ergative
1st pl. mudda, mui misi, mi mija, ma minja miksha marsha minsha
2nd pl. phudda, phui phisi, pi phija, pa phinja phiksha pharsha phinsha
3rd pl. m. jûdda, jui jûddad, jad jûdga, ja jûdduna jîtta jârda jûnda
3rd pl. f. jâdda, je jâddad, jad jâddagh, jagh jâdduna jîtta jârda jânda
3rd pl. n. jîsa, ja jîsi, jid jîsija, ji jînja jîksha jârsa jînsha


Possessive pronouns are declined like any other adjective.

Person Singular Dual Plural
1st nâm mudd mui
2nd phudd phui
3rd m., f. and n. dhî ûi


  • nâm jasa "my house"
  • dî bâl "your father"
  • muii bhâri "our children"
  • dhîa lanama "her (two) sisters"


  • hish "this"
  • ar "that"
  • hu, ha, hi "this", "that" and also "the"

These follow the regular nominal declension. E.g.:

  • hish jasa "this house"
  • ar luphul "that tree"
  • ari tshalludi "those boys"

The form hu, ha, hi is used in expressions like hi dhâtat "the (capital) city", hi pâr "the beautiful (things)" = "beauty", hu bhalad "the strong one", hi tâsit "that (what was) said".

Another special use of hu, ha, hi is with nouns and pronouns, as a suffix.

When it is suffixed to nouns, it indicates a special individual of that class. E.g.: dhûr "sun", "a sun", "the sun (which we are talking about)"; but: dhûrhu "THE sun", "our sun". It is used in jokes, e.g. using irony to criticize the performance or the skills of someone; ex.: jîr ish ûnanuhu lit.: "he is THE man", intended meaning: "he is an idiot".

With pronouns, it emphasizes the notion expressed by the root. Ex.:

  • ehu abhasom ji "I did it myself", "It is I who did it" (comp.: abhasom ji "I did it")
  • hishhu "really this one", "the same one"
  • jîrhu "the same one"
  • dîhu "really your"
  • ghânhu "the same one who"

In all these cases, the suffix agrees fully with the noun or pronoun. In the nominative the optional vowel must be used as a link: ûnan(u) -> ûnanuhu.


  • ghî "what"
  • ghân "who"
  • jâr "which"
  • jûng "how"
  • hamtshar "where"
  • jamar "when"


  • ghî "that"
  • ghân "who"


  • shan "some", "any"
  • mân "no", "none"
  • dutt "all", "every"
  • ghatt "each", "every"


Cardinal Numbers[]

  • 0 matt
  • 1 han
  • 2 to
  • 3 dalla
  • 4 jahal
  • 5 dhanj
  • 6 sihâd
  • 7 dhâd
  • 8 uhâd
  • 9 mûph
  • 10 tâdd
  • 11 hantâd
  • 12 todda
  • 13 daltâd
  • 14 jahalâd
  • 15 dhanjâd
  • 16 sihdâd
  • 17 dhâdâd
  • 18 uhdâd
  • 19 mûphâd
  • 20 'phamj
  • 21 phamj han
  • 30 dalmud
  • 40 jahlud
  • 50 dhânjud
  • 60 sihmud
  • 70 dhâdud
  • 80 uhmud
  • 90 mûphud
  • 100 dhân

Ordinal Numbers[]

Ordinal numbers are regular adjectives.

  • 1 ballihal
  • 2 dhîtshal
  • 3 daldhal
  • 4 jahal
  • 5 dhamjal
  • 6 sihdal
  • 7 dhâdal
  • 8 uhdapphal
  • 9 mûphmal
  • 10 tâddhal



  • ghe "for"
  • , jay "and"
  • man "nor"
  • dhât, na, bûn "but"
  • uha "or"
  • imtad "yet"
  • addhân "so"


  • hanpuh … hi … "both … and … "
  • uha … uha … "either … or … "
  • man … man … "neither … nor … "
  • am … dhat … "not … but … "
  • maddhu … danpan … "not only … but also … "


  • tibuhâd "after"
  • jamdat "although"
  • dhî "if"
  • iddhâd "unless"
  • ghîutsh "so that"
  • balamda "therefore"
  • bîhal "in spite of", "despite"
  • ghe "because"



Bovonian keeps most of the old Nekturian verbal system. Although some tenses are not frequently used in speech, all of them are alive in the written (mostly in the literary) and in the more formal versions of the language and must be learnt by all native speakers.

