| Denari Language
|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
Its main speakers are the Denari, it is spoken mainly in Denar, officially Denari Republic (Kermèshevân Denari / کهرمهٔشهڤآن دهناری). The denari are monotheists, their religion is nishraism, and they accredit in a single goddess called Nishra (literally god in denari). Their religion encourages capitalism and the pursuit of profit, whose purpose is in the commerce practiced by the Denaris.
Denari is used as lingua franca in much of the planet Ēvèsh, having influenced many languages.
Standard Denari has 30 consonants, 26 phonemes and 4 allophones, being largely uncomplexed compared to other languages. The most complex parts of the consonant inventory are the presence of an emphatic voiceless alveolar sibilant (sˤ), or emphatic S, the allophone of the [s] between two vowels, and the presence of uvular and glotal plosives, [q] and [ʔ] respectively.
Each consonant has its own individual letter, except for the consonants [r] and [ɾ], which are represented by the same letter R (ر in Perso-Arabic), the phoneme [l] and his allophone (ɫ), which are represented by the same letter L (ل in Perso-Arabic), and the phoneme [n] and his allophones (ŋ) and (ɴ), wich ae represented by the same letter N (ن in Perso-Arabic).
|Plosive||/p/ /b/||/t/ /d/||/k/ /g/||/q/||/ʔ/|
|Fricative||/f/ /v/||/s/ (sˤ) /z/||/ʃ/ /ʒ/||/x/||/h/|
- The Denari only has a emphatic consonant, the (sˤ), which is and allophone of the [s] when between two vowels or betwen a vowel and a diphtong, and is represented in the Perso-Arabic alphabet by the letter ص. It is a phoneme spelled as a [s], but with a sound near [z]. A similar phenomenon occurs in the Portuguese language, in which the letter S acquires the sound of [z] between vowels.
- The phonemes [r] and [ɾ] are represented by the same letter R (ر in Perso-Arabic). Their uses vary from word to word, syllable to syllable and dialect to dialect, but usually the phoneme [ɾ] is often used more.
- The phonemes [l] and the allophone (ɫ) are represented by the same letter L (ل in Perso-Arabic). The letter L represents the phoneme [l] when it precedes a vowel on the same syllable, and represents the allophone (ɫ) when occur after a vowel on the same syllable. But in some dialects the L acquires the sound of [l] same at the end of the syllable after and vowel.
- In Denari, nasal sounds ([m], [n] and his allophones (ŋ) and (ɴ) are only preceded, on the same syllable, by closed vowels ([i] and [u]), close mid vowels ([e] and [o]), or by the open-mid central vowel ([ɐ]). The allophones (ŋ) and (ɴ) of the phoneme [n] only occur, respectively, after [k] or [g] and [q].
The Standard Denari has eight vowels, being two closed vowels ([i] and [u]), and six open vowels, divided in three acute vowels ([a], [ɛ] and [ɔ]) and three grave vowels ([ɐ], [e], [o]).
Each vowel has its own letter, differentiating the open front vowels from the open back vowels. This prevents words, which would be orthographically the same (varying only in the opening of the vowel), to be confused in the pronunciation. Example:
- Vos / ڤۏس - /vos/ - Number two in English.
- Vòs / ڤۊس - /vɔs/ - Uncle in English.
In Denari, the closed vowels [i] and [u] and the semi-vowels [j] and [w] are respectively represented by the same letters, I / ی in the case of the phonemes [i] and [j], and U / و in the case of the phonemes [u] and [w]. This is because in Denari the letters I / ی and U / و are spoken as [i] and [u] when the vowel is alone or forms a hiatus with another vowel, and are spoken as [j] and [w] when forms a diphthong with another vowel.
Long Vowels Edit
All denari vowels have their long versions, which are represented by the following forms:
- In the Latin alphabet, by the addition of a macrón (ˉ) above the letter.
- In the Arabic alphabet, by the addition of a diacritic (ـِ) below the letter.
