|This language was once featured.|
Thanks to its level of quality, plausibility and usage capabilities, it has been voted as featured.
There is a series of YouTube video lessons here:
There is a wordlist here: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1UQE_ec0dgqlebF9CDvCD4R4KATh74kRT0EeJwSH4_ak/edit?pli=1
| Name: Dangin Nira
Head Direction: Mixed
Number of genders: 1
Dangin Nira is the official language of Danga (a shortening of Danin Nega - the Second Empire). When the Second Imperiate came to power, they decided that there would only be one language throughout the Empire. So they sent scribes to document all the scattered tongues of the many lands under the dominion of the Imperiate, and found the words that were common in the greatest number of languages. Grammar was simplified and standardized, and irregularities of speech were purged. While the Imperiate sought to popularize the greeting "Danga muhuk glolormin!" (The Second Empire will be eternal!), it is usually superseded in common speech by the far more succinct "syamat" and "usmat."
Lately the Second Imperiate has become aware of a legendary continent to the south-east called Illte, but denies the existence of such a place.
Pronunciation is simple and regular, and follows certain patterns. Do not try to go for a super-foreign accent, but don't just pronounce it like you would English. In this chart, when two IPA symbols appear for a letter, either pronunciation is acceptable, although the left symbol is more used. For the letter H, [ħ] is actually a distinct allophone used when H appears after a consonant. If you are unfamiliar with the IPA, read the following two sections.
|IPA||i, ɪ||e, ɛ||p||b||m||f||v||u||o, ɔ||ɔɪ̯||t||d||n||s||z||j||l||w||ɾ, r||k||g||h, ħ||ɑ|
These consonants are pronounced as in English: B, D, F, K, L, M, N, P, S, T, V, Z. The consonants C, J, Q, X do not occur.
G is always pronounced like in "get," never as in "gemstone." For example, "ginoi" (to come) is NOT pronounced "jee-noy," but "gee-noy."
H is always pronounced, it is never silent. It is also always pronounced separately from other consonants. For example, in Dangin Nira, "sh" would not be like in the English "she." It would be pronounced "suh-huh," but without the separating vowel in between. When H occurs between two consonants, it normally degrades to just a puff of air, like trying to whistle with your mouth wide open. This occurs in such words as "akhmat" (goodbye [response]), pronounced "AHK**-maht," where the asterixes represent the puff of air.
R is always rolled or flapped, like in Spanish, Italian, Russian, and other languages. It is never just glided, as in English, or turned into a guttural sibilant, as in French, German, and, so I've been told, Hebrew.
W and Y are always consonants, never vowels. However, when they occur between a vowel and a consonant, or a consonant and a consonant, they, along with R and L, can turn into pseudo-vowels with pseudo-syllables of their own. But when preceding a vowel, they are always consonants. "Syamat" (hello [initiation]) is pronounced "SYAH-maht," not "SEE-ah-maht." But "wedldu" (somehow) is pronounced "WEHD-uhl-doo," and "slozr" (one says) is pronounced "SLOE-zuhr," and "deydin" (high) is pronounced "DEH-yuh-din."
Vowels are pure, and usually long, though in same instances they are short.
A is ALWAYS pronounced as in "father." AH.
E is usually pronounced like the "ay" in "say," but is sometimes pronounced like the "e" in "bed." EY, EH
I is usually pronounced like the "ee" in "feed," but is sometimes, like in the "-in" of adjective endings, like the "i" in "pin." EE, IH
O is almost always pronounced like the "o" in "rope," but every so often, like in the second "o" in the past participle ending "-olon," like the schwa. OE, UH
U is ALWAYS pronounced like the "oo" in "food." OO
There is only one diphthong: "oi." It is pronounced like the "oy" in "boy." In every other vowel combination, each vowel is pronounced separately. For example, "oa" is pronounced "oh-ah."
In nouns, verbs, and adjectives, and regularly formed adverbs (those ending in -org, see below), stress almost always (there are a few exceptions, see closer below) falls on the last syllable of the root. So to see how a word is pronounced, you take off the grammatical ending of the dictionary form (-oi, -a, -in), and stress the last syllable you find. So "vadanoi" (to be acquainted with) is pronounced "vah-DAH-noy," and "tormana" (glory) is pronounced "tor-MAH-nah," and "umvin" (weak) is pronounced "OOM-veen." Pseudo-vowels (W, Y, R, L before consonants) are never stressed, as they do not count as true syllables.
kalatulanoi (to thank) = kah-lah-TOO-lah-noy
afanutoi (to regret) = a-FAH-noo-toy
hastitoi (to want) = HAH-stee-toy
eyomin (good) = EY-yoh-min
If a verb's root's penultimate syllable is "e", then the stress falls on that syllable. For example:
helikoi (to speak) = HEH-lee-koy
semaroi (to stand) = SEHM-ah-roy
erioi (to listen) = EHR-ee-oy
A verb's stress stays on the same syllable throughout the entire conjugation. For example: valos, valolom, valurnek, valamuzr = VAH-lohs, VAH-loh-lohm, VAH-loor-nehk, VAH-lah-mooz-uhr. The only exception to this is participles. In participles, the stress always falls on the first syllable of the participle ending. So:
valon (loving) = vah-LOHN
uframolon (taught) = oof-rah-MOH-lohn
payamolin (about to help) = pah-yah-MOH-leen
This stress exception overrides any other stress exception. Helikolon = heh-lee-KOH-lohn.
