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Doudouling-2018
Dodoliehehen
Type
Romance / Latin constructed language
Alignment
SVO (normally) ; OVS (pronouns)
Head direction
Head initial (formal); Head final (casual)
Tonal
No
Declensions
No
Conjugations
No
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General information[]

Idea[]

The main idea of my artificial language is to simplify Latin words into one optional consonant plus one vowel plus one optional nasal structure, namely (C-V-N) structure. That is because we think this structure is the best for singing. Also, it is required to avoid adding too many extra syllables. And the spelling should be very close to the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). And the stress position should not impact the meaning of the word.

It is trade-off between two options

1) dropping the character not fit into the (C-V-N) structure, which will lose too much info, cause conflict and hard to remember; think about {extract} become {eta}.

2) padding vowels, which will cause too many syllables, and too many repetition of the padding vowel; think about {extract} become {ekusuturakutu}

So the way is to insert some weak syllables to compensate the information loss of the dropped sounds.

For example, {extract} => {e-k-str-a-k-t} => {edzahiijii} pronounced as [ɛ-'d͡zɑ-hi-i-ji-i]. The right-side {t} is dropped and compensated by {hi}; The right-side {k} is dropped and compensated by {i}; The {r} is dropped and compensated by {ji}; The left-side {k} is dropped and compensated by {i}.

History[]

The first version was published in 2004, and an updated version is published in 2014.

Version 2004

Version 2014

Version 2015

Version 2017

Version 2018

Design[]

Introduction

Principles: compress Latin words into {C-V-N} syllables

The main idea of my artificial language is to simplify Latin words into the structure of one optional consonant plus one vowel plus one optional {n} or {m}. That is because we think this structure is the best for singing. Also, it should avoid adding too many extra strong syllables. And the spelling should be very close to the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). And the stress position should not impact the meaning of the word.

Step 1: simplify consonants and consonant clusters

Simplify consonants and consonant clusters to the consonants as below by the rules below.

{b} {p} {ts} {m} {f} {v}
{d} {t} {dz} {n} {s} {j}
{g} {k} {h} {w} {l}

Rules:

  • {sp} => {ts};
  • {st} => {dz};
  • {sc} {sk} => {dz} (via {sti-});
  • {pt} => {b};
  • {ph} => {f};
  • {w} => {v};
  • {th} => {t};
  • {c} ([s]), {x} (at the beginning of a word), {ch} ([ʃ]/[tʃ]), {ti} ([ʃ]) => {j};
  • {j}, {y} => {g} (via {gi-});
  • {q}, {c} ([k]), {ch} ([k]) => {k};
  • {r} => {w};

For some complex clusters, add an {e} to split them, such as {partner} and {investment}.

Step 2: simplify vowels and diphthongs

Simplify the vowels and diphthongs as rules below.

Rules:

  • {ao/oa} => {au} => {a};
  • {ae/ea} => {ai} => {e};
  • {ee} => {ei} => {i};
  • {oo} => {ou} => {o};
  • {oe/eo/eu} => {oi} => {u};

Convert vowel {y} to {i}; and drop some less important vowels.

Step 3: Compensate the lost sounds

If keeping only the consonant-vowel-nasal structure for each syllable, it often causes great loss of information and then create confusions. So we need to add some weak syllables between the last vowel and last nasal to compensate the lost sounds.

Rules:

Treat the final {m} as {n} with a lost {b}

  • If there is no dropping, and the last vowel is not {u}, compensate {u}
  • If there is no dropping, and the last vowel is {u}, compensate {o}
  • If there is any dropping, add compensating suffixes in the reverse order, according to the rule table as below.
Case \ Dropped sound {d}/{t} {g}/{k} {s}/{z} {b}/{p}/{v}/{f} {r} {l} {i}/{u} {h}/{-} {dz} {ts}
First suffix after {i} {he} {e} {je} {vu} {wu} {hu} {fu} {u} {dzi} {tsi}
First suffix after {a} {e} {o} {hi} {i} {ji} {vu} {wu} {hu} {fu} {u} {dzi} {tsi}
First suffix after {u} {hi} {i} {ji} {vo} {wo} {ho} {fo} {o} {dzi} {tsi}
Followup suffix after {e} {e} {e} {e} {e} {je} {je} {he}
Followup suffix after {i} {i} {i} {i} {i} {ji} {ji} {hi}
Followup suffix after {o} {o} {o} {o} {o} {wo} {wo} {ho}
Followup suffix after {u} {u} {u} {u} {u} {wu} {wu} {hu}


Examples

The first column is Latin word. The second column is {CVN} structure after simplification. The third column is the sounds dropped. The fourth column is Doudouling word after compensation.

