Conlang
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Dagatian
Daġat
Type Fusional
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Head direction Final
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders Masculine, Feminine
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 0%
Statistics
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words of 1500
Creator [[User:|]]


Classification and Dialects[]

Dagatian is an isolated language spoken in Dagatia (a Caucasian country).

Phonology[]

Consonants[]

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m - m n - n ɲ - nj ŋ - ṇ
Plosive p - p

b - b

t - t

d - d

c - q

ɟ - ġ

k - k

g - g

Fricative ts - c

dz - dz

tʃ - ċ

dʒ - dż

Affricate s - s

z - z

ʃ - ṣ

ʒ - ż

Approximant f - f

v - v

ð - ḍ ç - q̇

ʝ - ḥ

j - j

x - x ʁ - ṙ ɦ - h
Trill r - r
Lateral app. l - l ʎ - lj

Vowels[]

Front Back
High i - i u - u
Low-mid ɛ - e ɔ - o
Low a - a

The first symbol in the two tables is always the sound and the second one is how it's written.

Grammar[]

Nouns[]

Nouns in Dagatian may be masculin or feminine and are accorded to 12 noun cases. The words shown to explain you the case endings depending on the gender are her (=man) and lara (=woman).

singular masculine feminine interrogative

pronoun

English
nominative her lara qi / co who / what
vocative here laro - -
accusative herem laram qem / co whom / what
dative heri lare qe / ci whom to / what to
genitive heres laras qis / ces whose / what of
locative heru laru qu where
allative herej laraj qaj where to
ablative herez laraz qez where from
perlative herisa larasa qasa where through
instrumental herag larag qag whom with / what with
equative hereṙ laraṙ qaṙ like who / like what?
prepositional heras larah qas whom / what + preposition
plural
nominative hero lare - -
vocative hero lare - -
accusative heros lares - -
dative heris laris - -
genitive herese larase - -
locative heruj laruj - -
allative herejes larajes - -
ablative hereze laraze - -
perlative herise larase - -
instrumental herage larage - -
equative herere larare - -
prepositional herase larahe - -
  1. Just the primary cases (nominative, accusative, dative and genitive) make the difference between the animate and inanimative interrogative pronoun (who and what).
  2. The interrogative pronouns aren't accorded to any of both gender.
  3. The interrogative pronouns don't have a plural
  4. A masculine noun may be changed into the feminine gender by adding the suffix -ka, e.g. mitilj (=an artist - general/masculine) -- mitiljka (=an artist - feminine)

Definitiness

  1. The neutral definitiness ending -de expresses that the noun is definite, e.g. herde (=the man)
  2. The proximal definitiness ending -ge expresses that the noun is near to the speaker, e.g. herge (=this man)
  3. The distal definitiness ending -ve expresses that the noun is far from the speaker, e.g. herve (=that man)

Adjectives[]

Adjectives are exactly declined like nouns and have the same endings. Adjectives in Dagatian are always before the noun, e.g. bav her (=beautiful man). A definitiness ending may also be added to the adjective, but can't be doubled to the noun, e.g. bavde her (=the beautiful man), but not : bavde herde or bav herde.

Comparative

The comparative is formed by adding the suffix -ne to the adjective, e.g. bavne (=more beautiful). The comparision is done by putting the adjective in the comparative and the compared noun in the equative, e.g. Koliċge va bavne koliċeṙve. (=This car is faster than that car.)

Superlative

The superlative is formed by adding the prefix poj- to the adjective in the comparative form, e.g. pojbavne (=most beautiful). The superlative form can be even exaggerated by adding the suffix -le, but it's very archaic and just used for poetic purposes, e.g. Pojbavanelede lara jaṣt. (=You are the most beautiful woman I've ever seen / in this world...)

Verbs[]

The ground form of a verb is the infinitive present ending in -ak. As exemple for the conjugations I'll take the verb rak (=to do); the stem of this verb is r-. The verb erak (=to be) is irregular.