Basic Conversation Edit
|Dangin Nira||IPA||Translation (Idiomatic)||Translation (Literal)|
|Usmat!||/'usmɑt/||Hello (to you, too)!||(response to "syamat")|
|Akhmat!||/'ɑkħmɑt/||Goodbye (to you, too)!||(response to "mahat")|
|Kasaros me!||/kɑ'sɑɾos me/||Greetings!||I greet you! (formal)|
|Kalatulanos me!||/kɑlɑ'tulɑnos me/||Thanks! (for the greeting)||I thank you (formal response)|
|Menvamuzr meb ma!||/'mɛnvɑmuzəɾ mɛb mɑ/||Be smiled upon! (formal goodbye)||May (some)one smile on you!|
|Nekor faskin klara!||/'nɛkoɾ 'fɑskin 'klɑɾɑ/||Until next time! (casual goodbye)||Until next time!|
|Eldu fiyevrubham?||/'ɛldu fi'jɛvɾubhɑm/||What's your name?||How are you named?|
|Fiyevrubhas... (vocative case)||/fi'jɛvɾubhɑs/||My name is...||I am named... (name is in vocative case)|
|Habramum serg.||/'hɑbɾɑmʊm sɛɾg/||Excuse me.||Forgive (to) me.|
|Rov tahurneuk.||/ɾov 'tɑhuɾneɦuk/||Please.||If it pleases.|
|Kalatulanos me.||/kɑlɑ'tulɑnos me/||Thank you.||I thank you.|
|Tahasma sin.||/tɑ'hɑsmɑ sin/||You're welcome.||My pleasure.|
|Kend afanutos.||/kɛnd ɑ'fɑnutos/||I'm sorry.||Very much I regret.|
|Tut helikom meb nen Anglin Nira?||/tut 'hɛlikom mɛb nɛn 'ɑnglin 'niɾɑ/||Do you speak English?||(query) You speak in the English language?|
|Eme niskom?||/'ɛme 'niskom/||What are you doing?||What (object) you do?|
|Payamamum se!||/pɑ'jɑmɑmʊm se/||Help me!||Help me!|
|Valos me.||/'vɑlos me/||I love you.||I love you.|
|Tut valom se?||/tut 'vɑlom se/||Do you love me?||(query) You love me?|
|Tut toleros me?||/tut to'leɾos me/||Do I know you?||(query) I am acquainted with you?|
|Tut hastiturneum niskoi ulkame sev?||/tut 'hɑstituɾneɦum 'niskɔɪ̯ ul'kɑmɛ sɛv/||Would you like to have sex with me?||(query) You would want to do sex using me?|
|Min nasma mok tazo dibdin, kit...||/min 'nɑsmɑ mok 'tɑzo 'dibdin kit/||Your mom is so stupid that...||Your mother is to that extent stupid, that...|
|Beamum serg laske.||/'beɦɑmʊm sɛɾg 'lɑskɛ/||Give me a cookie.||Give to me a cookie.|
|Mom dibdakra.||/mom dib'dɑkɾɑ/||You're an idiot.||You are a stupid-person.|
|Ged nargolis tame.||/gɛd 'nɑɾgolis 'tɑme/||I'm not going to touch that.||I will not touch that.|
|Pisreltos eb sondolokre.||/pisɾɛltos ɛb sondo'lokrɛ/||I see dead people.||I see people who have died.|
|Lorpatamum pate!||/loɾ'pɑtɑmʊm 'pɑte/||Shut up!||Silence yourself!|
|Ema kortev mok?||/'ɛmɑ 'koɾtɛv mok/||What the fuck is that?||What by shit is that?|
|Dangin Nira Abbreviation||Dangin Nira Phrase||English Translation||English Equivalent|
|skm||stukend mardahos||very much i'm laughing||lol|
|lm||lehitos matroi||i must leave||g2g|
|zgp||zgoginolis pesporg||i will come back immediately||brb|
|dzg||durig zgoginolis||later i will come back||bbl|
|kzg||kedab zgoginolis||soon i will come back||bbs|
|dhm||durig helikolis merg||i later will speak to you||ttyl|
|khm||kedab helikolis merg||i soon will speak to you||ttys|
|gf||ged fuvos||i don't know||idk|
|ek||ema/eme kortev||what by shit||wtf|
Plurals are not formed through prefixes or suffixes. Instead, the plural particle "eb" is placed in front of the word that is meant to be plural. For example, "laska" can mean "cookie" or "a cookie" or "an uncertain amount of cookie" or "general cookie-ness," and "eb laska" means "cookies" or "multiple cookies."
Nouns and AdjectivesEdit
To differentiate between definite and indefinite nouns, the article "nen" is used, which translates as "the." There is no indefinite article. "Nen laska" means "the cookie," whereas "laska" can mean "cookie," "a cookie," "cookies," or just "cookie-ness" depending on context.
|Accusative||-e||laske||cookie (direct object)|
|Ablative||-ev||laskev||with/using a cookie|
|Accusative||-inu||eyominu||good (direct object)|
|Dative||-iglu||eyomiglu||to something good|
|Ablative||-inuv||eyominuv||with/using something good|
The nominative case is the dictionary form of the noun or adjective, and is used for subjects, and to follow prepositions. The accusative case is used for direct objects. The dative case is used for indirect objects. The ablative case is used when something is being used by the subject, but is not the object, that is, when something is the instrument. For example, in the sentence "Bobby hit the baseball to the girl with the bat," "Bobby" is the subject (nominative), "the baseball" is the direct object (accusative), "to the girl" is the indirect object, and "with the bat" is the instrument (ablative). The vocative case is used when addressing someone. For example, to say "Hey, you!" in Dangin Nira, you would just say "you" in the vocative case.
To express the agent of a passive verb, the preposition "tas" is used with the accusative case. For example, "You were hit by me" would be "Toldoloam tas se."
To change an adjective into an adverb, change the "-in" ending to "-org." So, "mamin" (fast) becomes "mamorg" (quickly). There are also a number of adverbs that are not based on adjectives, and these can end in pretty much any set of letters, much like prepositions and conjunctions (see below). Examples are "misor" (again) and "bent" (also).
There are also a class of intensifiers. These can accentuate or diminish a verb or adjective. They follow this scheme:
|Basic||kend||very/very much||rand||not that/not that much|
|Extreme||stukend||extremely||sturand||not at all|
|Excessive||torskend||too/too much||torsrand||too little/not enough|
There are four personal pronouns. They are never used as subjects (with one exception, see below); the conjugated form of the verb suffices in providing its ending to let the reader or listener know who is performing the action. They are only used in the nominative after prepositions. The first three persons are as in other languages, and the fourth person translates as the general pronoun "one," for instance "When in France, one must speak French." This is considered separate from the third person, and is also used for generalized nouns, like "everyone" and "anyone," or in any instance where no specific person is the subject. To make them plural, as in nouns, place the particle "eb" in front of the pronoun. For example, "sa" means "I," but "eb sa" means "we." The fourth person is never pluralized.
Personal pronouns are used as subjects only when there is a mixed grammatical person performing the action. In this case, you list the pronouns with "ur" (and) in between them, and then conjugate the verb in the person of the lowest number. For example, "you and he jump" would be translated as "ma ur ka alyom," and "you and I walked" would be translated as "sa ur ma letolos." Notice that the pronouns are listed in ascending order according to the number of the person.