Examples:

Latin CVN Dropped Doudouling
state dza t dzahi
sper tse r tsewu
sport tso r t tsohiji
science dzien j dziejin
photo foto fotou
wagon vagon vagoun
cent jen t jehin
center jente r jentewu
aqu a k ai
aquatic akati k akatie
question kedzon kedzoun
tank tan k tain
xerox jewo k s jewojii
chocolate jokola t jokolahi
just gu dz gudzi
adoption adobon adoboun
train ten r i tefuwun
tract ta r k t tahiiji
create kea r t keahiji
glad ga l d gahiji
class ka l s kajiji
cause ka u s kajihi
daemon demon i demofun
coffee kofi f i kofifuu
moustache modza u j modzajihi
phoenix funi i k s funijeehe
phoenician funijan i funijafun
europe uwo i p uwovuhu
return wetun r wetuwon
depart depa r t depahiji
alt a l t ahiji
art a r t ahiji
arts a r t s ajiiji
culture kutu r l kutuwowo
court ko u r t kohijihi
cant kan t kahin
simple simpe l simpehu
hom hon b hovun
autumn atun u b atuvohon
environment enviwommen t enviwommehin
fact fa k t fahii
experiment etsewimen k t etsewimehiin
sign sin g sien
dogmatic domati g k domatiee
construct kondzu r k t kondzuhiiji
verb ve r b vevuwu
partner patene r patenewu
investment invedzemen t invedzemehin
continue kontinu kontinuo
Doudouling dodolin u u g Dodoliehehen
data data datau
exact esa k k t esahiii
slave sa l v savuwu
salv sa l v savuwu
next ne k dz nedzii

Word choice

The Latin word we used are the words composed of Latin roots which appear in English.

Stress

The stress is at the rightmost vowel which is the same as the last vowel.

Center of a phrase

When a center word of a phrase is a single-syllable {C-V-N} word, it sounds not strong enough. To make it sounds better phonetically, we add {u} or {o} after the vowel of the center word. Examples {with me} => {ve mi} => {ve miu}; {who is he} => {ki dze go} => {ke dzeu go}; {for this} => {po ji} => {po jiu}; {the two} => {la du} => {la duo};

Influence[]

Languages which have influence on this language include:

  1. Latin
  2. French
  3. English
  4. Spanish
  5. Portuguese
  6. Italian
  7. Chinese
  8. Japanese

Phonology[]

Consonants[]

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative f v s h
Affricate t͡s d͡z
Approximant j w
Trill
Flap or tap
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l
Lateral flap

Vowels[]

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i u
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Near-open
Open ɑ

Alphabet[]

Upper Case Lower Case Normal Before {g} {k}
A a [ɑ] / [a]
B b [b]
D d [d]
E e [ɛ] / [e]
F f [f]
G g [g]
H h [h]
I i [i]
J j [j]
K k [k]
L l [l]
M m [m]
N n [n] [ŋ]
O o [ɔ] / [o]
P p [p]
S s [s]
T t [t]
U u [u]
V v [v]
W w [w]
DZ dz [d͡z]
TS ts [t͡s]

Syllable structure[]

The allowed word structure is one or multiple consonant-vowel-nasal syllables with an optional silent ending consonant letter.

It can be express as a regular expression as below:

^ ( (b|p|ts|m|f|v|d|ts|n|s|j|g|k|h|w|l)? [aeiou] ( [mn] )? )* ( (b|p|ts|m|f|v|d|ts|n|s|j|g|k|h|w|l)? [aeiou] ( n )? ) $

Mnemonic alphabet table[]

There is another alphabet layout table as below, which shows better the style of this language and help remembering them.

B b [b] P p [p] TS ts [t͡s] M m [m] F f [f] V v [v]
D d [d] T t [t] DZ dz [d͡z] N n [n] [ŋ] S s [s] J j [j]
G g [g] K k [k] H h [h] W w [wh] L l [l]
A a [ɑ] [a] E e [ɛ] [e] I i [i] O o [ɔ] [o] U u [u]

Grammar[]

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No No No No No
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No Yes Yes No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No Yes No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

Number is indicated by the article. For example: {la hovun} meaning {the man}, {le hovun} meaning {the men}.