Innovations are the use of prefixes for past tenses and the settling of a fixed thematic vowel for subjunctive and conditional moods, as well as the reduction of some tenses by the dropping of the thematic vowel.

Sample Conjugation: Phâtia "see"[]

Here is the full conjugation of the verb phât-i-a "see". For other verbs, just change the root (in this case, phât-) and, in the indicative mood, also the thematic vowel (-i-, -a- or -â-). In the other moods the thematic vowel is fixed: e in the subjunctive and o in the conditional.

Verb: phât-i-a
Active Voice
singular dual plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
Indicative Present phât-i--m phât-i--h phât-i--sh phât-i--nu phât-i--se phât-i--kin phât-i--nda phât-i--da phât-i--nga
Present Continuous phât-i-nu-m phât-i-nu-h phât-i-nu-sh phât-i-nu-nu phât-i-nu-se phât-i-nu-kin phât-i-nu-nda phât-i-nu-da phât-i-nu-nga
Perfective a-phât-o-m a-phât-o-h a-phât-o-sh a-phât-o-nu a-phât-o-se a-phât-o-kin a-phât-o-nda a-phât-o-da a-phât-o-nga
Aorist as-phât-i-sso-m as-phât-i-sso-h as-phât-i-sso-sh as-phât-i-ssa-nu as-phât-i-ssa-se as-phât-i-ssa-kin as-phât-i-ssa-nda as-phât-i-ssa-da as-phât-i-ssa-nga
Imperfective a-phât-i-pho-m a-phât-i-pho-h a-phât-i-pho-sh a-phât-i-pha-nu a-phât-i-pha-se a-phât-i-pha-kin a-phât-i-pha-nda a-phât-i-pha-da a-phât-i-pha-nga
Pluperfect a-phât-i-lo-m a-phât-i-lo-h a-phât-i-lo-sh a-phât-i-la-nu a-phât-i-la-se a-phât-i-la-kin a-phât-i-la-nda a-phât-i-la-da a-phât-i-la-nga
Past Continuous a-phât-i-he-m a-phât-i-he-h a-phât-i-he-sh a-phât-i-hî-nu a-phât-i-hî-se a-phât-i-hî-kin a-phât-i-hî-nda a-phât-i-hî-da a-phât-i-hî-nga
Future I phât-liho-m phât-liho-h phât-liho-sh phât-lihâ-nu phât-lihâ-se phât-lihâ-kin phât-lihâ-nda phât-lihâ-da phât-lihâ-nga
Future II phât-i-lo-m phât-i-lo-h phât-i-lo-sh phât-i-lâ-nu phât-i-lâ-se phât-i-lâ-kin phât-i-lâ-nda phât-i-lâ-da phât-i-lâ-nga
Future Perfect phât-lisso-m phât-lisso-h phât-lisso-sh phât-lissa-nu phât-lissa-se phât-lissa-kin phât-lissa-nda phât-lissa-da phât-lissa-nga
Future Continuous phât-i-nulo-m phât-i-nulo-h phât-i-nulo-sh phât-i-nula-nu phât-i-nula-se phât-i-nula-kin phât-i-nula-nda phât-i-nula-da phât-i-nula-nga
Subjunctive Present phât-e--m phât-e--h phât-e--sh phât-e--nu phât-e--se phât-e--kin phât-e--n phât-e--da phât-e--ng
Present Continuous phât-e-ne-m phât-e-ne-h phât-e-ne-sh phât-e-ne-nu phât-e-ne-se phât-e-ne-kin phât-e-ne-n phât-e-ne-da phât-e-ne-ng
Perfective e-phât-e-ho-m e-phât-e-ho-h e-phât-e-ho-sh e-phât-e-ho-nu e-phât-e-ho-se e-phât-e-ho-kin e-phât-e-ho-n e-phât-e-ho-da e-phât-e-ho-ng