Although the vocative case in anything other than the second person makes little sense, it is included in the others as part of the full declension.
There is also a reflexive pronoun - pata - which is used to refer back to the subject. It translates as the words "myself," "thyself," etc. It declines like a noun.
Demonstrative pronouns (this, that, yon) are discussed in the correlatives section.
Verbs come in five moods, two voices, four aspects, and three tenses, along with the four persons. Again, plurals are made through use of the particle "eb." The fourth person is never pluralized.
INFINITIVE MOOD Edit
The infinitive mood is used to describe actions without referring to any particular person performing it, or any sort of state of completion. It is the "to do" or "to be done" form of the verb, and the active infinitive is the form in which the verb appears in the dictionary.
|Present||Passive||-oabi||valoabi||to be loved|
|Perfect||Active||-etei||valetei||to have loved|
|Perfect||Passive||-atrabi||valatrabi||to have been loved|
INDICATIVE MOOD Edit
The indicative mood is used to describe events which the speaker believes are or wishes to intimate to be factual.
|First||-olis||valolis||I shall love|
|Second||-olim||valolim||Thou shalt love|
|Third||-olik||valolik||He/she/it will love|
|First||-oas||valoas||I am loved|
|Second||-oam||valoam||Thou art loved|
|Third||-oak||valoak||He/she/it is loved|
|Fourth||-oazr||valoazr||One is loved|
|First||-oloas||valoloas||I was loved|
|Second||-oloam||valoloam||Thou wert loved|
|Third||-oloak||valoloak||He/she/it was loved|
|Fourth||-oloazr||valoloazr||One was loved|
|First||-olabis||valolabis||I will be loved|
|Second||-olabim||valolabim||Thou wilt be loved|
|Third||-olabik||valolabik||He/she/it will be loved|
|Fourth||-olabizr||valolabizr||One will be loved|
|First||-etes||valetes||I did love, have loved|
|Second||-etem||valetem||Thou didst love, hast loved|
|Third||-etek||valetek||He/she/it did love, has loved|
|Fourth||-etezr||valetezer||One did love, has loved|
|First||-eletes||valeletes||I had loved|
|Second||-eletem||valeletem||Thou had loved|
|Third||-eletek||valeletek||He/she/it had loved|
|Fourth||-eletezr||valeletezr||One had loved|
|First||-elibtis||valelibtis||I will have loved|
|Second||-elibtim||valelibtim||Thou wilt have loved|
|Third||-elibtik||valelibtik||He/she/it will have loved|
|Fourth||-elibtizr||valelibtizr||One will have loved|
|First||-atres||valatres||I did get loved, have been loved|
|Second||-atrem||valatrem||Thou didst get loved, hast been loved|
|Third||-atrek||valatrek||He/she/it did get loved, has been loved|
|Fourth||-atrezr||valatrezr||One did get loved, has been loved|
|First||-alatres||valalatres||I had been loved|
|Second||-alatrem||valalatrem||Thou had been loved|
|Third||-alatrek||valalatrek||He/she/it had been loved|
|Fourth||-alatrezr||valalatrezr||One had been loved|
|First||-albitris||valalbitris||I will have been loved|
|Second||-albitrim||valalbitrim||Thou wilt have been loved|
|Third||-albitrik||valalbitrik||He/she/it will have been loved|
|Fourth||-albitrizr||valalbitrizr||One will have been loved|
SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD Edit
The subjunctive mood is used to express wishes, desires, and other non-factual ideas (see Subjunctive below).
|First||-urneus||valurneus||I would love|
|Second||-urneum||valurneum||Thou wouldst love|
|Third||-urneuk||valurneuk||He/she/it would love|
|Fourth||-urneuzr||valurneuzr||One would love|
|First||-uldeus||valuldeus||I would have loved|
|Second||-uldeum||valuldeum||Thou wouldst have loved|
|Third||-uldeuk||valuldeuk||He/she/it would have loved|
|Fourth||-uldeuzr||valuldeuzr||One would have loved|
|First||-ageus||valageus||I would be loved|
|Second||-ageum||valageum||Thou wouldst be loved|
|Third||-ageuk||valageuk||He/she/it would be loved|
|Fourth||-ageuzr||valageuzr||One would be loved|
|First||-almeus||valalmeus||I would have been loved|
|Second||-almeum||valalmeum||Thou wouldst have been loved|
|Third||-almeuk||valalmeuk||He/she/it would have been loved|
|Fourth||-almeuzr||valalmeuzr||One would have been loved|
The gnomic mood is used for expressing aphorisms, general truths, or actions and states of being that have no set time associated with them.
|First||-uhus||valuhus||I love (in general, with no specific associated time)|
|Second||-uhum||valuhum||You love (in general, with no specific associated time)|
|Third||-uhuk||valuhuk||He/she/it loves (in general, with no specific associated time)|
|Fourth||-uhuzr||valuhuzr||One loves (in general) / Loving is going on (in general)|
|First||-ubhas||valubhas||I am loved (in general, with no specific associated time)|
|Second||-ubham||valubham||You are loved (in general, with no specific associated time)|
|Third||-ubhak||valubhak||He/she it is loved (in general, with no specific associated time)|
|Fourth||-ubhazr||valubhazr||One is loved (in general) / Being loved is going on (in general)|
IMPERATIVE MOOD Edit
The imperative mood is used for commands. In the third or first person, it is usually termed the jussive or hortative mood in other languages, but it is essentially the same mood; the speaker is just issuing a command to themselves, or to a third party.
|First||-amus||valamus!||Let me love!|
|Third||-amuk||valamuk!||Let him/her/it love!|
|Fourth||-amuzr||valamuzr!||Let one love!/One must love!|
|First||-oabus||valoabus!||Let me be loved!|
|Third||-oabuk||valoabuk!||Let him/her/it be loved!|
|Fourth||-oabuzr||valoabuzr||Let one be loved!/One must be loved!|
Prepositions and Conjunctions Edit
Prepositions describe additional cases for nouns, typically describing a location, though there are other uses. Conjunctions are linking words, that bring multiple words and clauses together into full sentences. There are no specific endings for these words, though they generally do not end in -s, -m, -k, -zr, -a, -oi, or -in, to avoid confusion with other parts of speech.