Person can be indicated by pronoun suffixes. For example: {miwu mi} meaning {I see}, {fewu lu} meaning {they do}.

Tenses and voices can be indicated by modal verbs. For example: {la dzudehin dzudiu va} meaning {the student will study}, {le hovun dovuwun ha} meaning {people slept}, {la pobevuwuwun dze sovuwu ti} meaning {the problem is solved}.

Accusative (subject) pronouns can be put in front the verb or after it. Dative pronouns can also be treated the same. For example: {se dihe mi} meaning {I say it}, {te se doun ha mi} meaning {I have given it to you}.

Person, tenses and voices can be indicated by chained suffixes, and also with accusative pronouns. For example: {te miwu va mi} meaning {I will see you}, {doun ti ha go la libewu} meaning {He has been given the book}.

Vocabulary[]

Core vocabulary[]

Doudouling-2018 a e i o u
Latin root ad et in or un
English to and in or a
Doudouling-2018 ba bo bu
Latin root ab ob sub
English from but under
Doudouling-2018 pa pe po
Latin root parse per pro
English why by for
Doudouling-2018 ma me mi mo mu
Latin root me me me mono mult
English my me I n-th (ordinal) some
Doudouling-2018 fa fe fo fu
Latin root fact fer front fer
English thing do most do (question)
Doudouling-2018 va ve vi vo vu
Latin root vas verse vos vos vos
English will do; go with you (plural, object) your (plural) you (plural, subject)
Doudouling-2018 tse
Latin root spec
English more
Doudouling-2018 da de di do du
Latin root ad de id od dur
English then of there though when
Doudouling-2018 ta te ti to tu
Latin root tu tu ten tot tu
English your (single) you (single, object) be done all you (single, subject)
Doudouling-2018 na ne ni no nu
Latin root nos ne nos non nos
English our not us no we
Doudouling-2018 sa se si su
Latin root su se sic super
English his him so; if over
Doudouling-2018 ja je ji
Latin root sa hic hic
English her (adjective) this (adjective) this (pronoun)
Doudouling-2018 dze dzi dzu
Latin root est est est
English be be doing be (question)
Doudouling-2018 ga ge gi go gu
Latin root illa id illa ill in ubi
English she that (adjective) her (object) he where
Doudouling-2018 ka ke ki ko ku
Latin root qual que qui com quo
English how what; that (conjuction) who as which
Doudouling-2018 ha he hi ho
Latin root hab hab hic hoc
English have done did here that (subject)
Doudouling-2018 we
Latin root re
English again
Doudouling-2018 la le li lo lu
Latin root illa ill lor lor lor
English the (single) the (plural) them their they

Dictionary[]

(TBD)

Swadesh List[]

The Doudouling-2018 column may contain both short form and long form of the same word.



