Le Singe

Cacicienne "what's on" magazine Le Singè ("The Monkey")

Name: Cacicienne

Type: Artlang

Alignment: Nominative-Accusative

Head Direction:

Number of genders: 2

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

Cacicienne (sometimes Caciçan or Kakica) /kakiː'ʃiːẽn/ is one of several imperial lingua-franca. Although there are various dialectal forms this page will focus upon the Standard Form. Lepsis mè conditter esè torcionnette, il mè feuer bette cràste.


There is no definitive correlation between spelling and pronunciation, but this phonemic inventory best describes the chief sounds produced by graphemes, digraphs and trigraphs. As such, the sounds are grouped roughly as "vowel" and "consonant".

Regional variations include "ç" for /ʃ/, "h" for /h/, "k" for /k/, "y" for /eɪ/, etc.

As a general rule:

  • Vowels followed by a single nasal become nasalised and the nasal consonant is silent
  • Final syllables containing /e/ are silent
  • "C" followed by a slim vowel is considered /s/ or /ʃ/ (except in the case of "ea", where it remains /k/)

Vowel Sounds[]

a /a/ or /ɑ/
à /ɑ/
e /e/ or silent
è /e/ or /eɪ/
èe /e/
eau /eʊ/
o /ɒ/
oe /ɒ/
u /u/
ou /u/
oue /u/
ie /i/
ei /i/
iu /ju/
-er (final) /e/
-es (final) silent
vowel followed by -il- or -ill- /j/
consonant followed by -ill- /ij/
im /ẽ/
in /ẽ/
ing /ẽ/

Consonant Sounds[]

b /b/
bb /b/
c /k/
c + [slender vowel] /s/ or /ʃ/
sc + [slender vowel] /s/
sc /sk/
gn /ɲ/
cea /kʌɪ/ or /sʌɪ/
d /d/
f /f/
g /ʒ/
h /ç/
l /l/
m /m/
n /n/
p /p/
r /ɹ/
s /s/ or /z/
ss /s/
t /t/
fea /fw/
gea /ʒw/
hea /çw/
sea /sw/
vea /vw/
final plosive or /z/ silent
final plosvie + /s/ silent
vowel cluster + /n/ nasalisation
vowel cluster + /m/ nasalisation
vowel cluster + /ɲ/ nasalisation


acienne bèr cotta dèr ette feaè gè aha ie lèg emme enne eau pèr èrè esse tie uenne vanne

a b c d e f g h i l m n o p r s t u v

Phoneme Loops[]

Consonant cycle

Cacicienne Consonant Cycle

Various items of Cacicienne's inflectional morphology is dependent upon internal vowel and consonant changes. These changes follow a set of cyclical changes as outlined in the diagrams right.

Vowel cycle

Cacicienne Vowel Cycle

Vowel Conflict[]

Across word boundaries a conflict between identical vowels is resolved by the loss of the first vowel and the insertion of an apostrophe. In cases where the word of the first vowel is short (although this varies on a case to case basis) the space between words is lost.

In the case of definite articles, where a word is vowel initial, the definite article always drops its vowel, inserts an apostrophe and loses the space between words. For example:

"le" + "olmme" = "l'olmme"

Within words (such as during affixation) a consonant is inserted between the two conflicting vowels. In the case of broad vowels this is "-c-". In the case of slender vowels this is "-n-".

On occasions where two vowels placed together during affixation affect the pronunciation in everyday speech, this is mirrored in the word's written form. For example:

"metro" + "a" = "metreaua"



Cacicienne has two genders (masculine and feminine) which are, in general, assigned arbitrarily, except in those cases of natural gender.


Nouns are inflected for case (nominative, accusative, genitive and dative) and number (singular and plural). Definiteness and gender are marked with a prepositional article.

  • Nominative: zero affix
  • Accusative: +ette suffix. Direct objects.
  • Dative: +è suffix. All indirect objects and in certain grammatical constructions.
  • Genitive: +a suffix. Possessor.
  • Plural: +s suffix after inflection for case.

