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Template:Djado

Djado
Type Analytic, minimally
Alignment SV0
Head direction initial
Tonal No
Declensions No
Conjugations No
Genders No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 0%
Statistics
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words of 1500
Creator Venndying

As an isolating analytic language, Djado uses an intuitive word order and stress patterns to repurpose words in a way that reduces grammar-only words to a minimum. Common content words are plugged into defining slots and give novel uses. This leads to a vast array of grammatical options, but, do note, they are only options, not requirements.

Caveat: This is an experiment in just how minimalist a language can be. Finding common words in defined but novel slots may be too difficult for some to sort out those from their expected uses. Also, they may find there is not enough corroborating material around the them.

Still, look down the list of categories. There is a logic to the word ordering that can become intuitive to the speaker because it is based on a “best” theory on how most natlangs are grammatically ordered. One over-arching function flows into another. (Though not my theory, the following is my interpretation. To keep it as simple in its presentation, I will not go into too much detail.)


Classification and Dialects[]

Phonology[]

Consonants[]

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n nj q
Plosive b p d t dj tj g k ?
Fricative v f z s zj sj r x H
Affricate
Approximant w j h
Trill r
Flap or tap
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l lj L
Lateral flap

It's frustrating being restricted to the English keyboard. I would rather type the IPA velar nasal than the inappropriate [q], but I refuse use the [ng] digraph. [zj, sj, dj, tj] are more appropriate than using [zh, sh, ch] as the [h] should be used to mark aspiration. my [h] isn't because the glottal fricative-approximate does special duty in Djado, along with [?] and [L]. Other may be added later.

Vowels[]

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
High i u
Near-high
High-mid
Mid e _ o
Low-mid
Near-low
Low æ a

Phonotactics[]

Syllables are self-segmenting.

Writing System[]

Letter
Sound
Letter
Sound
Letter
Sound

Grammar[]

Functional shift - is a key part of Djado. Any word has the potential to fill any grammatical slot. Rather than a morpheme, it is the word order and stress pattern that differentiates its use in the slots.
- particles - grammar is shown by words that have been repurposed whenever possible. There is an absolute minimum, closed system of particles that weren't originally words. And the particles are like words in that they can be thoroughly repurposed.

Predication and Predicate - are the most fundamental examples, as they are what constitutes the main clause, the sentence at its most basic. - Predication - the most relevant of the noun phrase of the main clause. The default one is the subject. It is to some degree the agent, effecting the predicate. - Predicate - the sentence as a microcosm that links directly to the verb. The macrocosm of greater detail of its type of information can be placed outside of the main clause.

Phrases - Both the predication and predicate have smaller units and they have the same word order. XMHR → Noncontent word(s) Modifier(s) Head(s) Rating particle(s)

Stress - is used to differentiated these sub-units.
[;] before the written word marks the head;
[‘] before the one marks a modifier;
[ ] means noncontent word are unmarked for stress.
This, of course, is how English normally distinguishes them.
(Why not simply use capital letters to mark the head? Not only is it quicker to type a semicolon than a capital, the [;] is on the home row of the keyboard. Admittedly, though, less relevant with cell phones. The ones less likely to be given emphasis were chosen.)

Note - stress particle - can be used to ‘change’ or emphasize the stress of a word without actually changing the stress. It can also be used have an stress particle place to put intonation, allowing for less ambiguity and more nuance.

Schwa words - are some of the most frequently used words in Djado.
- zj - stress particle -
- H - voice particle -

- d - scope -
- p - parser -
- ? - slot-holder -
- L - discourser -

(/-w/, /-j/ - as suffixes are also “special” derivators, used to help prevent the phonemes pronouns from being incoming weakened and converted into suffixes)
- j, i - I,me - 1p
- w, u - you - 2p
- h, a - she,he,it, ... - 3p, relevent
- o - she, he, it, ... - 4p, less relevant
- e - this, that, yon -

- æ - topic - most relevent
- s - direct object - case, pronoun

- k - wh-word, some/any -

- r - true -
- v - false -
- q - uncertain -

- l - Yes -
- n - No -
- ln - maybe -

- tj - null -

- x - number -

- b - away, from -
- t - at, to -
- sj - 2d, on -
- dj - 3d, in -

- f - path, length -
- g - gap -
- z - ordinal -

(Some more of the most frequent words can be added by using what in writing looks like consonant clusters. Taking [d] as an example:
- dn, dl, dm, ds, etc.)