Aorist es-phât-e-sso-m es-phât-e-sso-h es-phât-e-sso-sh es-phât-e-sso-nu es-phât-e-sso-se es-phât-e-sso-kin es-phât-e-sso-n es-phât-e-sso-da es-phât-e-sso-ng
Imperfective e-phât-e-pho-m e-phât-e-pho-h e-phât-e-pho-sh e-phât-e-pho-nu e-phât-e-pho-se e-phât-e-pho-kin e-phât-e-pho-n e-phât-e-pho-da e-phât-e-pho-ng
Pluperfect e-phât-e-sâ-m e-phât-e-sâ-h e-phât-e-sâ-sh e-phât-e-sâ-nu e-phât-e-sâ-se e-phât-e-sâ-kin e-phât-e-sâ-n e-phât-e-sâ-da e-phât-e-sâ-ng
Past Continuous e-phât-e-hî-m e-phât-e-hî-h e-phât-e-hî-sh e-phât-e-hî-nu e-phât-e-hî-se e-phât-e-hî-kin e-phât-e-hî-n e-phât-e-hî-da e-phât-e-hî-ng
Future phât-e-lâ-m phât-e-lâ-h phât-e-lâ-sh phât-e-lâ-nu phât-e-lâ-se phât-e-lâ-kin phât-e-lâ-n phât-e-lâ-da phât-e-lâ-ng
Future Perfect phât-e-lâsso-m phât-e-lâsso-h phât-e-lâsso-sh phât-e-lâsso-nu phât-e-lâsso-se phât-e-lâsso-kin phât-e-lâsso-n phât-e-lâsso-da phât-e-lâsso-ng
Future Continuous phât-e-nulo-m phât-e-nulo-h phât-e-nulo-sh phât-e-nula-nu phât-e-nula-se phât-e-nula-kin phât-e-nula-n phât-e-nula-da phât-e-nula-ng
Conditional Present phât-o-la-m phât-o-la-h phât-o-la-sh phât-o-la-nu phât-o-la-se phât-o-la-kin phât-o-la-n phât-o-la-da phât-o-la-ng
Present Continuous phât-o-lu-m phât-o-lu-h phât-o-lu-sh phât-o-lu-nu phât-o-lu-se phât-o-lu-kin phât-o-lu-n phât-o-lu-da phât-o-lu-ng
Perfective e-phât-o-lho-m e-phât-o-lho-h e-phât-o-lho-sh e-phât-o-lho-nu e-phât-o-lho-se e-phât-o-lho-kin e-phât-o-lho-n e-phât-o-lho-da e-phât-o-lho-ng
Aorist es-phât-o-lda-m es-phât-o-lda-h es-phât-o-lda-sh es-phât-o-lda-nu es-phât-o-lda-se es-phât-o-lda-kin es-phât-o-lda-n es-phât-o-lda-da es-phât-o-lda-ng
Imperfective e-phât-o-lpo-m e-phât-o-lpo-h e-phât-o-lpo-sh e-phât-o-lpo-nu e-phât-o-lpo-se e-phât-o-lpo-kin e-phât-o-lpo-n e-phât-o-lpo-da e-phât-o-lpo-ng
Pluperfect e-phât-o-hla-m e-phât-o-hla-h e-phât-o-hla-sh e-phât-o-hla-nu e-phât-o-hla-se e-phât-o-hla-kin e-phât-o-hla-n e-phât-o-hla-da e-phât-o-hla-ng
Past Continuous e-phât-o-lî-m e-phât-o-lî-h e-phât-o-lî-sh e-phât-o-lî-nu e-phât-o-lî-se e-phât-o-lî-kin e-phât-o-lî-n e-phât-o-lî-da e-phât-o-lî-ng
Future phât-o-lâ-m phât-o-lâ-h phât-o-lâ-sh phât-o-lâ-nu phât-o-lâ-se phât-o-lâ-kin phât-o-lâ-n phât-o-lâ-da phât-o-lâ-ng
Future Perfect phât-o-sla-m phât-o-sla-h phât-o-sla-sh phât-o-sla-nu phât-o-sla-se phât-o-sla-kin phât-o-sla-n phât-o-sla-da phât-o-sla-ng
Future Continuous phât-o-nula-m phât-o-nula-h phât-o-nula-sh phât-o-nula-nu phât-o-nula-se phât-o-nula-kin phât-o-nula-n phât-o-nula-da phât-o-nula-ng
Imperative - phât-i--- phât-i---sh phât-i---nu phât-i---se phât-i---kin phât-i---nda phât-i---da phât-i---nga
Participle Present phât-mad
Present Continuous phât-i-mat