No. English Doudouling-2018
1Imi (accusative: me) (genitive: ma)
2you (singular)tu (accusative: te) (genitive: ta)
3hego (accusative: se) (genitive: sa) (feminine: ga, gi, ja)
4wenu (accusative: ni) (genitive na)
5you (plural)vu (accusative: vi) (genitive: vo)
6theylu (accusative: li) (genitive: lo)
7thisji (accusative: je)
8thatho (accusative: ge)
9herehi
10theredi
11whoki
12whatke
13wheregu
14whendu
15howka
16notne
17allto, tohi, ovun
18manymu, muhiji
19somemu, alie
20fewpajihi
21otheratewuwu
22oneu, uon
23twoduo
24threetiwu
25fourkawuu
26fivejien
27biggahijin, main
28longloin
29widelahi
30thickkajiji
31heavygavuwu
32smallmiun, pavuwu
33shortbevuwu
34narrowangudzi
35thingajihuwu
36womanfevun
37man (adult male)hovun
38man (human being)humaun
39childfihu, infahin, puewu
40wifetsoji, usowuu
41husbandmawihe
42mothermatewu
43fatherpatewu
44animalanimahu
45fishpidzi
46birdavije
47dogkaun
48lousepedikuho
49snakesepehijin
50wormvevuwun
51treeabowuwu
52forestfowedzi, sivuwu
53stickbatoun, pahu
54fruitfuhiji, fuhiiji
55seedsemiun, semeun
56leaffoliu
57rootradijee
58barkkotejiiji
59flowerfowuwu
60grasshevuwu
61ropedziejen, kodawu
62skindevuwun, kutije
63meatkawun, kawou
64bloodsangiun
65boneoji
66fatobeji, pingameun
67eggovu
68hornkowun
69tailtemiwun, kadafu
70featherpuvuwun, pennau
71hairpiluji
72headkapihe
73earawuhu
74eyeokuho
75nosenaji
76mouthowu, owahu
77toothdehin
78tonguelien
79fingernailungije
80footpehi
81legkujiji
82kneegenuo
83handmaun
84wingalau
85bellyadomevun
86gutsvidzewu
87neckkolawuwu, jevijeeje
88backdojiji
89breastmammau
90heartkohiji, kadaiji
91liverhepawu
92drinkbevu
93eatvowu
94bitemodewuwu
95sucksuhii, sugewu
96spittsuewu
97vomitvomihe
98blowinfahiji
99breathewetsiwu
100laughwihe, widewu
101seemiwu, vije
102hearahihi
103knowdziu
104thinkpejin
105smellodow
106feartimihe
107sleepdovuwun
108livevivu
109diemohiji
110killjihe, nekawu
111fightpuin, lutawuu
112huntkavu, kabuwo, venawu
113hitpujiji, pelewuwu
114cutsei, sehii, sekawu
115splitsepawahi, divihe
116stabpuin
117scratchdzabewu
118digedzavahii, fodewu
119swimnatahi, natawu
120flyaviahi, volawu
121walkambehu
122comeveun
123liedejevu, kubawu
124sitsehi, sedewu
125standdzahin
126turntuvon, vetewuwu
127fallkadau, kadewu
128givedoun
129holdkavu, teun
130squeezeetsimewuwuu
131rubfikawuwu
132washlavu
133wipeewaji, tegewuwu
134pulltahiji
135pushpehu, pelewuwu
136throwgehii, gajewu
137tieguhin, ligawu
138sewkonsuewu
139countkohihin, computahi
140saydihe
141singkahin
142playluhi, paiji
143floatfohihiji, fotahihiji
144flowfuewuwu
145freezefigahiji, gelawu
146swellagewuhu
147sunsohu, solou
148moonluon, lunau
149stardzehu, dzehuwu
150waterai
151rainpuvuwu
152riverwivewu, fuvuwu
153lakelai
154seamawu
155saltsaliun
156stonepetewu, lapije
157sandlapije, hawenau
158dustpuva, puvera
159earthtewuwu, agewu
160cloudnebuho
161fogfuvun, nebuho
162skyjehu
163windvehin
164snownivu
165icegajiji
166smokefuvun
167firefavuwun, inihee
168ashresiduo, jinije
169burninjehin, famahiji
170roadrohihi, viau
171mountainmohin, montafun
172redroji, ruvo
173greenvehiji
174yellowfavuwu
175whitebain, avuwu, abiwun
176blacknegewu
177nightnohii
178daydije
179yearaun
180warmkalowu
181coldfieje, figiheje
182fullpewun
183newnovu, novehu
184oldanjehin
185goodboun
186badmahu
187rottenputiheje
188dirtyimmuhin
189straightrehii, dzehii
190roundrohihin, wotuhin
191sharpacuhi
192dullhebeji
193smoothsuavu
194wethumihe
195drysie
196correctkowehiiji
197nearpojiiji
198fardidzahin
199rightdedzewuu
200leftsindzewu, sinidzewu
201ata, i
202ini
203withve
204ande
205ifsi
206becauseba, po ke
207namenovun, nomiun


Example text[]

Babel text[]

