|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
Kosovar (natively Cosoveàn [kɔsɔvɛ'an]) is a romance language spoken by approximately 90.000.000 people in the Republic of Kosovo (Respublica Cosovi).
- 1 General information
- 2 Phonology
- 3 Grammar
- 4 Lexicon
- 5 Example text
General information[edit | edit source]
Kosovar has a fusional grammar not too different from the one of other romance languages, except that it has a complete case system, with 5 cases and 3 declensions, inherited from latin, which have been simplified through the time.
Phonology[edit | edit source]
Consonants[edit | edit source]
|Plosive||p b||t d||k g|
|Fricative||f v||s||ʃ ʒ||x ɣ2|
1 t͡s d͡z are both indicated with z, t͡s is generally found between vowels or after voiceless consonants, d͡z after voiced consonants.
2 x ɣ are bot indicated with h, x is found before or after voiceless consonants, ɣ between vowels and before or after voiced consonants.
Vowels[edit | edit source]
Vowel length is not distinctive in Cosoveàn, but usually, vowels in stressed syllables are long.
Diphthongs[edit | edit source]
Only the falling ones are real diphthong, with the rising ones being composed of a semivowel + vowel. Despite this, hiatus can become diphthongs in unstressed syllables, especially far from the stress.
Grammar[edit | edit source]
Nouns[edit | edit source]
Kosovejanu has three genders (feminine, masculine and neuter). There're four declensions: first declension nouns are feminine, second and third ones are masculine and forth one are neuter. The gender is also determined by the ending of the word: if a word ends in "-a" is feminine, if it ends in a consonant, in "-o" or "-u" is masculine, if it ends in "-e" is neuter. There are five cases: Nominative (subject), Genitive (possession), Dative (term), Accusative (direct object) and Ablative (with prepositions it forms all the other complements).
First Declension[edit | edit source]
As said before, first declension nouns end in "-a" and are mostly feminine. Here's an example of the first declension noun doma "house"
Second Declension[edit | edit source]
Second declension nouns end in consonant and are mostly masculine. Here's the second declension noun puel "boy"
Third Declension[edit | edit source]
The third declension nouns are only masculine. Third declension is dived in two groups: the first group nouns end in "-o", second ones end in "-u".
First Group[edit | edit source]
Here's the first group noun omo "man"
Second group[edit | edit source]
Here's the second group noun didu "finger"
Fourth Declension[edit | edit source]
Fourth Declension nouns end in "-e" and are mostly neuter and are mostly inanimate objects and abstract concept. Here's the fourth declension noun anime "mind"
Adjectives[edit | edit source]
Like nouns, adjectives have three genders (masculine, feminine and neuter). Unlike nouns, they don't have cases and they must agree with the noun only in gender and number.
Declension[edit | edit source]
Unlike the other genders, masculine has three different endings for the singular form, but not all the adjectives have the three forms. Most adjectives that end in a consonant have only the basic consonant ending, while most adjectives that end in a vowel have the two vowel endings. These three endings are: "-ø", "-o" and "-u".
|Masculine||-ø, -o, -u||-i|
The masculine endings depend on the declension of the noun:
- The -ø ending is good for all the masculine names
- If the adjective has only the -u and the -o endings it follows determinate rules: the -u go with every masculine noun, the -o only go with the 3rd declension first group nouns
Negation[edit | edit source]
You can negate almost every adjectives by adding the -nje suffix: bel > belnje "not beautiful". The difference between this two sentences, "Ne seas bel" and "Seas belnje", is basically the emphasis, because they both mean "You are not beautiful", but NOT "You are ugly", this structure, in fact, only negate the adjectives, but it doesn't form the opposite of it.
Adverbs[edit | edit source]
Most adjectives can be turned into adverbs by adding the -(j)e suffix to the basic form of the adjective. If it ends in a vowel, switch the vowel with -e: velos "fast" > velose "quickly".
Verbs[edit | edit source]
Syntax[edit | edit source]
Lexicon[edit | edit source]
Example text[edit | edit source]
Universal declaration of human rights, article 1[edit | edit source]
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Universa omos dretis declaratia, articulo 1[edit | edit source]
Toti omos seri nasen libri de igali en dinitija de dreti. Li tenon rationam de consetiam de tenon aktar une pre otrum en fratias spritjo.