Perfective phât-i-t
Aorist phât-i-ss
Imperfective phât-i-nt
Pluperfect phât-i-lan
Past Continuous phât-i-tan
Future phât-i-dal
Future Perfect phât-i-lat
Future Continuous phât-i-lam
Passive Voice
singular dual plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
Indicative Present phât-i--en phât-i--eh phât-i--ed phât-i--nur phât-i--ge phât-i--ka phât-i--ne phât-i--de phât-i--nge
Present Continuous phât-i-nu-on phât-i-nu-oh phât-i-nu-ed phât-i-nu-nur phât-i-nu-ge phât-i-nu-ka phât-i-nu-ne phât-i-nu-de phât-i-nu-nge
Perfective a-phât-o-n a-phât-o-h a-phât-o-d a-phât-o-nur a-phât-o-ge a-phât-o-ka a-phât-o-ne a-phât-o-de a-phât-o-nge
Aorist as-phât-i-sta-n as-phât-i-sta-h as-phât-i-sta-d as-phât-i-sta-nur as-phât-i-sta-ge as-phât-i-sta-ka as-phât-i-sta-ne as-phât-i-sta-de as-phât-i-sta-nge
Imperfective a-phât-i-pha-n a-phât-i-pha-h a-phât-i-pha-d a-phât-i-pha-nur a-phât-i-pha-ge a-phât-i-pha-ka a-phât-i-pha-ne a-phât-i-pha-de a-phât-i-pha-nge
Pluperfect a-phât-i-la-n a-phât-i-la-h a-phât-i-la-d a-phât-i-la-nur a-phât-i-la-ge a-phât-i-la-ka a-phât-i-la-ne a-phât-i-la-de a-phât-i-la-nge
Past Continuous a-phât-i-hî-n a-phât-i-hî-h a-phât-i-hî-d a-phât-i-hî-nur a-phât-i-hî-ge a-phât-i-hî-ka a-phât-i-hî-ne a-phât-i-hî-de a-phât-i-hî-nge
Future phât-i-lihâ-n phât-i-lihâ-h phât-i-lihâ-d phât-i-lihâ-nur phât-i-lihâ-ge phât-i-lihâ-ka phât-i-lihâ-ne phât-i-lihâ-de phât-i-lihâ-nge
Future Perfect phât-i-lista-n phât-i-lista-h phât-i-lista-d phât-i-lista-nur phât-i-lista-ge phât-i-lista-ka phât-i-lista-ne phât-i-lista-de phât-i-lista-nge
Future Continuous phât-i-nulâ-n phât-i-nulâ-h phât-i-nulâ-d phât-i-nulâ-nur phât-i-nulâ-ge phât-i-nulâ-ka phât-i-nulâ-ne phât-i-nulâ-de phât-i-nulâ-nge
Subjunctive Present phât-e-o-n phât-e-o-h phât-e-o-d phât-e-â-nur phât-e-â-ge phât-e-â-ka phât-e-â-ne phât-e-â-de phât-e-â-nge
Present Continuous phât-e-no-n phât-e-no-h phât-e-no-d phât-e-nâ-nur phât-e-nâ-ge phât-e-nâ-ka phât-e-nâ-ne phât-e-nâ-de phât-e-nâ-nge
Perfective e-phât-e-ho-n e-phât-e-ho-h e-phât-e-ho-d e-phât-e-ho-nur e-phât-e-ho-ge e-phât-e-ho-ka e-phât-e-ho-ne e-phât-e-ho-de e-phât-e-ho-nge
Aorist es-phât-e-sto-n es-phât-e-sto-h es-phât-e-sto-d es-phât-e-stâ-nur es-phât-e-stâ-ge es-phât-e-stâ-ka es-phât-e-stâ-ne es-phât-e-stâ-de es-phât-e-stâ-nge
Imperfective e-phât-e-pho-n e-phât-e-pho-h e-phât-e-pho-d e-phât-e-phâ-nur e-phât-e-phâ-ge e-phât-e-phâ-ka e-phât-e-phâ-ne e-phât-e-phâ-de e-phât-e-phâ-nge
Pluperfect e-phât-e-so-n e-phât-e-so-h e-phât-e-so-d e-phât-e-sâ-nur e-phât-e-sâ-ge e-phât-e-sâ-ka e-phât-e-sâ-ne e-phât-e-sâ-de e-phât-e-sâ-nge