Pronouns - are more anaphoric, back referencing, than in other languages. When a new person, place or thing is introduced, it is recommended that it be given all of its relevant details - like number, distance or relation to 1p ans 2p. But after that, the pronoun only has to have its one identifying syllable. It is, in effect, a pronoun of a pronoun. Adding back those details would be emphasizing them. (For these details, see )

Inclusive and Exclusive - The default is that without the addition of the 2p word, it is not included in the referring.
- 1p - I, me, we, us - the creator of the sentence.
- 2p - you - the target of the sentence, who it is meant for.
- 3p - he, she, him, her, it - is not part of 1p and 2p’s the current relationship.
- 4p - he, she, him, her, it - like 3p except 4p is more incidental, of lower relevancy.
↓ - 1i - This, that, yon - this indicator does not have to be further specified in these three wys or o]in other ways.
- [ ' ] - on 1p, 2p, 3p or 4p modifies it into "this", "that", "yon", etc.
- [ ] - Article -

Pro-dropping - Pronouns can be dropped if there is low risk of being misunderstood.

Topic - is what can and is most readily dropped, as it has the greatest relevance. When it is not the noun phrase in the predication, it comes immediately before the predication: before the noncontent or content words,
[ ] - noncontent word that marks the topic.
[‘] - modifier that fills an entire slot. It cand be doubled to keep it from being misunderstood.
[;] - a pseudo-pronoun. It is used to track it through the paragraph(s). It is recommended that the speaker learn to use it instead of 3p when it is the topic.

Parser - breaks any link that can be perceived between to words, phrases, etc. It can be used here to separate the predication and predicate.

Subject Commentary - is not part of the predication per se; it is the predication’s modification of the predicate. It is for the subject’s evaluation of the coming predicate, not the speaker’s. It is opposite of Verb Commentary, as it is a generalization, but like it, it is divorced from tense. Any word may theoretically fill this slot, but here are some of the basic ones:
- scientifically - ontological,
- across cultures - ontological
- inside my culture - epistemic
- outside my culture - epistemic
- typically - typical
- generally - generic
- traditionally -
- etiquette says -
- etc. -
Note! They can be made more nuanced by using a system that marks °degrees. They can be combined with one enough, too.

Predicate proper - are the microcosm of the sentence.

Note - Sentence Adverbs - are the macrocosm of the verb phrase modifiers. It allow for more information in greater detail. Placement relative to the rest of the sentence determines whether it is background (default), foreground, or highlighted for (de)emphasis.

Side note - Less careful, less relevant - These three words divide up the following modals three way between themselves.
- can -
- may -
- might -

True, Unknown and False -
- true - real
- unknown -
- false - not real
(NOTE! Though it seems to be 2/3rds of a truth table, Djado’s expression is based on the intuition that informs those tables in all languages. Once the learner becomes familiar with the use of T/U/F it will become intuitive.)

Epistemic - is at the border between the subject particle and modality. Here, the speaker takes that evaluatiive word of the subject (it may be themself) and adds their Y/M/N evaluation. It can be interpreted as whether they see it as trustworthy information.

Evaluation - doesn’t relate to the subject particle. It is just the speaker’s Y/M/N evaluation.
- parser - is placed between the subject particle and the evaluation to separate them, ending the influence of the subject.

Presupposition and Statement -
- Mood - is the joining of two clauses into one sentence. The one modifying the other is the presupposition. It can be dropped because it is assumed to be understood and, so, need not be mentioned; or it may be withheld for various reason, letting the 2p make the assumptions.

In Djado, the T, U or F of the preposition is added to the T, U or F of the statement at the juncture where they meet. When the presupposition is dropped, the combination is still kept and is shown at the beginning of the statement sentence.