To indicate motion towards or away from a noun, the prepositions "sit" (to) and "zul" (from) are used. Note that there are two different translations for the English word "to": "sit" indicates motion towards something, while the dative case denotes an indirect object. For instance, "beos merg ade" means "I give a book to you," while "hirkos sit nen Angla" means "I'm going to England." If you want to express another relationship in addition to motion towards or away from, you put the preposition of the other relationship before "sit" or "zul." For example, "letos oli sit nen humnaka" means "I walk into the house." "Letos oli nen humnaka" would mean "I'm walking in(side of) the house," indicating merely the location of the action.
When describing a relationship between two nouns that is not tangible, like "betting on a horse race" or "being there at that time," you cannot use a literal preposition of place, because you are not literally doing something on top of a horse race or at the physical location of a time period. Instead, the word "meb" is used. It is a preposition that describes metaphorical relationships between nouns. For example, "helikos meb nen Doitsin Nira" means "I speak in German."
The most basic conjunctions in Dangin Nira are "ur" (and), "him" (or), and "zof" (but). Additional conjunctions can be found in the word list.
Eb Dangakra count in hexadecimal, because they are smarter and more attuned to technology then we are. The stressing of numbers is irregular, so a pronunciation key is provided, along with the decimal and hexadecimal representations of each number word, and the ordinal or adjectivial numbers (first, second, etc.), which follow regular stress. Note that the ordinal of "am" is "amzin" - this is to avoid confusion with "anin." "Hika" is the word in Dangin Nira for "number."
|zero 0||zero 0||degsir||/'dɛgsiɾ/||degsirin|
|one 1||one 1||ani||/ɑ'ni/||anin|
|two 2||two 2||dan||/dɑn/||danin|
|three 3||three 3||itar||/i'tɑɾ/||itarin|
|four 4||four 4||ufuld||/u'fuld/||ufuldin|
|five 5||five 5||les||/lɛs/||lesin|
|six 6||six 6||ho||/ho/||hoin|
|seven 7||seven 7||keyek||/kɛ'jɛk/||keyekin|
|eight 8||eight 8||rudek||/'ɾudɛk/||rudekin|
|nine 9||nine 9||vir||/viɾ/||virin|
|ten 10||ten A||am||/ɑm/||amzin|
|eleven 11||eleven B||gem||/gɛm/||gemin|
|twelve 12||twelve C||trut||/tɾut/||trutin|
|thirteen 13||draze D||sed||/sɛd/||sedin|
|fourteen 14||eptwin E||bab||/bɑb/||babin|
|fifteen 15||fim F||yoz||/joz/||yozin|
|sixteen 16||tex 10||akor||/ɑ'koɾ/||akorin|
|two hundred fifty-six 256||hundrek 100||akikor||/ɑ'kikoɾ/||akikorin|
|16,777,216||1 000 000||dantok||/dɑn'tok/||dantokin|
|68,719,476,736||1 000 000 000||itartok||/itɑɾ'tok/||itartokin|
For multiple digit numbers other than powers of sixteen, you merely list the numbers of each digit. 256 would be "dan akikor les akor ho," and 4096 would be ufuld anitok vir akor ho." 11 would be "akor ani." Powers of sixteen following "itartok" would be in the same vein: ufuldtok, lestok, hotok, etc. The stress would continue to be on "-tok."
When describing multiples of something, the number acts as an adjective, but does not decline unless it is ordinal. For example, "two rocks" would be "dan gungola," and "five swords" would be "les vindra." Notice that "eb" is not required when describing an exact number of something.
If describing a number of items that are part of a whole, you use the partitive preposition "sot." For example, "give me two of the five flowers" would be "beamum serg dan sirie sot nen les." Note how the number can be used as a pronoun for the noun representing the whole. Keep in mind that this cannot be done with the noun representing the part, because that noun has to be declined, whereas the noun representing the whole will always be in the nominative.
To express words like "once" and "twice," you add -ev to the end of the number. So "aniev" is "once," and "danev" is "twice," and "yozev" is "fifteen times."
In Dangin Nira, there are two types of questions - those answerable by "yes" or "no," and those that must be answered by noun, adjective, verb, adverb, or phrase. The former is asking whether the statement is true or not (this will be called Type I), while the latter is looking for qualitative or quantitative information (this will be called Type II). In both instances, the sentence begins with a question word.
For Type I questions, the sentence begins with the word "tut," which is an interrogative particle, and can be translated as "is it that..." or "is it true that..." The rest of the sentence proceeds normally in the indicative. If the speaker wishes to emphasize that they are inquiring about the validity of a certain part of the sentence, that can be moved to the front of sentence, after "tut," while having it retain its grammatical endings. For example, "Do you like cookies?" is translated most often as "Tut kizrom laske?" but can also be translated as "Tut laske kizrom?" to emphasize that the speaker is inquiring about the cookies more than the liking.
For Type II questions, the sentence begins with an e- correlative (see below) taking the place of the noun, adjective, verb, adverb, or phrase that the speaker is inquiring about. The e- correlative retains the grammatical case of the replaced word if it is a noun or adjective. If it takes the place of a prepositional phrase, then the preposition precedes the e- correlative. For example, "What are you wearing?" would be translated as "Eme lyafkom?" and "What are you doing?" would be translated as "Eme niskom?" while "What is this?" would be translated as "Ema mok yetama?" and "Where are you going to?" would be translated as "Sit elel hirkom?"
Advanced Grammar and SyntaxEdit
General word order is subject-verb-indirect object-direct object-instrument-prepositional phrase. Although each of these is denoted specifically by a word ending or preposition, and a sentence could be understood with totally different syntax, most sentences follow this order, and anything different will sound odd to a Dangakra's ear.
Participles and Compound TensesEdit
There are ten participles, two for each tense (past, present, and future, subjunctive past, subjunctive present) in both voices (active and passive). They are used in compound tenses, and also as adjectives. As discussed in the stress section (see above), participles are accented on the first syllable of their ending.
|Future||-olin||semarolin||about to stand|
|Subjunctive Past||-ulden||semarulden||might/would have stood|
|Subjunctive Present||-urnen||semarurnen||might/would be standing|
|Future||-albin||sistralbin||about to be changed|
|Subjunctive Past||-almen||sistralmen||might/would have been changed|
|Subjunctive Present||-agen||sistragen||might/would be changed|
When forming the participle of a single syllable verb, an extra "o" is added. So for example, the active participles of "sloi" (to say) would be "sloolon," "sloon," "sloolin," "sloulden," and "slournen" (past, present, future, subjunctive past, subjunctive present), while the passive participles would be "sloalan," "sloan," "sloalbin," "sloalmen," and "sloagen" (past, present, future, subjunctive past, subjunctive present). In these cases, stress is on the second syllable, keeping in mind that vowels next to each other are pronounced separately. For example, "sloolon" would be pronounced "sloe-OE-lohn."