Past Continuous e-phât-e-hîo-n e-phât-e-hîo-h e-phât-e-hîo-d e-phât-e-hîa-nur e-phât-e-hîa-ge e-phât-e-hîa-ka e-phât-e-hîa-ne e-phât-e-hîa-de e-phât-e-hîa-nge
Future phât-e-lâh-an phât-e-lâh-ah phât-e-lâh-ad phât-e-lâh-nur phât-e-lâh-ge phât-e-lâh-ka phât-e-lâh-ne phât-e-lâh-de phât-e-lâh-nge
Future Perfect phât-e-lâsta-n phât-e-lâsta-h phât-e-lâsta-d phât-e-lâsta-nur phât-e-lâsta-ge phât-e-lâsta-ka phât-e-lâsta-ne phât-e-lâsta-de phât-e-lâsta-nge
Future Continuous phât-e-nâl-ân phât-e-nâl-âh phât-e-nâl-âd phât-e-nâl-nur phât-e-nâl-ge phât-e-nâl-ka phât-e-nâl-ne phât-e-nâl-de phât-e-nâl-nge
Conditional Present phât-o-lah-ân phât-o-lah-âh phât-o-lah-âd phât-o-lah-nur phât-o-lah-ge phât-o-lah-ka phât-o-lah-ne phât-o-lah-de phât-o-lah-nge
Present Continuous phât-o-lahnu-n phât-o-lahnu-h phât-o-lahnu-d phât-o-lahnu-nur phât-o-lahnu-ge phât-o-lahnu-ka phât-o-lahnu-ne phât-o-lahnu-de phât-o-lahnu-nge
Perfective e-phât-o-laho-n e-phât-o-laho-h e-phât-o-laho-d e-phât-o-laho-nur e-phât-o-laho-ge e-phât-o-laho-ka e-phât-o-laho-ne e-phât-o-laho-de e-phât-o-laho-nge
Aorist es-phât-o-lahdo-n es-phât-o-lahdo-h es-phât-o-lahdo-d es-phât-o-lahdo-nur es-phât-o-lahdo-ge es-phât-o-lahdo-ka es-phât-o-lahdo-ne es-phât-o-lahdo-de es-phât-o-lahdo-nge
Imperfective e-phât-o-lapho-n e-phât-o-lapho-h e-phât-o-lapho-d e-phât-o-lapho-nur e-phât-o-lapho-ge e-phât-o-lapho-ka e-phât-o-lapho-ne e-phât-o-lapho-de e-phât-o-lapho-nge
Pluperfect e-phât-o-lahlo-n e-phât-o-lahlo-h e-phât-o-lahlo-d e-phât-o-lahlo-nur e-phât-o-lahlo-ge e-phât-o-lahlo-ka e-phât-o-lahlo-ne e-phât-o-lahlo-de e-phât-o-lahlo-nge
Past Continuous e-phât-o-lahî-n e-phât-o-lahî-h e-phât-o-lahî-d e-phât-o-lahî-nur e-phât-o-lahî-ge e-phât-o-lahî-ka e-phât-o-lahî-ne e-phât-o-lahî-de e-phât-o-lahî-nge
Future phât-o-lahâ-n phât-o-lahâ-h phât-o-lahâ-d phât-o-lahâ-nur phât-o-lahâ-ge phât-o-lahâ-ka phât-o-lahâ-ne phât-o-lahâ-de phât-o-lahâ-nge
Future Perfect phât-o-lisla(h-â)n phât-o-lisla(h-â)h phât-o-lisla(h-â)d phât-o-lisla(h-â)nur phât-o-lisla(h-â)ge phât-o-lisla(h-â)ka phât-o-lisla(h-â)ne phât-o-lisla(h-â)de phât-o-lisla(h-â)nge
Future Continuous phât-o-nulah-ân phât-o-nulah-âh phât-o-nulah-âd phât-o-nulah-nur phât-o-nulah-ge phât-o-nulah-ka phât-o-nulah-ne phât-o-nulah-de phât-o-nulah-nge
Imperative - phât-i--e-h phât-i--e-d phât-i--e-nur phât-i--e-ge phât-i--e-ka phât-i--e-ne phât-i--e-de phât-i--e-nge
Participle Present phât-i-in
Present Continuous phât-i-mtin
Perfective phât-i-ten
Aorist phât-i-sten
Imperfective phât-i-ttin
Pluperfect phât-i-len
Past Continuous phât-i-ten
Future phât-i-den
Future Perfect phât-i-lten
Future Continuous phât-i-lem