When the vowel is long, and precedes another vowel or semi-vowel, a diphthong will not be form, and it will be a hiatus. When the vowel is long but succeed another vowel or semi-vowel, a diphthong may form depending on the accent and diphthong formation rules.
In denari, there are two categories of diphthongs: rising (semi-vowel + vowel) and falling diphthongs (vowel + semi-vowel or vowel + vowel).
Rising Diphthongs: Edit
|Rising Diphthongs||A / ا||Â / آ||E / ه||È / هٔ||O / ۏ||Ò / ۊ|
|I / ی||ia - یا - /ja/||iâ - یآ - /jɐ/||ie - یه - /je/||iè - یه - /jɛ/||io - یۏ - /jo/||iò - یۊ - /jɔ/|
|U / و||ua - وا - /wa/||uâ - وآ - /wɐ/||ue - وه - /we/||uè - وهٔ - /wɛ/||uo - وۏ - /wo/||uò - وۊ - /wɔ/|
There are no rising diphthongs beginning in semi-vowel and ending in closed vowel (/ji/, /ju/, /wu/, /wi/) in Denari.
Falling Diphthongs: Edit
|Falling Diphtbongs||E / ه||O / ۏ||I / ی||U / و|
|A / ا||ae - اه - /ae/||ao - اۏ - /ao/||ai - ای - /aj/||au - او - /aw/|
|Â / آ||âe - آه - /ɐe/||âo - آۏ - /ɐo/||âi - آی - /ɐj/||âu - آو - /ɐw/|
|E / ه||eo - هۏ - /eo/||ei - هی - /ej/||eu - هو - /ew/|
|È / هٔ||èo - هٔۏ - /ɛo/||èi - هٔی - /ɛj/||èu - هٔو - /ɛw/|
|O / ۏ||oe - ۏه - /oe/||oi - ۏی - /oj/||ou - ۏو - /ow/|
|Ò / ۊ||òe - ۊه - /ɔe/||òi - ۊی - /ɔj/||òu - ۊو - /ɔw/|
|I / ی||iu - یو - /iw/|
|U / و||ui - وی - /uj/|
Denari doesn't have falling diphthongs terminated in A, Â, È and Ò.
A hiatus occurs when two adjacent vowels are in different syllables, having non-continuous sound. A hiatus can be formed with all vowels, and will be orthographically identified by various rules of acentuantion and location of the vowel.
- When the vowel is a long vowel, it will always form a hiatus with the previous vowel but not with the next vowel or semi-vowel. Example: Lāsāi / لاِصاِی - [laːˈsˤaːj], meaning the declension of the word lāsa in the genitive case, don't have a hiatus, but the word tuērí / توهریَ - [tu.eːˈɾi] meaning portal, door, gateway, have the hiatus between a short vowel ([u]) and a long vowel ([eː]). Because of this, tuēri is not pronounced [tweːˈɾi] but [tu.eːˈɾi].
- When the two consecutive vowels (except when the second vowel is [i] or [u], because they have its own rules) are succeded by the stresseded syllable of the word, they will always form a hiatus, so there will be no graphical accentuation. Example: In the word aoní / اۏنیَ - [a.oˈni], the letter O isn't accentuated, because a gap will always form when two vowels are succeeded by the stressed syllable [ˈni].
- When the second vowel of two consecutive vowels is [i] or [u], the letters I and U will always be accentuated to identify the sounds of [i] and [u], not the sounds of [j] and [w] in their respective letters, and to indicate that the syllable in which these vowels are always the stressed syllable of the word. Exemple: In the words zhaís (ژایَس) / zhaír (ژایَر) - [ʒaˈis] / [ʒaˈiɾ], meaning the adjective bad, in the masculine and feminine forms, the letter I is accentuated, to indicate the hiatus, the sound of [i] and not [j], and the stresseds sylables of the words [ˈis] and [ˈiɾ], because when there is a hiatus and the second vowel is [i] or [u], they will always be in the stressed syllable if they are one of the last three syllables of the world.
- There will always be hiatus when there is vowel succeded by A, Â, È and O, and not accentuated, except when one of the vowels is stressed and is accentuated according to the accentuation rules. Ex: maèk / ماهٔک - [maˈɛk], meaning drink.