Statements
Mood Judgment Modality
Factual _ T : r (default)
Subjective T U : rq Declarative
Assumptive U T : qt Inferential
Speculative U U : qq Dubitive, doubt
Counterfactive F T : vr Optative; T! Energetic
Hypothetical F U : vq Hypothetical
Implicative T, unless T F  : rr Renarrative / Oblique
Ascriptive F, unless T T : vv

Evidential - can lead to: Proposal → Refutative → Rebuttal
T/U/F, but another T/U/F is not added, instead it is the answer to “Do you agree?”
- Yes - Yes, I agree with it.
- Maybe - I’m uncertain of whether it is or not.
- No - No, I disagree with it.
Besides T/U/F (which may be dropped), Y/M/N can be combined with another Y, M or N to give more nuanced meanings.

- expected -
- witnessed - first-hand experience, experienced or experiencing, etc.
- inferred - * UT mood
- reported - hearsay, etc.
- etc.

Sensed how? - seen, heard, etc.

(Illocutions inside a verb phrase - I'm a little uncertain where these should be placed inside a verb phrase; that is why they are in parentheses.
Note- 1p - I, me - is used here as placeholders, an example to where other pronouns may be used instead.)

(1pU : jq - Expressive - makes an uncertain claims to truth value. Instead, it marks as something said or done to just be said and done for its sake, to express oneself.)

(U1p : qj - Extemporative - makes the explicit claim of being unthought out, ad lib, off the cuff.)

(1p0 : jtj - Reportive - supposedly makes no claim to truth value about what is being said. The speaker is trying to be neutral, but the audience doesn't have to be.)

(01p : tjj - Performance - makes the claim/reminder that the speaker isn't speaking for themself, but is speaking from a role. It is used for actors or officials.)

(F1p : vj - Retractive - says an error was made and should be erased.)

(1pT : jr - Corrective - says this is what should replace a mistake.)

(01pT : tjjr - Declarative - makes the claim that by saying it, it becomes real.

( F1pT : vjt - Exercitive - makes the claim what once was not true, is now true. It can be used by those in positions of authority as edicts, decrees, etc.)

(note - a 3rd 0, U, T, or F may be used with the pronoun of the Expressive, Extemporative, Reportive and Performative for added nuance.)

(!Note! - Commissives, Interjunctives, Directives (below) are also Illocutionary. Volitives and Abilities are something like their opposites. They do not in themselves cause or expect something to happen,)

Interrogative -
- Type 1: True? Yes, No, (Maybe)
- Type 2: Agree? Yes, No, (Maybe)
- ‘Type 3’: Listening? Yes, No, (Maybe) this is really a pragmatic, though
(Ambiguities - The logic gets very complicated if you place them in a noun phrase the wrong way. They should be primarily used as modality indicators.)

Side note - Scope - can define how wide of an influence a word used functionally has.
- [ ] - greater than two words.
- [‘] - phrase.
- [;] - clause.
Intonation gives it greater flexibility.

Conjunctive -
- and)or - choice, alternatives
Note: other conjunctions and disjunctions also be use at the end of sentence, as a question or as another type of tag. Intonation identifies which.

Question word - with stress notation, it can be used flexibly.
- some/any -

Epistemic question -
- Socratic - Epistemic (above) is an example when made into the form of a question.

Phatic question -
- echoic - the repetition of the previous speaker in the form of a question.

Irrealis and Realis - T/U/F now mixes with a different part of the verb phrase. . Deontic :

Regulative - assessment of the
- obligation -
- permission -
- necessity -
of an action +DEGREE

Commissive - I, me - The speaker verbally treats themself as a “you” is treated in the other deonic modals
- I, me - I will, shall, promise, agree or offer to…

Interjunctive - The inclusive directive (below)
- Deliberative - You-Me - We should, ought, can, may…: judgment about the appropriateness of an action.
- Cohortative - I-you - stronger than the simple deliberative.

Directive - You - are expected to respond (by doing what the speaker wants)
(Hortative/Jussive (& subtypes)
- Imperative - is the you without a degree of politeness.
- - Polite…°DEGREES°…°Exhortative - “please”, etc.
- - Order…°DEGREES°…°Demand - “order”, etc.