Animic adjectives and nouns[]

A typical feature of Bovon are the so-called "animic" adjectives. These are adjectives derived from the names of animals, representing distinctive characteristics - actual or assumed - of these animals. The most common qualities are represented by animic adjectives.

These adjectives produce abstract nouns representing the attribute in question. Some examples are given in the following table.

Animal Similar Earth equivalent Attribute Animic Adjective Meaning Noun Meaning
riho lion fierceness arhoân "fierce" arhoâtati "fierceness"
julasha owl intelligence, wisdom julashân "wise" julashâmsa "wisdom"
labuha fox cleverness, cunning albuhân "smart", "clever", "cunning" albuhânisa "smartness", "cleverness", "cunning"
jâdda cheetah speed jâdde fast jâddemsa speed
abbi bee; ant hard work abbinî dedicated; working hard abbinitati dedication; hard work
jah dog; cat loyalty jahî, jahalî loyal jahîsa, jahalîmsa loyalty
hallapa vulture dirt hLpani dirty, filthy hLpantati dirt, filth
sabb toad, frog tranquility, calmness sabbîn calm, serene; peaceful sabbînisa calmness, serenity, tranquility
bimpa pigeon hope bampatt hopefull bampattamsa hopefullness; hope
jupla snake treason jupalne traitor; unfaithful jupalnasâ treason, betrayal
ladh bear strength ladhish "strong" ladhishâ "strength"
parhyâ whale big size prihân "large" prihânisa "largeness", "(big) size"
hatshâ eagle nobleness hatshâs "noble" 1) hatshâstati; 2) hatshâsisa 1) "nobleness"; 2) "nobility"

Alternative Numbers[]

The cardinal numbers given above are the standard numeral forms used in Bovonian. However, there is another series of words carrying the notion of number. Although not used for counting (e.g., for saying "two days" or "five eggs"), they are used primarily in lists or in situations in which the number has some special meaning. The most common forms are as follows (there are more than one form for some numbers):

Number Word Original Meaning
1 hamajâm <a mythical animal with a single horn>
2 libadi "repetition"
2 balli "pair"
2 tupal "double"
2 raheis "the eyes"
3 balbhîd "perfection"
4 apphud "grandparents"
5 tajdarud "fingertips"
5 amâhad "fingernails"
6 buritshali "the thumb" (i.e., sixth finger)
7 astili "the star"
8 ballapphud "grandgrandparents"
9 istulmâhi "the strange one"
10 jinbardu "complete"

Some examples:

  • E hamajâm "I am number one", "I am the first" (in a competition; in a queue; the first son in a family)
  • Irtâhi hamajâm "Today is the first (day of the month)"
  • Jilim balbhîd "I want three" (units of something)
  • Dumdassanda balbhîd "We tried three (times)"
  • Jabâdar astili "Chapter seven"
  • Dhisah apphud "Section four"

Literary language has alternative forms for numbers up to the thousands. These are freely used mainly in poetry. Common spoken language keeps alternative forms only for the first ten numbers, although alternatives for larger numbers are not rare, in the case of numbers with some special use (e.g. 20, which is a common counting unit, or 50, which Bovonians considered a special age in the life of a person).



  • "Dutti ûnani maddhinge râphli, tâkmâtatum hî tâlihâdun. Jîragh laso hî gamsasâha, ghe tiphinga ashâ hann hâluk ishpâlâdum hulnamtatitsh."
    • ("All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.")