There are three series of compound tenses: perfect, progressive, and the near future. The first two are actually aspects, which describe how complete an action is. The perfect aspect describes a completed action (he has killed), and the progressive aspect describes an action that is being performed at the time described (he was killing). The near future is merely an alternate way to express the future tense, usually indicating that the action will be performed soon, hence why it is called the near future. The simple future tense merely expresses that an action has not occurred yet, but will at some point.
To use the perfect tense, the auxiliary verb "moi" (to be) is used, followed by a past participle of your verb of choice. "Moi" can be conjugated in any of the simple tenses described above, passive, active, indicative, conditional, whatever. Each will produce a distinct perfect phrase. For example, "mos semarolon" means "I have stood," and "murnem valalan" means "you would have been loved."
To use the progressive tense, "moi" is used again, followed by a present participle. The progressive tense in Dangin Nira is only used when the speaker is trying to emphasize the fact that an action is underway, unlike English, where the progressive aspect is used rampantly. For example, where in English we say "I am singing," in Dangin Nira, you would just say "syarvos" (I sing), not "mos syarvon." You would only say "mos syarvon" if you were making a point of the fact that you were in the middle of a song right now.
To use the near future, use the verb "moi" yet again, followed by a future participle. English does not have a future participle, so in our equivalent near future, we use the gerund (he's going running) or the infinitive of the verb (he's going to kill). But in Dangin Nira, the future participle must be used, though if translated into English, it would be translated as the infinitive. For example, "mok takrolin" means "he's going to cause pain," though if literally translated it would mean something like "he is about to cause pain." Note that "moi" does not have to be in the present tense: "molok tahalbin" means "he was going to be pleased."
When used as adjectives, they decline as adjectives do. For example, "The running man hit the dead man" would be "Nen kelon risa toldolok nen sondolonu rise." To make a participle into an adverb, change the ending -n to -rg. For example, "menvon" (smiling) would be "menvorg" (smilingly).
Gerunds and Actor/Actee/Tool Words Edit
The gerund is a noun-verb. In many languages (like English), it is identical to either the present participle or the infinitive of the verb. In Dangin Nira, there are separate endings, -oina and -oabna. The former is for the active aspect (doing), and the latter is for the passive aspect (being done). So if "ozoi" means "to create," then "ozoina" means "creating" or "creation," and "ozoabna" means "being created." For this reason, Ozoina is the title of the first book of the Bible in Dangin Nira. That would be Genesis, for those of you who aren't Judeo-Christian. The gerund is used to describe the action as a noun.
Dangin Nira also has specific ways to create words that refer to the various players pertaining to a verb. English does this sporadically, and with no hard and fast rule. In Dangin Nira, there is only one way to express each player. There are words for the actor (the subject of the noun), the actee (the direct object), the recipient (indirect object), and the tool (the instrument). The actor can be male, female, or neuter. They follow this paradigm:
|Actor (male)||-orsa||zezorsa/beorsa||cutter/giver (m)|
|Actor (female)||-osma||zezosma/beosma||cutter/giver (f)|
|Actor (neuter)||-okra||zezokra/beokra||cutter/giver (n)|
|Actee||-evna (-tevna after roots ending in a vowel)||zezevna/betevna||thing cut/gift|
|Recipient||-elkha (-telkha after roots ending in a vowel)||zezelkha/betelkha||receiver of thing cut/gift|
|Tool||-opta||zezopta/beopta||cutting tool (knife)/giving tool|
Not all verbs will use all players.
To express other aspects of the verb when using these words, English normally uses a genitive construction (for example, "the shooting of Liberty Vance," or the "the killer of the two girls is still on the loose.") In Dangin Nira, you follow the gerund or actor/actee/recipient/tool word with the preposition "esk" and then the relevant other word in the appropriate case. For example, if you wanted to say "the killing of the boy," you'd say "nen varmkoina esk nen hebrise," because "hebrisa" is the direct object of the verb.
Noun and Adjective Derivatives Edit
Just as verbs can be transformed into nouns and adjectives as gerunds and participles respectively, so can nouns and adjectives be transformed into other parts of speech. A noun to adjective transformation gives one an adjective describing the quality of the root noun, or an adjective signifying possession of the noun. There are two adjective to noun transformations - one describes an object possessing the quality described the adjective (a character word), and one describing the adjective itself as an abstract noun (an essence word). An adjective to verb transformation yields a quality imparting verb - that is, a word describing the action of making something take on the quality described by the adjective. In each case, a suffix is added to the root of the word.
|Noun||Adjective||-unin||kigya --> kigyunin||prison --> prisonlike|
|Noun||Adjective||-imeglin||tiyata --> tiyatimeglin||cloud --> clouded|
|Adjective||Character Noun||-akra||dibdin --> dibdakra||stupid --> idiot|
|Adjective||Described Noun||-adya||mefin --> mefadya||red --> red thing|
|Adjective||Essence Noun||-omrma||dibdin --> dibdomrma||stupid --> stupidity|
|Adjective||Verb||-intoi||dibdin --> dibdintoi||stupid --> make stupid|
Like any other language, Dangin Nira has its share of prefixes that can alter words. Other languages also have suffixes, but this would only get confusing in Dangin Nira, where the end of the word generally holds grammatical and not lexical information. When a prefix is added to a word, the stress of that word does not change. Normally this does not matter, except where the original word is only one syllable. For example, the word "koi" (to sit) is pronounced "KOY," and adding the prefix "balsi-" (which denotes getting into an action) does not change which syllable is accented - "balsikoi" (to sit down) is pronounced "bahl-see-KOY." Participles follow the single syllable verb rule - the passive past participle of "balsikoi" would be "balsikoalan," pronounced "bahl-see-koe-AHL-ahn."