Indicative

Present active passive causative erak
eu ram ramar raq̇am em
tu ras rasar raq̇as jaṣt
he, ha, ho ra rar raq̇a va
mi rame ramer raq̇me imo
vi r raċar raq̇aċ ḥe
gi ru rur ruq̇ var
  1. It's used to describe actions in the present moment, e.g. Ras tjetradem ġej. (=You're doing your homework.)
  2. It's used to describe repetitive actions lasting til the present moment, e.g. Eṣtam bolkam ṣequ zoru. (=I eat an apple every morning.)
  3. It's used to describe future actions which are scheduled, e.g. Avtobusde ela 14:50'u. (=The bus comes at 14:50.)
Perfect active passive causative erak
eu ratam ratmar ratiq̇am eram
tu ratas racar ratiq̇as eras
he, ha, ho rata ratar ratiq̇a era
mi ratame ratmer ratiq̇me erame
vi rataċ rataċar ratiq̇aċ eraċ
gi ratu rurt ruq̇t eru
  1. It's used to describe actions begining in the past, but lasting til the present, e.g. Vujuvatam hem ṣeqad. (=I've always guided him.)
Recent Past active passive causative erak
eu rateram rateramar raterq̇am eteram
tu rateras raterasar raterq̇as eteras
he, ha, ho ratera raterar raterq̇a etera
mi raterame rateramer raterq̇me eterame
vi rateraċ rateraċar raterq̇aċ eteraċ
gi rateru raterur req̇t eteru
  1. It's used to describe actions in the past having brought a result in the present moment, e.g. Heratera. (=It has rained. - the raining was in the past, but the result is that the street are now wet in the present)
Aorist active passive causative erak
eu rim rimar riq̇am erim
tu ris risar riq̇as eris
he, ha, ho ri rir riq̇a eri
mi rime rimer riq̇me erime
vi r riċar riq̇aċ eriċ
gi ruj rujir rujiq̇ eruj
  1. It's used to describe actions in the past which are finished and completed, e.g. Ris tjetradem ġej. (=You did your homework.)
Imperfect active passive causative erak
eu rax raxar raq̇ax derax
tu raṣ raṣar raq̇aṣ deraṣ
he, ha, ho rat ratar raq̇at derat
mi raxme raxmer raq̇axme deraxme
vi raċte raċter raq̇aċte deraċ
gi ruxa ruxar raq̇ux derux
  1. It's used to describe actions in the past which are ongoing and aren't finished or completed, e.g. Qad elis, rax tjetradem ġej. (=When you came, I was doing my homework.)
  2. It's used to describe habitual actions in the past, e.g. Batar mej riżodat ṣequ zeju parkuge. (=My father used to walk every day in this park.)
  3. Notice clearly the difference between the verb erak in the aorist and in the imperfect : in the aorist the state of being of the subject is completly accomplished, but in the imperfect the state of being of the attribute is accomplished, e.g. Batar mej eri lekar. (=My father was a doctor. - aorist, my father (subject) is dead), but : Batar mej derat lekar. (=My father was a doctor. - imperfect, my father is still alive, but isn't any more a doctor (attribute))
Pluperfect active passive causative erak
eu raterax rateraxar raq̇erax deterax
tu rateraṣ rateraṣar raq̇eraṣ deteraṣ
he, ha, ho raterat rateratar raq̇erat deterat
mi rateraxme rateraxmer raq̇eraxme deteraxme
vi rateraċ rateraċar raq̇eraċ deteraċ
gi raterux rateruxar ruq̇erux deterux
  1. It's used to describe non-accomplished, ongoing past actions occuring before another action in the past, e.g. Ajtes elis, raterax tjetradem ġej. (=Before you came, I had been doing my homework.)
  2. It's used to describe past action which are indefinite in time and subject, e.g. Zeqad zeqi voraterat "Iṣka va pojbavnelede njeco.". (=Sometime someone told "Love is the most beautiful thing in this world.". - but you could also say : Zeqad zeqi vori... ; aorist, but it doesn't sound very familiar)