- When there are three consecutive vowels letters in a word, there may be two situations: In the first situation, the first letter is a vowel, the second is a semi-vowel ([j] and [w]) and the third is another vowel. In this case, the first and second letters form a hiatus, and the second and third letters form a growing diphthong. Ex: naia / نایا - [ˈna.ja], meaning woman. In the second situation, all letters are vowels, or the last letter is a semi-vowel, and a falling diphthong is maked by the last two vowel letters. Ex: aoneai / اۏنهای - [a.o.neˈaj], the delcension in the locative case of the world aoní.
Optional Hiatus Edit
Words that begin or with two consecutive vowels lerters may have optional gaps, in which, if there is no accent that indicates the tone, and hence the occurrence of the hiatus, the two letters can be pronounced both as hiatus and diphthong.
- The word iad / یاد, which means all in denari, can be pronounced both as [jad] and as [iˈad]. This is because, being a rising diphthong at the beginning of the word, there is no specific pronunciation rule.
Denari has its own alphabet, but in this text the words will be written in the Latin alphabet and in a modified Perso-Arabic alphabet (because they are the ones that best represent the Denari phonemes).
|Latin||Arabic||IPA||Exemple word||Translation to English|
|A||ا||[a]||Aiar - ایار - /aˈjaɾ/||Mother|
|Â||آ||[ɐ]||Lávân - لاَڤآن - /ˈla.vɐn/||Money|
|B||ب||[b]||Borhâm - بۏرحآم - /boɾˈhɐm/||Body|
|P||پ||[p]||Peshvar - پهشڤار - /peʃˈvaɾ/||Daughter|
|T||ت||[t]||Tarser - تارسهر - /taɾˈseɾ/||Hope|
|C||ث||[t͡s]||Acèp - اثهٔپ - /aˈt͡sɛp/||Wind|
|J||ج||[d͡ʒ]||Janai - جانای - /d͡ʒaˈnaj/||Tree|
|Ch||چ||[t͡ʃ]||Chāra - چاِرا - /ˈt͡ʃaːɾa/||Tree trunk|
|X||خ||[x]||Xâs - خآس - /xɐs/||Yes|
|H||ح||[h]||Haspe - حاسپه - /ˈhas.pe/||Truth|
|E||ه||[e]||Ehrân - هحرآن - /ehˈɾɐn/||Gift|
|È||ۀ||[ɛ]||Évis - هَٔڤیس - /ˈɛ.vis/||Island|
|D||د||[d]||Emād - هماِد - /eˈmaːd/||Flower|
|Z||ز||[z]||Zemân - زهمآن - /zeˈmɐn/||Food|
|Zh||ژ||[ʒ]||Zhad - ژاد - /ʒad/||Four|
|R||ر||[r] and [ɾ]||Rervaz - رهرڤاز - /reɾˈvaz/||Emotion|
|S or Ss||س||[s]||Smessap - سمهساپ - /s̩meˈsap/||Knife|
|Sh||ش||[ʃ]||Sharpa - شارپا - /ˈʃaɾ.pa/||River|
|S||ص||(sˤ)||Lāsa - لاِصا - /ˈlaːsˤa/||Night|
|'||ع||[ʔ]||Ar'í - ارعیَ - /arˈʔi/||Day|
|K||ک||[k]||Kōbèk - کۏِبهٔک - /koːˈbɛk/||House|
|G||گ||[g]||Garj - گارج - /gaɾd͡ʒ/||Object|
|L||ل||[l] and (ɫ)||Alèl - الهٔل - /aˈlɛɫ/||Book|
|M||م||[m]||Mēso - مهِصۏ - /ˈmeːsˤo/||Male man|
|N||ن||[n], (ŋ) and (ɴ)||Nânvar - نآنڤار - /nɐnˈvaɾ/
Ângara - آنگارا - /ɐŋˈga.ɾa/
Tunq - تۏنق - /tuɴq/
Thanks, thank you
|Q||ق||[q]||Ēshaq - هِشاق - /eːˈʃaq/||Perfume|
|F||ف||[f]||Ferse - فهرسه - /ˈfeɾ.se/||Language / Idiom|
|V||ڤ||[v]||Vavta - ڤاڤتا - /ˈvav.ta/||Fire|
|U||و||[u] and [w]||Ouluz - ۏولوز - /owˈluz/||Strenght|
|O||ۏ||[o]||Aoní - اۏنیَ - /a.oˈni/ˈ||Person / Man|
|Ò||ۊ||[ɔ]||Óhèd - ۊَحهٔد - /ˈɔ.hɛd/||Chair|
|I||ى||[i] and [j]||Vīnia - ڤیِنیا - /ˈviːnja/||Alcohol|
- The "Ss", (س in Perso-Arabic alphabet), is used between two vowels, to represent the phoneme [s].