Volitive - speaker wants something, but not overtly from you. They, too, can carry °DEGREES.
- Desiderative - want, etc. - something positive
- Imprecative - curse, etc. - something negative
- Prohibitative - don’t, etc. - something not to happen

Ability - These modals can be combined with one another.
- know-how -
- can-do -
- will-do -

(Reportive - 3p, etc. in the verb phrase and can be unspoken as it is the default. Supposedly it is the speaker reporting on an entity not themself or the audience in an unbiased way, either positively or negatively)

Voice

Passive voice - ho - Another noun phrase is made more relevant by demoting the subject and even having it dropped from consideration. The noun is usually the direct object.
- ho - can be put between the noun phrase and the subject.
- ho - can be used as a preposition, letting the subject be moved to a different part of the sentence.
- ho - can be put inside the verb phrase to mark that the subject has been dropped but still has some relevance.
Antipassive - he - The object is demoted even further in relevancy and importance. And this is one by replacing the /ho/ above with this /he/.

Side note - Null - empties a slot completely.
[;] - is used to subtract a head - as in:
- Impersonal - is for sentences like “It’s raining” or the abstract, “To be or not to be”. Null takes the slot of the subject.
- Middle Voice - completely eliminates the subject. Null is placed here, inside the verb phrase.
- Intransitive - explicitly marks the verb as having no objects. Null is placed outside of the verb phrase in the direct object slot.
['] - is used to subtract a modifier -
- Undefined - marks the head as unmodified. This can be used to mark a word as a linguistic word as opposed to a word used for its meaning. - Non-collacated - makes explicit that where another modifier is commonly found with it, that modifier is definitely not there or implied.
[ ] - is used to substitute for a noncontent. Which will depend largely on context. - Binding - In the “flag was green-black”, the colors are treated as a unit, losing their meaning if they’re not together. Null fills the conjunction slot.
- etc. -

Causative - we - Someone or thing causes a change.
Anticausative - wa - Someone or thing changes without a cause (made explicit). How is the change made?
- [¬willingly ¬directly] - when it is placed between nouns, in the conjunction slot.
- [+willingly +directly] - when as a noncontent particle on the noun giving or receiving the change.
- [+controled ¬natural] - when is placed here, inside the verb phrase.
- [¬controled +natural] - unmarked default. This is the standard assumption.
- [¬willingly ¬directly] + [¬willingly ¬directly] = [¬willingly +directly].
- [+controled ¬natural] + [+controled ¬natural] = [+controled +natural].

Effectiveness -
- weakly effective -
- partially effective -
- almost fully -
These may be combined to make them more nuanced.
°degree - may or may or not use with the combination.

Intentionality - is particularly reated to (anti)causality.
- accidentally -
- unintentionally -
- intentionally -
These may be combined to make them more nuanced.
°degree - may or may or not use with the combination.

Pure Adverbs - how the (anti)causative was done.
Manner - way -

Valence - jek, jan, jol, je - takes the subjects of two sentences and collapses the sentences.
When it is placed between nouns, in the conjunction slot:
- jek - Nonrelative - two subjects doing two totally different things.
- jan - Participant - the subjects do the same thing, but separately. Parts of a wider event. Say, two teams in the same event but not yet competing with one another.
- jol - Corollary - the subjects do variations of the same thing, first one, then the other, back and forth. Say, the different positions of a team playing together.
- je - Parallel - the subjects do the same thing, together. Parts of the same event. Say, two players after the same ball.

When as a noncontent particle on the noun giving or receiving the change:
- jek - Indicative - the subject merely indicates someone could do something. Say a coach nods and a player interprets it to mean something.
- jan - Demonstrative - the subject demonstrates what someone could do. Say, a trainer shows how something should be done.
- jol - Imitative - the subject does something like the first subject did. Say, one being trained puts his own variation on something.
- je - Duplicative - the subject does do what the first subject did. Say, one being trained does what the other has done the same way, or tries to.