  • Definite article masculine: le
  • Definite article feminine: la
  • Indefinite article masculine: en
  • Indefinite article feminine: an



Apart from certain popular expressions, Cacicienne opts for a strict SVO word order and, despite the use of case, meaning is often understood through syntax rather than morophology.

Person and Pronouns[]

Cacicienne verbs do not mark person; instead this is understood through the common noun or pronoun preceding the verb.

The pronouns are:

1st person singular mie
2nd person singular friendly tie
2nd person singular polite fie
3rd person singular masculine gie
3rd person singular feminine cie
3rd person singular neuter bie
Neutral unne
1st person plural nie
2nd person plural cie
3rd person plural lie

The 3rd person plural is a rare occasion of "c" pronounced as /k/

The neutral form is chiefly used in passive constructions.

When pronouns inflect for case they drop their vowel sound and replace it with the necessary affix.


Tense is denoted through the use of inflectional suffixes. There are five tenses;

  • Present: zero affix
  • Past: +ecie
  • Remote Past: +amme
  • Future: +èr
  • Remote Future: +unne


Aspect is denoted through the use of inflectional suffixes applied after the verb has been inflected for mood and tense. There are six aspects;

  • Still: zero affix
  • Continuative: +là
  • Habitual: +le
  • Perfect Progressive: +lie
  • Perfect: +leau
  • Prospective: +loue


Mood is denoted through internal phonological change, in the manner of the phoneme loops. Consonantal changes are usually (but not always) effective upon the most final consonant of the uninflected verb. Vowel changes are usually (but not always) effective upon the stressed vowel of the uninflected verb.

There are six moods, each requiring a certain number of steps about the phoneme loop. It is not always evident which loop a verb occupies (for example, if the final consonant is /n/). In these situations the loop followed is arbitrary but compulsory.

  • Declarative:
    0 steps about consonant.
    0 steps about vowel
  • Imperative:
    1 step about consonant.
    0 steps about vowel.
  • Interrogative:
    2 steps about consonant.
    0 steps about vowel.
  • Subjunctive:
    0 steps about consonant.
    1 step about vowel.
  • Desiderative:
    0 steps about consonant.
    2 steps about vowel.
  • Conditional:
    1 step about consonant.
    2 steps about vowel.


Adjectives are formed by taking the root of the adjective (or the verb if derivational morphology is employed) and affixing a suffix. Adjectives agree with the noun in terms of gender, but not number or case. Adjectives usually follow the noun, except in cases of high-frequency adjectives (which do not inflect). The description of "vowel final" and "consonant final" refers to the phonology, not transcription. If a vowel grapheme is final but is not pronounced, this grapheme is dropped and replaced with the necessary suffix.

Where the adjective root is consonant final:

  • Masculine agreement: +en
  • Feminine agreement: +an

Where the adjective root is vowel final:

  • Masculine and feminine agreement: +n


Adverbs do not decline for mood, aspect, tense, person or number. All adverbs follow the verb described. All adverbs share the same suffixes:

  • Vowel final: +melle
  • Consonant final: +elle


Cardinal Ordinal
1 unne unnè
2 bi (pronounced /bʌɪ/) bit
3 tri (pronounced /tɹʌɪ/) trid
4 ceade ceadè
5 pente pènte
6 ecse ècse
7 septe septiemme
8 octe octiemme
9 ni (pronounced /nʌɪ/) nèiemme
10 dec deciemme
11 onse onciemme
12 dèdec dèdeciemme


Elbow: "The River"[]

Mie obammecie comme an amniè in sib onèrè. Guedde in guedde, l’amnia pan-sciennan e mie. Sub la strepeau de guencues e àrbors veaulten e fleures hètemullen ceause erèecie tempe unne ieauecie lette.

Mie parrecie cette ma dolorès e onèrès clasten, confittecie panne feauè, re-tiehecie panne contè. Cie lahiecie eaupennelle adde cie eaucecie des mè. E, memme, comme le sol in l’hespè, cie mè seauicecie la màre.