- The ص is written as S in the Latin alphabet, but has a sound of (sˤ). It is not used elsewhere, only between two vowels.
Accentuation Rule Edit
Denari employs graphic accentuation in the vast majority of words. Even if a word in the nominative case is not accented, it is likely to be accentuated in some of its declension.
The rules of accentuation of the Denari language are extremely easy, and there are only tree:
- When a word ends in a vowel, the stressed syllable will be accentuated when the word is oxytone or proparoxytone.
- When a word ends in a consonant, the stressed syllable will be accentuated when the word is proparoxyton or paroxyton.
- When the stressed syllable of a word, regardless of its location, is formed by the vowels I and U, when short vowels, forming hiatus with another vowel, the vowel will be accentuated.
These two rules exist because it is more common for a word ending in a vowel to be paroxyton than oxytone, while it is more common for a word ending in a consonant to be oxytone.
|Vowel ended word||Yes||No||Yes|
|Consonant ended word||Yes||Yes||No|
|I and U forming hiatus word||Yes||Yes||Yes|
The graphic accent always falls on the vowel of the stressed syllable.
While in the Arabic alphabet the graphic accent is represented by a diacritic (ـَ) above the letter, in the Latin alphabet is more complex to represent the grapich accent, because the letters Â, Ò and È use accents to distinguish their sounds from the sounds of the letters A, O and E. So, in the Latin alphabet, the graphical accents are:
- Use of (^) above E and O to indicate, respectively, the sounds [ˈe] and [ˈo]
- Use of (`) above Â, to indicate the sound [ˈɐ].
- Use of (´) above A, Ò, È, I and U, to indicate the sounds ['a], ['ɛ], ['ɔ], ['i] and ['u]
Pronouns in the Denari language are simple when compared to other languages. The denari has one pronoun for each person of the discourse, in the singular and in the plural.
In the first person, we have, in the nominative case, from which the pronouns in the other cases are derived, the pronouns ast / است (first person singular) and ahrā / احراِ (first person plural).
In the second person, we have, in the nominative case, the pronouns nor / نۏر (second person singular) and avut / اڤؤت (second person plural). Denari does not have the T - V distinction, and the use of pronouns does not depend on the relationship between the speakers or speech formality, but rather whether the speaker is speaking with one or more interlocutors. Both are used in both formal and informal speech, and اڤؤت / avut is as used as نور / nor, depending on the number of the interlocutor.
In the third person, pronouns differ in numbers as well as in gender. The denari has, in the third person singular the pronouns sas / ساس (he) and sar / سار (she) in the nominative case. The denari has no neutral gender, so there is no neutral pronoun. It also has no third-person pronoun for inanimate or non-human objects. As in the Romance languages, the masculine and feminine pronouns of the third person plural are the plural of the third-person pronouns of the singular, in the case saes / ساهس (they masculine) and saer / ساهر (they feminine) in the nominative case.
Denari, except in the nominative case, has a reflexive pronoun for the third person, being vet / ڤهت in the accusative case.
