Conlang
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Calaren
Calaris Taven, Taven
Type Fusional
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Head direction Initial
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders Two
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 4%
Statistics
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words 40 of 40
Creator Bibaleebu

Classification and Dialects[]

Phonology[]

Consonants[]

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive p,b t d k
Fricative f,v θ,ð s ʂ h
Affricate t̠ʃ
Approximant j
Flap or tap ɾ

Vowels[]

Front Central Back
High i,y u
High-mid ø o
Mid ɛ
Low ɐ

Phonotactics[]

Writing System[]

Letter ŝ ɸ ĉ ø
Sound ʂ θ t̠ʃ ø

Grammar[]

Nouns[]

Calaren has two grammatical genders. There are two declensions, first and second, and consist, in order, of nouns ending in consonants and nouns ending in vowels. The first declension belongs to feminine nouns, with the remaining declension consisting of masculine nouns. Nouns in Calaren decline for case and number. There are seven declined cases, though the final three are holdovers from historical forms and are rarely used in modern practice. The cases are nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, partitive, collective and vocative. Nouns decline for two numbers, singular and plural. Nouns cases are often signified by additional letters added to the stem of the noun but can also be marked by changing of the final consonant sound into the appropriate mutation given in the following table

Original Consonant Mutated Consonant
t ɸ
s ŝ
c ĉ
n,m v

First Declension[]

First declension nouns are all feminine and have stems ending in a consonant.

Case Change Singular Change Plural
Nominative *-- bros -a brosa
Accusative **~ broŝ ~a broŝa
Genitive -es broses -as brosas
Dative ~i broŝi ~a broŝa
Partitive -ur brosur -uri brosuri
Collective -ar brosar -ari brosari
Vocative -y brosy -ia brosia

* -- represents no change.

** ~ represents final consonant mutation.

Second Declension[]

Second Declension nouns are all masculine and have stems ending in a vowel.

Case Change Singular Change Plural
Nominative -- cara -i carai
Accusative -n caran -na carana
Genitive -s caras -is carais
Dative -ni carani (x)-ia caria
Partitive *(x)-ur **calur (x)-uri **caluri
Collective (x)-ar **calar (x)-ari **calari
Vocative (x)-o caro (x)-io cario

* (x) represents the removal of the final stem vowel.

** whenever a central or rear vowel is both preceeded and followed by an r, the first r becomes either a d or l.

Verbs[]

Verbs in Calaren conjugate for two tenses: past, and present, two voices: active and passive, and two moods: indicative and imperative. They agree in person and number with the subject of the verb which must take the nominative case. Calaren has three different verb conjugations, names first, second, and third, and all the verbs in the language are divided among them. The vast majority of Calaren verbs belong to the first conjugation and a number of verbs can be conjugated according to the rules of either the first or second conjugation depending on intended meaning. All conjugation distinctions are made by removing, adding to, or altering the final letter of the stem. The infinitive form in all conjugations ends in -(v)ĉi. The stem of a verb can be determined by removing the ĉi and the (v) if it is an e, otherwise the final vowel remains..

First Conjugation[]

Active Voice, liseĉi (lis)- to see

Present Change Singular Change Plural
1st Person -or lisor -ores lisores
2nd Person -an lisan -anes lisanes
3rd Person -- lis -ynes lisynes
Past Change Singular Change Plural
1st Person -er liser -eres liseres
2nd Person -en lisen -enes lisenes
3rd Person -et liset -ines lisines

Second Conjugation[]

Active voice, høraĉi (høra)- to hate

Present Change Singular Change Plural
1st Person -as høras -as høras
2nd Person -an høran -anes høranes
3rd Person -a høra -anis høranis
Past Change Singular Change Plural
1st Person
2nd Person
3rd Person

Third Conjugation[]

Active voice, fabereĉi (faber)- to construct

Present Change Singular Change Plural
1st Person **(vx)-a fabra (vx)-as fabras
2nd Person (vx)-an fabran (vx)-an fabran
3rd Person -- faber -as faberas
Past Change Singular Change Plural
1st Person
2nd Person
3rd Person

** (vx) represents the removal of the final vowel from the stem, thus the change from faber to fabr as the functioning stem

Syntax[]

Lexicon[]

Example text[]

"Pitun ŝivenis "David Peterson vali, vali cara drosi" a den faberataven."

"Eu dan paset?"

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