When is placed here, inside the verb phrase:
- jek - Reciprocal - the subjects do the “something” to one another.
- jan - Mutual - the subjects alternate between doing the same thing.
- jol - Contingent - the second subject can’t do something until the first does something (else).
- je - Complementary - first one subject does something, then the other subject does the same thing.
! ju, ji - strong and weak impact, respectively, are added to give a more nuanced interpretations. They are noncontent modifiers for other Valence (noncontent) words.
- ju jek - Anticipatory - "meanwhile" - a strong Non-relational, where the audience is lead to think that while the two subjects may not be doing anything together at the time, that will change soon.
- ju jan - Presence - Strong Participatory, where the subjects are very aware of the other subject(s). Say, competitors not yet facing one another in a tournament.
- ju jol - Simbiolosis - strong Corollary, where both subjects need the other to do the event.
- ju je - Simultaneous - strong Parallel, where the subjects are very aware of the other, say in a race.

- ju jek - Signal - strong Indicative, where one subject gives agreed upon signal that tells the other subject to act.
- ju jan - Training - strong Demonstrative, where one subjects expects the other to do the same immediately or regularly.
- ju jol - Adaptive - strong Imitative, where the subject seeks to do the same thing in their own way.
- ju je - Adoptive - strong Duplicative, where the subject does what the other subject does to (near) perfection.

- ju jek - Revenge - strong Reciprocal, where the subject makes an impact on the other subject that is greater. Say, the hitting rather than tapping.
- ju jan - Substitutive - strong Mutual, where this subject replaces the other subject.
- ju jol - Awaiting - strong Contingent, where this subject has to wait (impatiently) for the other subject to do what they are expected to do.
- ju je - Obsessive - strong Complementary, where the interaction completely dominates the awareness of the subjects as shown by, for example, being unwilling to stop or exacting in their execution of the action.


Complement -
- Object Particles - supposedly a point of view the speaker picked up from others
- Prototypical - characteristically.
This is related to the generic by °DEGREES, which is one of the Subject Particles

Verb Commentary - repurposed prepositions to modify the relation of the nouns to the utterance. It is the literal now.
- closer / further from - the center of interest.
- rise / fall - newly arrived on / departed from the scene.
- - remaining, unchanged, on the scene | situation changed.
- - action continuing | action viewed as a unit.
- - removed / put aside from the scene.
- - without necessary future significance / not continuing into the future.
- - but with / no definite relevance / reference [in mind]
- - removed / put aside permanently - stronger than the one above.
- toward / away from - this speaker (as he is speaking?)
- this / that / yon - goal : definite ; relative / indefinite ; irrelevant.
- -

The verb phrase officially ends here.

Direct Object - s - The one true case in Djadu.
- [ ] - separates it from the Predicate but also
_ allows the DObj to be moved out of its typical word order.
_ such before the subject to give it more importance. This gives it a pseudo-passive voice when used with the passive voice marker. - [;] - it is a pronoun, referring to the last established DObj. and remains an object, never a subject.
_ allows for easier tracking of it through extended sentences and even paragraphs.
- [‘] - as a modifier, it can do some of what the accusative can do in other languages.

Indirect Object - give - and other verbs where the subject and direct object interact with another person, thing, etc.
NOTE - They are serial verbs.

Prepositions - the non-moving prepositions are the default onder. The moving interpretations require a moving verb. A moving one can be inserted for just that reason. There is also at least one verb the means to move-in-place or in a restricted space.
- b - away, from -
- t - at, to -
- sj - 2d, on -
- tj - 3d, in -

- f - path, length -
- g - gap -
- z - ordinal -

Side note - Genitive - is like a serial verb as they both envolve one head modifying another.
- [ ‘ ] - as a modifier, it relies on the speaker’s target assumed to be able to identify the genitive as a proper head.
- stress particle - can be used to add [ ; ] to identify it as a proper head.
- have - can also be placed inside the noun phrase as the genitive marker.