Remote Past active passive causative erak
eu raterim raterimar raq̇erim eterim
tu rateris raterisar raq̇eris eteris
he, ha, ho rateri raterir raq̇eri eteri
mi raterime raterimer raq̇erime eterime
vi rateriċ rateriċar raq̇eriċ eteriċ
gi rateruj raterujir raq̇eruj eteruj
  1. It's used to describe finished and completed past actions occuring before another action in the past, e.g. Ajtes batar mej derat lekar, studirateri medicinam universitetu. (=Before my father was/became a doctor, he had studied medicines at university.)
Near Future active passive causative erak
eu rami ramir raq̇ami emi
tu rasi rasir raq̇asi jaṣti
he, ha, ho raji rajir raq̇aji vaj
mi ramej ramejr raq̇mej imoj
vi raċi raċir raq̇aċi ḥej
gi ruji rujr ruq̇i vari
  1. It's used to describe near future actions which are already planed and where it is sure they are going to happen, e.g. Elami Rusjaj. (=I'm going to Russia. - with instence that the action of going is near, the flight tickets are already bought etc.)
  2. It's used to describe near future actions which can be conclued by evidences, e.g. Heraji. (=It's going to rain. - the speaker sees dark grey clouds, it's begining to be wet and colder etc. the speaker concludes it by evidences)
Future active passive causative erak
eu rem remar req̇am erem
tu res resar req̇as eres
he, ha, ho re rer req̇a ere
mi reme remer req̇me ereme
vi r reċar req̇aċ ereċ
gi ruje rujer rujeq̇ eruje
  1. It's used to describe future actions, e.g. Elem Rusjaj. (=I'll go to Russia.)
Future Perfect active passive causative erak
eu ratem ratemar rateq̇am eterem
tu rates ratesar rateq̇as eteres
he, ha, ho rate rater rateq̇a etere
mi rateme ratemer rateq̇me etereme
vi rateċ rateċar rateq̇aċ etereċ
gi ratuje ratujer ratujeq̇ eteruje
  1. It's used to describe anterior actions to another future action, e.g. Ajtes eles Rusjaj, eterem Islandju. (=Before you'll go to Russia, I'll have been in Island.)
Future Past active passive causative erak
eu rejem rejemar rejeq̇am dejem
tu rejes rejesar rejeq̇as dejes
he, ha, ho reje rejer rejeq̇a deje
mi rejeme rejemer rejeq̇me dejeme
vi rejeċ rejeċar rejeq̇aċ dejeċ
gi rujeat rujeatar rujeatjaq̇ dejat
  1. It's used to describe future actions in the past, e.g. Kaṣti Peter'e ṣi poslje eleje. (=He spoke to Peter and then he would go/went. - even if in English stylisticly it isn't very accepted to say "and then he would go...", it's very common in Dagatian, since the going occured after the speaking)
Future Past Perfect active passive causative erak
eu ratejem ratejemar ratejeq̇am detejem
tu ratejes ratejesar ratejeq̇as detejes
he, ha, ho rateje ratejer ratejeq̇a deteje
mi ratejeme ratejemer ratejeq̇me detejeme
vi ratejeċ ratejeċar ratejeq̇aċ detejeċ
gi ratujeat ratujeatar ratujeatjaq̇ detejat
  1. It's used to describe anterior actions to another future action in the past, e.g. Poslje djeje mi tvjeḍes, hites he ċupateje gjes. (=Later on, he would give/gave me flowers, after he would have bought/he had bought/buying them. - again the use of the future past perfect in English sounds unfamiliar, but it's completly normal for Dagatian.)

Subjunctive

Present active passive causative erak
eu rum rumar ruq̇am erum
tu rus rusar ruq̇as erus
he, ha, ho ru rur ruq̇a eru
mi rume rumer ruq̇me erume
vi r ruċar ruq̇aċ eruċ
gi ruj rujr ruq̇ eruj

Syntax[]

Lexicon[]

Example text[]

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