These are words that substitute for other words, and indicate a certain relationship of the speaker towards the substituted word. The word or phrase that is replaced indicates the suffix of the correlative, and the mood, or relationship towards the speaker, is indicated by the prefix. Those ending in -a are treated as nouns, and those ending in -in are treated as adjectives, and decline as such. The others are treated as adverbs. They follow this table (translations are listed under each word for ease of use):
|Prefix/Suffix||Determiner: -min||Human Pronoun: -sta||Non-Human Pronoun: -ma||Partitive Pronoun: -sir||Possessive Pronoun: -nebin||Locational Pro-Adverb: -lel|
(how much [of])
|Proximal Demonstrative: Yeta-||
(this much [of])
|Distal Demonstrative: Ta-||
(that much [of])
|Extreme Distal Demonstrative: Ikota-||
(yon much [of])
|Existential Quantifier: Wed-||
|Elective Quantifier: Vu-||
(any of/however much)
|Universal Quantifier: Glo-||
|Negative Quantifier: Deg-||
|Alternative Quantifier: Stro-||
(some other amount of)
|Prefix/Suffix||Locational Pro-Adverb: -lel||Temporal Pro-Adverb: -lorm||Pro-Adverb of Reason: -riv||Pro-Adverb of Manner: -ldu||Pro-Adverb of Extent: -zo|
(how/in what way)
(how/to what extent)
(for this reason)
(in this way)
(to this extent)
(for that reason)
(in that way)
(to that extent)
(at yon time)
(for yon reason)
(in yon way)
(to yon extent)
(for some reason)
(in some way)
(to some extent)
(for any reason/whyever)
(in any way/however)
(to any extent/however)
(everytime/at all times)
(for all reasons)
(in every way)
(to every extent)
(for no reason)
(in no way)
(to no extent)
(at another time)
(for another reason)
(in another way)
(to another extent)
Not all of these make sense, and most of them will not see much use, except in certain, specific instances. The prefixes e-, vu-, glo-, and deg- can also preced a stro- correlative, adding their meaning to it. For example, strosta (someone else) can become estrosta (who else), vustrosta (anyone else, whoever else), glostrosta (everyone else), or degstrosta (no one else).
Dependent Clauses Edit
A clause is a full verbal phrase. In most languages, this constitutes a subject and a verb placed correctly with one another, but in Dangin Nira, a correctly conjugated verb will suffice, though various nouns, adjectives, and other parts of speech can be tacked onto it. A clause is simply a complete idea that can stand on its own as a sentence if necessary. When a sentence can be broken down into more than one complete idea, then that sentence has more than one clause. There is usually a main clause (the main idea), and then dependent clauses. There are various ways to incorporate clauses together. The simplest way is using conjunctions. This method is used when the connection between the two ideas is simple - they could simply be two ideas that go together (I ate an apple and drank some water), or one has an influence on the other (I hit you because you hate me). In Dangin Nira, those sentences would be laid out much like as in English: "Ekrolos tsetke, ur delolos smite." - "Toldolos me, arteg wegom se." Notice that in Dangin Nira, whenever a clause ends, a comma is placed there.
In conditional sentences, a specific form is used. The first clause begins with "rov" (if), and its verb is conjugated in the indicative past. After the comma, the second clause begins immediately, with its verb conjugated in the conditional present. If the aspect of the first clause is perfect, then the second verb is conjugated in the conditional past. Compare: "Rov beolos merg eb laske, ekrurnem eb ke." - "Rov totolos beolon merg eb laske, ekruldem eb ke." If the condition and outcome take place in the future, then the first verb is in the indicative present, and the second verb is in the indicative future. "Rov beos merg eb laske, ekrolim eb ke."
Often, a noun, adjective, verb, or adverb cannot be expressed as a single word, but as an entire phrase. For example, "I like that dress that you wore yesterday." Here, "that you wore yesterday" is a clause acting as an adjective. When a noun is replaced by a clause, it follows this paradigm: "[noun] --> [ta- correlative (in the same case as noun)] , [e- correlative (in the case used in the clause] [clause]." A comma separates the ta- correlative and the e- correlative. As an example: "I hit they who hit me" would be translated as "Toldolos taste, esta toldolok se."
When an adjective is replaced by a clause, it follows this paradigm: "[adjective] --> , [e- correlative (in the case used in the clause] [clause]." A comma precedes the e-correlative. As an example, "I want to eat an orange that you own" would be translated as "Hastitos ekroi sulusra, eme meglom."
When a verb is replaced by a clause, it follows this paradigm: "[verb] --> niskoi (conjugated properly) [noun (dative)] [action noun (accusative) OR ta-correlative (accusative)] , [e- correlative and clause (optional)]." For example, "I must do the action that he loves to do, to you" would be translated as "Lehitos niskoi merg nen oive, eme valok niskoi." This paradigm is used in many idioms, such as "I'm taking a walk," which is translated as "Niskos letoine."
Adverbial clauses simply start with an e- correlative, and follow or precede the main clause, depending on which part of the sentence is being emphasized. For example, "He will kill you where he killed everyone else" can be translated as "Varmkolis me elel varmkolos glostroste."
Comparatives and Superlatives Edit
When comparing nouns, adjectives, adverbs, or verbs, there are four words required: "dadu" (more), "ofedu" (less), "oski" (than), and "fwi" (as).
To compare adjectives and adverbs, this form is followed: [V] dadu/ofedu [A] oski [clause]. For example, "I am bigger than a tree" would be "Mos dadu tupin oski fisra," and "I run less fast than you do" would be "Kelos ofedu mamorg oski kelom." For equalities, this form is followed: [V] fwi [A] fwi [clause]. For example, "That star is as bright as our star" would be "Tamin parna mok fwi peltin fwi eb sin parna." Note that when adverbs are used, the verb in the first clause is repeated.
To compare amounts of nouns, this form is followed: [V] dadu/ofedu sot [N] oski [clause]. For example, "You have more cookies than that dog" would be "Meglom dadu sot laske oski tamin bava meglok." Note that "laske" is in the accusative, even though it is preceded by a preposition. For equalites, this form is followed: [V] fwi [kend/rand] sot [N] fwi [clause]. For example, "I want as many rocks as he has" would be "Hastitos fwi kend sot gungole fwi meglok."
To compare actions, this form is followed: [V] dadu/ofedu oski [clause]. For example, "He is blessed less than you are" would be "Nedwanoak ofedu oski nedwanoam." For equalities, this form is followed: [V] fwi kend/rand fwi [clause]. For example, "I walk as little as this woman does" would be "Letos fwi rand fwi yetamin suma letok."