Serial Verbs - For English speakers it can be as simple as dropping the infinitive to between verbs. Djadu has no infinitive. But the language uses serial verbs much more extensively than English and other European languages.
- x - use - is one of the most useful of them, being as it is like with as the instrumental case. Two sister words mean - used

- vi - compared to - is used in place of “less, more, -er, least, most, -est“ as well as “than”. It can, of course, add words like equal-to, similar-to into a mix that could include big, wide, narrow, etc.

Coordinate Verbs - two or more verbs are considered separate events but can share items across what would otherwise be another sentence.
- v - and -
+stress particle - (with or without intonation) can add different nuances, like accompaniment at the same or different time.
+parse - can act as a barrier between the coordinate’s members. “The large man and <parser> woman” means the woman wasn’t large. “The large man <parser> and woman” has the parser also acts as a comma.

Reduplication -
- of a verb, the action occurred at different times or places.
- of an object, makes it distributive, referring to the same thing happening to many.
- of a subject, has many subjects do/being the same.
- of a times or frequentive aspect, though,...
Etc.

Reduplication and Degrees - of a modifier increases the feel of the modifier. So
[ ]near-[‘]near - increase in nearness.
[‘]near [‘]near - really very near.
[‘]near-[ ]near - decrease in nearness.

Compounds - the words are more tightly bound together than they are when one is a modifier. They suggest something more precise and can then one or both words can lose their original meaning while inside the compound. Butterfly, dandelion, etc.
- Stress patterns -

Paralanguage

Stress, Intonation and Pitch -
Though a modifier cannot be stressed more greatly than its head, paralingual techniques can be applied to it and the other parts of speech. They are not required to be depicted. They are options that allow for great nuance.

Stress - is not more about fortis rather than loudness. - [ '] , [ ;; ] - repetition of the stress marks are used for loudness. [ : ] and [ ; ] are for increasing and decreasing loudness.
Another possibility for depicting loudness are numbers. [ ¹ ], [ ² ], [ ³ ], etc.

- [ | ] - is the comma. Away from the pitch markers, also uses fortis as the onset of a syllable is pronounced more distinctly than before it.
- [ / ] - is about pause. [ // ] can be equivalent to ellipsis.
- [ \ ] - is tempo.

Pitch and Tone - Pitch is changing the ‘octave’ of your voice, making it higher or lower. The tones don't change, though. This is because their height is determined by each other, not the larynx, etc.
- { } - is the higher than normal voice. Emphasizes what is said.
- [ ] - is the speaker's normal voice.
- ( ) - is the speaker's lower than normal voice. Deemphasizes what is said.
Their combinations, of course, depict the rising or falling of pitch.

Tone - are used to work with the other parts of grammar, especially repetition and the stress unit, to add the nuance of °degree.
- [ ` ] - high -
- [ - ] - neutral -
- [ , ] - low -
When combined, they produce rising, falling varieties.
Another possibility for depiction is
- [ > ] - onset of a tone,
- [ < ] - offset of a tome.

Length - is depicted by the repetition of the symbol or letter.

Laryngeal - H - is not strictly a phoneme. It is, first, like the stress marker, but is used as a place to add extra laryngeal variation than is normally used. Besides the addition of vowels and consonant suffixes, Djado uses other non-phonemic ways to depict -
- whispery voice, breathy voice, husky voice, harsh voice, etc.


! Mirror Domain - is like Sentence Adverb in that its relevance can be shown by being backgrounded, foregrounded or highlighted to (de)emphasize it. The go ahead of the Sentence Adverb in a sentence if it is backgrounded.
What makes it different is that all the members of its sub-categories must have the same sequence relative to one another - but in the reverse order. Deictic and Vocative must come first or lst in a sentence, if present.
- L - is a special phoneme, only used for particles that indicate the word(s) they are together with have been repurposed in for use in a mirror domain sub-category. There are ways for the particles to be brought into the sentence-proper.

Since it usually comes at the beginning of a sentence in a SVO language, that is the order being presented here

Vocative - Lu - The target of the speaker, the 2p, you, or the 1p, themself. It is similar to the deonic of the verb phrase.
- you ; I
- name, nickname, title, metonym -
- honorific, politeness, neutral, impoliteness, rude - Social Register. Note, what may be impolite or rude to someone, might be friendly or intimate to another.
- e.g. - (not) this, that, yon - Deictic - pointing to which, who, what, etc. is meant.