Dodoliehehen English
Titehu : Babehu Tedzi, Genesiji, Bibehu Title : Babel Text , Genesis, Bible
Tohi la muhin dze de u lien e de u pawohu. The whole earth was of one language and of one speech.
Du vogai he lu a la owientahu, okuwuu he go ke didzovewu ha lu u pahun i la tewu de la Jinawu; e vivu he lu di . As they journeyed east , it happened, that they have found a plain in the land of Shinar; and they lived there.
Dihe lu uon a u atewuwu, "Veun , ni lajii a fewu le tihu , e li kombudzi entiwemehin." Havu lu la tihu po la petewu, e utilije lu la tawu po la motawuwu.. They said one to another, "Come, let's make bricks , and burn them thoroughly ." They had brick for stone, and they used the tar for the mortar.
Dihe lu , "Veun, ni lajii kondzuhiiji po nuo u uvowo, e u tuwehiji, sa kapihe awivuwu a la jehu, e ni lajii a fewu po nuo u novun; ejevuu ke divihe ti nu a utewuwu su la sufajiji de tohi la muhin." They said, "Come, let's build us a city, and a tower , whose top reaches to the sky , and let's make us a name; lest we be scattered abroad on the surface of the whole earth."
Gehovau dedzehin a miwu la uvowo e la tuwehiji, ke le infahin de le hovun kondzuhiiji ha . Yahweh came down to see the city and the tower , which the children of men had built .
Gehova dihe, "Atenjohin, dzeu lu u popuho, e havu lu tohi u lien ; e dzeu ji ke owiginahi lu a fewu. je-tevun nuho , ke intehin lu a fewu, wesidzi ti va ba luo . Yahweh said, "Behold , they are one people, and they have all one language; and this is what they begin to do . Now nothing, which they intend to do , will be withheld from them.
Veun, ni lajii dedzehin, e di konfuji lo lien , da ne pohi lu kompehehijin la pawohu de u atewuwu." Come, let's down , and there confuse their language, that they may not understand one another's speech ."
Da Gehovau li divihe a utewuwu de diu a la sufajiji de tohi la muhin. Wedzi lu a kondzuhiiji la uvowo. So Yahweh scattered them abroad from there on the surface of all the earth. They stopped building the city.
Da sa novun apehuu ti ko Babehu, ba Gehovau konfuji la lien de tohi la muhin, diu . De diu , Gehovau li divihe a utewuwu su la sufajiji de tohi la muhin. Therefore the name of it was called as Babel, because Yahweh confused the language of all the earth, there. From there, Yahweh scattered them abroad on the surface of all the earth.

Lord's prayer[]

Dodolingi English
Titehu : Na Patewu Title : Our Father
Na patewu i la jehu , Our fater in heaven,
sahin dze ta novun. saint is your name.
Veun ta wegivun, Come your kingdom,
fewu ti ta voluhin, done your will ,
ko i la jehu e su tewuwu. as in heaven and on earch.
Na pewi-dije paun tu doun je-dije . Our everyday bread you give today .
Padowun tu na debihe, Forgive you our debts,
ko padowun ha nu na debitowu. as we have forgotten our debtors.
E tu ne ni dui entewu tembajoun , and you not us lead into tempation,
bo ni libewahi tu edzewuu de malien. but you us liberate out of malign.
Ameun. Amen.

Reflective introduction of Doudouling-2018[]

La intodujowun

Le pinjipehuwu: a kompejiji le vevuwu de Latiun ehin le silabehuwu {K-V-N}

La ideau de ma lien atifijahuwu dze a simpifihu le vevuwu de Latiun ehin la dzutuwoowo de u konsonahin obonahu ve u vovehu ve u {n} o {m} obonahu. Dzeu ho ke se pejin nu ke je dzutuwoowo dze la fo boun po a kanhin. E, devu go a pevehijin a inkejiji dza muhiji de le silabehuwu edzawuu. E, la dzibuwowo devu dze muhiji pojiji a la Afabehiji Fonetie Intenajonahuwu (IPA). E, la posijoun de ajehiin ne devu a impahii la semahin de la vevuwu.

La faji uon mo: a simpifihu le konsonahin e le kombinajoun de konsonahin Fe simpifihu le konsonahin e le kombinajoun de konsonahin a le konsonahin infewu pe le weguho infewu.

{b} {p} {ts} {m} {f} {v} {d} {t} {dz} {n} {s} {j} {g} {k} {h} {w} {l}

Le weguho

{sp} => {ts}; {st} => {dz}; {sc} {sk} => {dz} (via {sti-}); {pt} => {b}; {ph} => {f}; {w} => {v}; {th} => {t}; {c} ([s]), {x} (i la owigiun de u vevuwu), {ch} ([ʃ]/[tʃ]), {ti} ([ʃ]) => {j}; {j}, {y} => {g} (viau {gi-}); {q}, {c} ([k]), {ch} ([k]) => {k}; {r} => {w};

Po mu kombinajoun kompieje, poun u {e} a li sepawahi, ko {partner} e {investment}.

La faji duo mo: a simpifihu le vovehu e le ditoiin

A simpifihu le vovehu e le ditoiin ko le weguho infewu.

Le weguho

{ao/oa} => {au} => {a}; {ae/ea} => {ai} => {e}; {ee} => {ei} => {i}; {oo} => {ou} => {o}; {oe/eo/eu} => {oi} => {u};

A konvehiji {y} a {i}; e wemovu mu vovehu de impotajijin miun.