Superlatives are conveyed by the words "studadu" (most) and "stulofedu" (least). For example, "He got the smallest kingdom" would be "Asikolok nen studadu vesinu robalele."
The Subjunctive Conditional Edit
The subjunctive mood is used for statements which, from the speaker's point of view, are not factual. They can be wishes, desires, doubts, or hypotheses. Clauses that follow phrases such as "I wish that..." or "If only..." take the subjunctive, whereas statements such as "I know that..." or "It is evident that..." would take the indicative. Compare these two phrases: "I know that I am a boy." "I wish that I were a boy." English does not have a set subjunctive mood, but one rule it does have is that when expressing a subjunctive concept, the verb takes the past tense plural. In Dangin Nira, whenever there is a subjunctive phrase, the verb is conjugated in the subjunctive mood. For example, "I know that I am a boy" would be "Fuvos kit mos hebrisa," whereas "I wish that I were a boy" would be "Nauservos kit murnes hebrisa." This can also be used to verify or cast doubt on the thoughts of others. For example, "Gomeok kit tsetka mok mefin" would be translated as "He thinks apples are red (and he's probably right)," whereas "Gomeok kit tsetka winurnek syarvoi" would be translated as "He thinks that apples can sing (and what a moron he is)." As a side note, "Elorm tsetka winok syarvoi" (when apples can sing) is the Dangin Nira version of the English idiom "When pigs fly."
Keep in mind that this is not an explanation of all the math covered here, but a guide to how it is expressed in Dangin Nira.
Simple Arithmetic Edit
The simplest math problems require a few words - "ur" (and), "zab" (without), "sohoi" (to yield), "nokupoi" (to multiply), "tespanoi" (to divide) and "tas" (by). The numbers are listed in a row as they are in the equation, and are interspersed with the aforementioned words. For example:
2 + 3 = 5 would be "dan ur itar sohuhuk les." 7 - 6 = 1 would be "keyek zab ho sohuhuk ani."
4 * 3 = [12 -or- C] would be "ufuld nokupuhuk tas itar sohuhuk trut."
[15 -or- F] / 5 = 3 would be "yoz tespanuhuk tas les sohuhuk itar."
Multiplication can be said in shorthand using the ablative - for example, 8 * 2 = [16 -or- 10] would be "rudekev dan sohuhuk akor." The first term must be the one in the ablative to prevent confusion.
Fractions and Exponents Edit
Shapes, formulae, theorems
Variables, functions, complex numbers
Trigonometric functions, radians, vectors
Limits, derivatives, integrals.
Vocabulary are pages with lists of words grouped by a common theme. Wordlists are pages with lists of words in alphabetical order, which is approximately from front to back of the mouth in terms of point of articulation.. Every word in the Vocabulary will appear in the Wordlists, but not all words from the Wordlists will appear in a Vocabulary.
Nen Alegritin Zoloskoina esk Nen eb Kubre ulu Nen eb Bunsa (The Universal Declaration of Human Rights)Edit
Glomin bunsa muhuzr, meb lonoabna, hasinin ur yomsin smhol gospeda ur eb kubra. Eb kerg beubhuk reve ur yimnikre, ur eb zonuhuk bomatheroi stropaterg kersunldu.
Nahad eb Sin (Our Father)Edit
Nahad eb sin, esta muhum oli nen yaranya, nedwin mamuk min fivya. Min roblela ginamuk, min zagda niskoabuk ati nen telkora tonet niskubhak oli nen yaranya. Beamum eb serg eb sinu glofolminu alane, ur habramum eb serg eb sinu eb muzre, tonet eb habruhus eb tasterg, esta eb muzretek inkap eb sa. Ur ged tikhadhamum kit eb katholurneus, zof noryamamum eb se zul zegezra. Arteg mina muhuk nen roblela, nen hedela, ur nen tormana. Arara.
Kasaros Me, Mariad (Hail Mary)Edit
Kasaros me, Mariad, esta kend megluhum falhe; nen Alarsa muhuk stog ma. Dadu Nedwanubham oski glomin eb suma, ur Yeza nedwanubhak, nen gelra ulu min lonana. Nedwin Mariad, Nasmad ulu nen Barsa, sradamum ispi eb sa, eb muzrorsa, yetalorm ur meb nen teka ulu eb sin sonda. Arara.
Tormana mamuk nen Barserg, esta muhuk nen studadu deydin, ur heglana mamuk ati nen telkora, ur eyomin zagda mamuk sit glomin dakra. Eb noromuhus me, eb nedwanuhus me, eb iwuhus me, eb tormanizuhus me. Eb kalatulanuhus me ispi min alamin tormana. O Alarsad, nen Barsa, yaranyunin robarsa; nen Barsad, nen glohedelimeglin Naha. O Alarsad, nen hadorg fumelalan kersa, Yeza, nen Mulmorsa. O Alarsad, nen Barsa, nen Valevna ur nen Nabekhrevna ulu nen Barsa, nen Kersa ulu nen Naha. Gafruhum ispi glosta zrinu eb muzre, mamum koysimeglin eb serg. Gafruhum ispi glosta nen zrinu eb muzre, sangamum eb sinu eb sradevne. Relnubham tas nen Nahe, mamum koysimeglin eb serg. Ispi muhum hadorg nedwin, muhum hadorg nen Alarsa, muhum hadorg studadu deydin, Yezad, nen Mulmorsa, Nedwinuv Tomev, ur tormanev ulu nen Barsa, nen Naha. Arara.