The Denari has nominative pronouns (indicating subject), accusative (indicating object), dative (indicating the sufferer of an action), instrumental (indicating company, instrument and agent of an action in the passive voice), ablative (indicating from the pronoun), possessive (indicating possessiveness), locative pronoun (indicating that the pronoun is the location of something), demonstrative, indefinite, relative and interrogative pronouns.
Nominative Pronouns Edit
Nominative pronouns indicate the pronoun as subject of the sentence. Denari is a pronoun-droping language, that is, the nominative pronoun can be cancealed because the verb conjugates according to the subject and indicate the subject. Since the Denari is an SVO language, the nominative pronoun always appears in front of the verb at the beginning of the sentence.
|Pronoun||Pronoun in English||Latin alphabet||Perso-Arabic alphabet|
|1st P. Sg.||I||Ast||است|
|1st P. Pl.||We||Ahrā||احراِ|
|2nd P. Sg.||You (sg.)||Nor||نور|
|2nd P. Pl.||You (pl.)||Avut||اڤؤت|
|3rd P. Sg. Male / 3r P. Sg. Female||He / She||Sas / Sar||ساس / سار|
|3rd P. Pl. Male / 3r P. Pl. Female||They (masc.) / They (fem.)||Saes / Saer||ساهس / ساهر|
Acusative Pronouns Edit
The accusative pronouns indicate the pronoun as direct object. Despite the fact that Denari is normally an SVO language, in the case of the accusative pronouns, they may precede the verb, after the subject, forming an SOV sentence.
The denari has the reflexive accusative pronoun of third person vet / ڤهت, which indicates that the subject also suffers the action. It is used to refer both to the third person masculine and feminine subject in the singular as in the plural.
|Pronoun||Pronoun in English||Latin alphabet||Perso-Arabic alphabet|
|1st P. Sg.||Me||Esm||هسم|
|1st P. Pl.||Us||Ahrē||احرهِ|
|2nd P. Sg.||You (sg.)||Ne||نه|
|2nd P. Sg.||You (pl.)||Avet||اڤهت|
|3rd P. Sg. Male / 3rd P. Sg. Female||Him / Her||Ses / Ser||سهس / سهر|
Exemples (underlined null subject in English): Edit
Dative Pronouns Edit
The dative pronouns indicate the pronoun as indirect object, that is, the one who is the recipient of the action.
As with accusative pronouns, a sentence with a dative pronoun can be SOV. There are also two ways to have a SVO phrase with a dative pronoun. In the first, the dative pronoun comes after the direct object of the sentence. In the second form, the dative pronoun precedes the direct object.
|Pronoun||Pronoun in English||Latin alphabet||Perso-Arabic alphabet|
|1st P. Sg.||To Me|
|1st P. Pl.||To Us|
|2nd P. Sg.||To You (sg.)|
|2nd P. Sg.||To You (pl.)|
|3rd P. Sg. Male / 3rd P. Sg. Female||To Him / To Her|
|3rd P. Pl. Male / 3rd P. Pl. Female||To Them (masc.) / To Them (fem.)|
Instrumental Pronouns Edit
Instrumentive pronouns indicate the pronoun as company or instrument of the subject, and is the agent of the sentence in passive voice.
The instrumental pronoun, unlike the accusative and dative pronouns, will always come after the verb, forming an SVO order, even though there is an accusative or dative pronoun assuming a SOV order in the same sentence. It will always come after the object of the sentence, often times being a word in the locative case. In denari there isn't order with someone in one place, but the order in a place with someone. Even if the object, when it is a dative or accusative pronoun, is before the verb, the comitative pronoun continues after the verb. Usually an instrumental pronoun means with someone/instrument, indicating both company and the use of an instrument. But when used in a passive sentence, it indicates the agent of the action, and can singify either with the instrument / company or by / because the instrument / company. Some postpositions are used to indicate a different meaning from the with the instrument / company:
- Mòrd (مۏرد) - By
- Mòrzârd (مۏرزآرد) - Because of
- Mòrtāz (مۏرتاِز) - Via / By way of
- Mòrdegaf (مۏردهگاف) - Through
- Xâste (خآسته) - Without
- Shaz (شاز) - With (little used)
|Pronoun||Pronoun in English||Latin
|1st P. Sg.||With / By Me|
|1st P. Pl.||With / By Us|
|2nd P. Sg.||With / By You (sg.)|
|2nd P. Sg.||With / By You (pl.)|
|3rd P. Sg. Male / 3rd P. Sg. Female||With / By Him / With By Her|
|3rd P. Pl. Male / 3rd P. Pl. Female||With / By Them (masc.) / With / By Them (fem.)|
Ablative Pronoun Edit
The ablative pronouns indicate the pronoun as the origin of the movement away from something in relation to the subject. Like the comitative pronoun, the ablative pronoun will always remain after the verb, forcing an SVO order, even if it is related to an accusative or dative pronoun that precedes the verb in a SOV order.