Traffic Control - -
- e.g. - hello; (when) can we talk; can you hear me; the message continues/ends; good-bye; etc -

Illocutionary - Lan - this marks the macro-representation of their micro-counterparts inside the verb phrase. They have in their meaning, either alone or in combination, True, False, Unknown, 0, Yes, No, Maybe, and Do. 1p, 3p, and even 2p are be used inside the Lan domain, but may be only implied if the context makes clear which is meant. Illocutions are about an outcome accomplished or expected by the act of speaking itself.

Meta - Læk - is about the language itself-
-e.g. - I'm inserting something out of context; I could say more, but I'm not; yes, that was what was really said, I'm not adding anything; etc.

Style of Language - Lo -
- e.g. - functionally (default); representively; metaphorically; narrowly; literally; too literally, etc. -

Commentary on the Discourse - Len -
- excitingly; dully; humorously; seriously; etc. -

Relevance to This Utterance - Lil - is similar to Verb Commentary. - unspoken so far; reminder of what was said before; moving on to something more relevant; forget this; etc. -

Commentary on Sentence Parts- -L - as a suffix -
- Sentence, clause, phrase, word, etc.

Lexicon[]

zj - stress particle -
;zj - marks the noncontent or modifier word/phrases befpre it as a head.
'zj - marks the noncontent or head word/phrases before it as a modifier.


d - explicitly, though optionally, marks the word/phrase before it as content.
Note: It would be confusing if the particle's stress matched the word/phrases before it unless a (designated) paralangual feature is added to the particle to draw attention to its stress.


H - voice particle
H - without a ['] or [;], it is an noncontent non-word. The vowels and consonants added to it to form their word-identities are used here to indicated whether it marks the beginning or end of a modal = normal voice, whispered voice, breathy voice, murmured voice, etc.


d - modifier -
;d - head(s) (phrase) modifies what follows. Relative clause.
'd - modifier(s) modifies what follows.
d - noncontent(s) modifying what follows, rather than the head.


p - parser -
;p - head(s) (phrase) is divided from what follows.
'p - modifier(s) divided from what follows.
p - noncontent(s) divided from what follows.


L - discourser -
;L - careless L+rime, where the proper L+rime isn't given.
'L - subdivision with a larger L+rime.
L - redefines its word(s) as belonging with those of a L+rime group when outside of one.


j - I, me → H Pron.
‘j - my, mine → M/Gen. Pron.
& VP →Directive Modality →Illocution
& Expressive, Declarative →Illocution
& →(Interjective →) Vocative, Traffic
j - “Artcl”: I-know-the-head.


w, u - you
;w - you →H Pron.
‘w - your →M/Gen. Pron.
& VP →Directive Modality →Illocution
& Performative →Illocution
& O, Hello Hi, etc. →Vocative, Traffic.
w - “Artcl”: you-know-the-head.


h, a - she,he,it, ... - 3p, relevent
;a - she, he, it, her, him →H Pron.
‘a - his, her, its, hers →M/Gen. Pron.
& VP →Reportive Modality →Illocution Volitive vs Reportative
a - s/he-knows-the-head →“Artcl”:


;o - she, he, it, her, him →H Pron.
‘o - his, her, its, hers →M/Gen. Pron.
& - VP → Reporttive Modality →Illocution
o - “s/he-knows-the-head (incidentally)→Artcl”:


;e - this/that/yon →H pron. - this; that; yon.
‘e - this/that/yon →M/Gen.
e - the/the/the [head’s relevance]→ Artcl:


æ - topic - most relevent
; æ - can substitute for any noun or pronoun that is the topic →H Pron:
‘æ - can substitute for any noun or pronoun that is in the M/Gen. Slot →M/Gen.:
æ - Case prtcl


s - direct object - case, pronoun
;s - can substitute for any noun or pronoun that doesn’t become the predicate →H pron.:
‘s - can substitute for any noun or pronoun that is in in the M/Gen slot →M/Gen.: s - Case prtcl.
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