Birsfifa ur Nen Itar Rogla (Goldilocks and the Three Bears)Edit
Molok klara, mepyolok itar rogla, esta zefinolok veshumnake aps nen azlga ulu nen fisrfisra. Mepyolok nahrogla, ur nasmrogla, ur hebrogla. Ur eb legemolok skasorg oli nen fisrfisra. Ani folma, elorm nen loma repreltolok, ur nen eb spana swifolok, nen eb rogla ekrolok eb kinu bogsekrte, ema molok yophalan vrda. Zof nen yophalan vrda molok torskend boilin, fik nen eb rogla kuhmetek niskoi letoine smhol nen eb nadhra ulu nen fisrfisra. Meb hapalin teka, vesin hebsuma, esta fiyevroloak Birsfifad, bent niskolok letoine smhol nen eb nadhra ulu nen fisrfisra. Glen taptrkolok smhol nen fisrfisra, Birsfifa adulyetek nen veshumnake ulu nen eb rogla. Arteg molok wozlpin, olimintetek nen veshumnake. Meb oliminoina, Birsfifa pisreltetek kit molok oli ekravhesa, ur kit nen bogsekrta hekek molok ati nen vruga. Ketek aps nen vruga, ur lamnetek nen yophalanu vrde kit talel hanolok. Nen anin umika molok torskend, torskend boilin. Nen danin umika molok torskend, torskend frizin. Zof nen hanzin umika molok definorg sovklin, ur Birsfifa ekretek glosir sot ke. Ftoven ekretek, Birsfifa letetek tipku nen veshumnaka. Oli ani avhesa, pisreltetek itar depa. Hekek moon wozlpin, ketek ati nen eb depa. Nen anin depa molok torskend, torskend gagrgin. Nen danin depa molok torskend, torskend leptin. Zof nen hanzin depa molok definorg sovklin, zof bent molok tazo vesin kit elorm Birsfifa ketek ati ke, nen depa kub daktetek! Sfen, Birsfifa brandoloak, fik olimintetek nen urluravhese. Oli nen avhesa, mepyolok itar ometa. Masamnetek pate ati glomin ometa. Nen anin ometa molok torskend, torskend gagrgin. Nen danin ometa molok torskend, torskend leptin. Zof nen hanzin ometa molok definorg sovklin, ur Birsfifa masamnetek pate ati ke, ur balsiurluretek mamorg. Meb hapalin teka, nen itar rogla balsibrandoloak, ur eb zgoginolok sit eb kin veshumnaka. Meb olimintoina, eb pisreltetek kit wedma molok lorgalin sag nen ekravhesa. Nahrogla sletek: “Wedsta ekrolok sinu yophalanu vrde!” Ur nasmrogla sletek: “Wedsta bent ekrolok sinu yophalanu vrde!” Ur hebrogla sletek: “Wedsta palg ekrolok sinu yophalanu vrde, ur ekratrek ruzgalorg!” Talorm nen itar rogla pisreltetek nen itar depe. Nahrogla sletek: “Wedsta kolok ati sin depa!” Ur nasmrogla sletek: “Wedsta bent kolok ati sin depa!” Ur hebrogla sletek: “Wedsta palg kolok ati sin depa, ur daktetek ke!” Talorm nen itar rogla hirketek ati sit nen urluravhesa, ur pisreltetek nen itar omete. Nahrogla sletek: “Wedsta urlurolok ati sin ometa!” Ur nasmrogla sletek: “Wedsta bent urlurolok ati sin ometa!” Ur hebrogla sletek: “Wedsta palg urlurolok ati sin ometa, ur hekek mepyok!” Dirvon yetame, Birsfifa balsietek gokilin. Meb pisreltoina esk nen eb rogle, Birsfifa hyarketek, ur keletek kamru zul nen avhesa, ur kamru zul nen veshumnaka, ur kamru zul nen fisrfisra. Ur nen eb rogla deglorm misor pisreltetek Birsfife. Zvanoina.
Nen Itar Vesin Surenka (The Three Little Pigs)Edit
Molok klara, mepyolok itar vesin surenka. Meb ani folma, kuhmetek matroi eb kinu nasmhumnake ur zobrinoi patinu eb humnake. Nen studadu zalin surenka zobrinetek kinu humnake prelorev. Nen surenka ulu azlga zobrinetek kinu humnake pihekrev. Nen studadu agornin surenka zobrinetek kinu humnake razhalev. Ur nen surenka legemolok skasorg meb klara. Zof meb ani folma, ani skoda adulyetek nen eb humnake ulu nen eb surenka. Nen skoda paterg sletek: “Tamin eb surenka kub pisreltok kend toranskorg! Lehitos lamnoi ke!” Fik, nen skoda keletek sit nen anin humnaka, ema zobrinatrek prelorev, ur wokendetek nen voyke. Nen skoda nen aniglu surenkerg kifeletek: “Surenkad, surenkad, ginamum kamru zul!” Ur nen surenka hyarketek: “Pi, ged, meb nen sfifa ati nen tepikata-kata!” Yetama tikhadhetek nen skode gavgadoabi, ur hrsfetek, ur kend hrsfetek, ur stukend hrsfetek, ur kantatetek nen prelorhumnake. Nen surenka krisetek, ur kend keletek sit nen humnaka ulu kin kersa. Fik nen skoda bgorenetek nen surenke sit nen humnaka, ema zobrinatrek pihekrev, ur wokendetek nen voyke. Nen skoda nen dan dadu zaliglu surenkerg kifeletek: “Eb surenkad, eb surenkad, eb ginamum kamru zul!” Ur nen eb surenka hyarketek: “Pi, ged, meb nen sfifa ati nen eb tepikata-kata!” Yetama tikhadhetek nen skode kend gavgadoabi, ur hrsfetek, ur kend hrsfetek, ur stukend hrsfetek, ur kantatetek nen pihekrhumnake. Nen eb surenka krisetek, ur kend keletek sit nen humnaka ulu eb kin kersa. Fik nen skoda bgorenetek nen eb surenke sit nen humnaka, ema zobrinatrek razhalev, ur wokendetek nen voyke. Nen skoda nen itar surenkerg kifeletek: “Eb surenkad, eb surenkad, eb ginamum kamru zul!” Ur nen eb surenka hyarketek: “Pi, ged, meb nen sfifa ati nen eb tepikata-kata!” Yetama tikhadhetek nen skode stukend gavgadoabi, ur hrsfetek, ur kend hrsfetek, ur stukend hrsfetek, zof nen razhalhumnaka mogiretek lupnoi. Ur nen skoda alyetek ur hyarketek ur grongaretek patinu hyenke, zof nen razhalhumnaka mogiretek lupnoi. Zof talorm, nen skoda pisreltetek nen enerala ulu nen razhalhumnaka, ur kuhmetek kub fwastoi mabalo nen enerala ur ekroi nen eb surenka. Mardahon paterg, nen skoda balsiswoletek nabilo nen enerala. Nen eb surenka, pisrelton nen skode smhol nen bifta, nisketek mamorg zukre oli nen zukrlela. Fik, elorm nen skoda kub fwastetek mabalo nen enerala, kub laransetek oli nen zukra, tame nen eb surenka niskeletek. Ur nen itar surenka legemolok skasorg zul talorm. Zvanoina.