|Pronoun||Pronoun in English||Latin alphabet||Perso-Arabic alphabet|
|1st P. Sg.||Form Me|
|1st P. Pl.||From Us|
|2nd P. Sg.||From You (sg.)|
|2nd P. Sg.||From You (pl.)|
|3rd P. Sg. Male / 3rd P. Sg. Female||From Him / From Her|
|3rd P. Pl. Male / 3rd P. Pl. Female||From Them (masc.) / From Them (fem.)|
Possessive Pronouns Edit
Possessive pronouns indicate a relation of possession of an object to the pronoun.
Possessive pronouns mostly precede the object they possess, and agree on gender and number with the object, acting as a possessive determinant. When accompanied by the object, the possessive pronoun never declines in grammatical case, because it is the object that decline.
But when in the same sentence a possessive pronoun is used as the determinant of an object, another possessive pronoun can be used without an object, since it is understood that it has the same object or another object that has the same denomination and is related to subject matter. In this case, when the possessive pronoun comes with no object that it has, it may decline according to the grammatical case it is in.
- - In this case, the possessive pronoun ânra / آنرا is used as a determinant, and indicates the possession of the object aiar / ایار (mother).
- - In this case, both are used as determinants, but, the subject of the sentence - ânra aiar -, or the object - árnar , can be repleced by a single possessive pronoun, like in the next sentence.
- - In this case, the possessive pronoun árnar / اَرنیِر is used without a possessed object, becouse it can be understood that it refers to a mother, not the mother that is the subject, and is possessed by the speaker, but a another mother, maybe the same mother (it depends on the context, but assuming it is another mother), that is possessed by a woman unreported in this sentence. Also, in this sentence, the possessive pronoun decline in the accusative case.
In the first and second person (both singular and plural), the posessive pronoun agrees on gender and number with the object, there being two posessive pronouns (one masculine and one feminine) for each person and number, with each posessive pronoun (masculine or feminine) presenting singular and plural form.
As in the nominative case, third-person pronouns have masculine and feminine forms, and third-person plural pronouns are the plural of third-person singular, third-person possessive pronouns, singular and plural, present four forms in singular, two masculine and two feminine, each of two forms agreeing with the two denari genders of the object. Pronouns also have plural forms. Then, in addition to agreeing on the gender and the number of the object, the third-person pronouns indicate the gender and the number of the possessor. Then, in the singular, there are four possessive pronouns in the third person singular and four in the third person plural.
Reflexive possessive pronouns are only used when the possessor of the object has already been referred in the text, and can be either subject or direct / indirect object in the third person..
|Pronouns in Singular Form||Pronoun in English||Latin alphabet||Perso-Arabic alphabet|
|1st P. Sg.||My|
|1st P. Pl.||Our|
|2nd P. Sg.||Your (sg.)|
|2nd P. Sg.||Your (pl.)|
|3rd P. Sg. Male / 3rd P. Sg. Female||His / Her|
|3rd P. Pl. Male / 3rd P. Pl. Female||Their (masc.) / Their (fem.)|
Declination of Possessive Pronoun when without possessed object: Edit
|Case||1st P. Sg.||1st P. Pl.||2nd P. Sg.||2nd P. Pl||Refl.||3rd P. Sg.||3rd P. Pl|