La faji tiwu mo: a kompensahi le soun ke wemovu ti Si teun go sohu le dzutuwoowo {K-V-N} po pewu silabehuwu, ve fekehijin kajihi go mu pehiji gahijin de infomajowun e keahiji mu konfujoun. Da, kiwu nu a poun mu silabehuwu fagihuwu intewu la vovehu finahu e la nasahu finahu, po kompensahi le soun ke pehiji

Le weguho

A regahiji la {m} finahu ko {n} ve u {b} ke pehiji. Si nuho wemovu ti, e la vovehu finahu nei {u}, kompensahi {u}. Si nuho wemovu ti, e la vovehu finahu dze {u}, kompensahi {o}. Si mu fau wemovu ti, poun le sufijeee po kompensahi i la odewuwu wevejiji, sekehin la tabehu de weguho infewu.

La sitajoun \ La soun pehiji {d}/{t} {g}/{k} {s}/{z} {b}/{p}/{v}/{f} {r} {l} {i}/{u} {h}/{-} {dz} {ts} La sufijeee uon mo, podzi {i} {he} {e} {je} {vu} {wu} {hu} {fu} {u} {dzi} {tsi} La sufijeee uon mo, podzi {a} {e} {o} {hi} {i} {ji} {vu} {wu} {hu} {fu} {u} {dzi} {tsi} La sufijeee uon mo, podzi {u} {hi} {i} {ji} {vo} {wo} {ho} {fo} {o} {dzi} {tsi} La sufijiee duo mo, podzi {e} {e} {e} {e} {e} {je} {je} {he} La sufijiee duo mo, podzi {i} {i} {i} {i} {i} {ji} {ji} {hi} La sufijiee duo mo, podzi {o} {o} {o} {o} {o} {wo} {wo} {ho} La sufijiee duo mo, podzi {u} {u} {u} {u} {u} {wu} {wu} {hu}

Le esampehuu

La koluvon uon mo dze la vevuwu de Latiun. La koluvon duo mo dze la dzutuwoowo {K-V-N} podzi la simpifikajohun. La koluvon tiwu mo dze le soun ke wemovu ti. La koluvon kawuu mo dze le vevuwu de Dodoliehehen podzi la kompensajoun.

Le esampehuu

Latin CVN Dropped Doudouling state dza t dzahi sper tse r tsewu sport tso r t tsohiji science dzien j dziejin photo foto fotou wagon vagon vagoun cent jen t jehin center jente r jentewu aqu a k ai aquatic akati k akatie question kedzon kedzoun tank tan k tain xerox jewo k s jewojii chocolate jokola t jokolahi just gu dz gudzi adoption adobon adoboun train ten r i tefuwun tract ta r k t tahiiji create kea r t keahiji glad ga l d gahiji class ka l s kajiji cause ka u s kajihi daemon demon i demofun coffee kofi f i kofifuu moustache modza u j modzajihi phoenix funi i k s funijeehe phoenician funijan i funijafun europe uwo i p uwovuhu return wetun r wetuwon depart depa r t depahiji alt a l t ahiji art a r t ahiji arts a r t s ajiiji culture kutu r l kutuwowo court ko u r t kohijihi cant kan t kahin simple simpe l simpehu hom hon b hovun autumn atun u b atuvohon environment enviwommen t enviwommehin fact fa k t fahii experiment etsewimen k t etsewimehiin sign sin g sien dogmatic domati g k domatiee construct kondzu r k t kondzuhiiji verb ve r b vevuwu partner patene r patenewu investment invedzemen t invedzemehin continue kontinu kontinuo Doudouling dodolin u u g Dodoliehehen data data datau exact esa k k t esahiii slave sa l v savuwu salv sa l v savuwu next ne k dz nedzii

La selejoin de vevuwu

Le vevuwu de Latiun ke utilije nu dze de le wadijee de Latiun ke apewuhuu i Engijeje.

La ajehiin

La ajehiin dze su la vovehu la fo dedzewuu ke nei la sivun ko la vovehu finahu.

La jentewu de u fajiji

Du la vevuwu jentewahu de u fajiji dze u vevuwu de silabehuwu singulawu, sa soun nei fohiji sufijehiin. Po fewu ke sa soun dze tse boun ve fonetie, poun nu u {u} o {o} podzi la vovehu de la vevuwu jentewahu. Le esampehuu {with me} => {ve mi} => {ve miu}; {who is he} => {ki dze go} => {ke dzeu go}; {for this} => {po ji} => {po jiu}; {the two} => {la du} => {la duo};

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