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Name: Daineso

Type: Agglunative

Alignment: Accusative-Ergative

Head Direction: Final

Number of genders: 4

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect




Basic Grammar[]

Nouns: No hetarām[]


Case Daineso Example Example Text Meaning


ēkū "near the tree"

ēmaʻana "near the cave"

I went near the tree:

"Iʻili a otu ēkū"

near; to be near; to be near to


īkū "next to the tree"

īmaʻana "next to the cave"

I went next to the tree:

"I'ili a otu īkū."

next; to be next to


ōkū "in the tree"

ōmaʻana "in the cave"

I went in the tree:

"Iʻili a otu ōkū"



ūkū "between the trees" (context: trees)

ūmaʻana alu "between the 3 caves."

I went between 3 trees:

"Iʻili a otu ūkū"




kākū "under the tree"

kaʻana "under the cave" (context: in the deepest part of a cave"

I went under the tree:

"Iʻili a otu kākū"




ānēkū "on top of the tree"

āmaʻana "on top of the cave"

I went on top of the tree:

"Iʻili a otu ānēkū"




gakū "out of the tree"

gaʻana "out of the cave"

I went out of the tree:

"Iʻili a otu gakū"




nākū "to the tree"

maʻana "to the cave"

I went to the tree:



zākū "into the tree"

saʻana "into the cave"

I am going into the tree:



zaku "through the tree"

sezaʻana "through the cave"

I went through the tree:



nēʻekū "across the tree"

nēnaʻana "across the cave"

I went across the tree:



rēhakū "against the tree"

rehaʻana "against the cave"

I went against the tree:



kīkū "with the tree"

kīkaʻana "with the cave"

I went with the tree:



gīku "without the tree"

gīkaʻana "without the cave"

I went without the tree:



nekū "in front of the tree"

nehenaʻana "in front of the cave"

I went in front of the tree:



rehekū "from the tree"

lahanaʻana "from the cave"

I went from the tree

Grammatical Definitiveness[]


(r 'basic noun', rū 'described noun')


[The bicycle moves: Baikikālar tuha]


[The bicycle is big: Nōli rū baikikāla]

[The big bicycle moves: Baikikālarū nōli tuha]


(ø 'basic noun', moh/ ø ˈdescribed nounˈ)


[A bicycle moves: Baikikāla tuha]


[A bicycle is big: Nōli moh baikikāla]

[A big bicycle moves: Baikikāla nōli tuha]

Grammatical Number[]




(ō ˈbasic nounˈˌ moki ˈbasic noun with determinerˈˌ dū ˈdescribed nounˈˌ lohakā ˈdescribed noun with determinerˈ)

[Few bicycles move: Ō baikikāla tuha]

[Those few bicycles move: Moki baikikāla tuha īma]

[Few bicycles are big: Nōli dū baikikāla]

[These few big bicycles move: Lohakā baikikāla nōli tuha mēneˈi]


(no ˈbasic nounˈˌ mau ˈbasic noun with determinerˈˌ mō 'described noun', tenī 'described noun with determiner')

[Bicycles move: No baikikāla tuha]

[Those certain bicycles move: Mau baikikāla tuha īma]

[Bicycles are big: Nōli mō baikikāla]

[These big bicycles move: Tenī baikikāla nōli tuha mēneˈi]

Grammatical Gender[]

In Daineso, there are two Main genders that can be used for most nouns.

The two genders are Natural and Neutral.

The sex-related genders are Masculine and Feminine.

Neuter is used for undescribed gender words like kid, baby, person, house, horse.

Natural is used for all item that aren't man-made like tree, grass, fire, ocean, and mountain.

Masculine is put on Neuter nouns when it is told as a male or male-like, like man, boy, male dog, fireman.

Feminine is put on Neuter nouns when it is told as a female like woman, girl, female pig, or nurse.

Verbs: No vābabo[]

Grammatical Voice[]

Active Voice[]

Past: -a

[I saw the deer: Mila otu keberīr]

Present: -a/ke, -taba

[I see the deer: Mila otu keberīr]

[I am starting to see the deer: Ke milataba otu keberīr]

Present Participle: -taba

[I am seeing the deer: Milataba otu keberīr]

Future: -e

[I will see the deer: Mile au keberīr]

Passive Voice[]

Past: ho, -a

[The deer was seen: Ho keberīr mila iā otu]

Present: neʻe, -a/ ho, -taba

[The deer gets to be seen: Neʻe keberīr mila iā otu]

[The deer is being seen: Ho keberīr mila iā otu]

Future: ho, -e

[The deer is going to be seen: Ho keberīr mile iā au]

Grammatical Person[]

  • these words are used rarely in Daineso, but is included.

First-Person: -lu[]

I- au. otu

We (you and I) katē

We (he and I) ojēte

We (all of us) katuō

We (everyone but you) lautō

[We have toys: Fonalu ojēte no toir]

"We have toys: Fona ojēte no toir"

Second-Person: -kohe[]

You- ou

You (you two)- oulū

You (you three)- oukou

[You have toys: Fonakohe oulū no toir]

"You have toys: Fona oulū no toir"

Third-Person: -inakā[]

He- hehel

She- hamani

They (they two)- mimil

They (they three; them)- mokulē

[They have toys: Foninakā mokulē no toir]

"They have toys: Fona mokulē no toir"

Grammatical Mood[]

Indicative: Realis[]

Past: -a

Present: -a, -taba

Present Participle: -taba

Future: -e

Generic: Realis[]

To describe the generic mood is to put -kanā at either the end of the verb or the beginning of the sentence, depending on syntax.

[The deer is big: Nōli rū kebera/ Kanā nōli rū kebera]

Imperative: Irrealis[]

The imperative mood is basically -jo or -so at the end of the verb or beginning of the sentence.

[Move! Jo tuha ou!]

[Move! Ou tuhaso!]

Grammatical Aspect[]

Present Tense[]

Simple: ke, -a

[I eat: Ke koga otu]

Progressive: -taba

[I am eating: Kogataba otu]

Perfect: ho, -taba

[I have eaten: Ho kogataba otu]

Perfect Progressive: a, -taba *different syntax

[I have been eating: A otu kogataba]

Past Tense[]

Simple: -a

[I ate: Koga otu]

Progressive: hē. -taba

[I was eating: Hē kogataba otu]

Perfect: o, -taba

[I had eaten: O kogataba otu]

Perfect Progressive: ō, -taba

[I had been eating: Ō kogataba otu]

Future Tense[]

Simple: -e

[I will eat: Koge otu]

Progressive: e, -taba

[I will be eating: E kogataba otu]

Perfect: So, -taba

[I shall have eaten: So kogataba otu]

Perfect Progressive: Nu, -taba

[I shall have been eating: Nu kogataba otu]


Example text[]