Conlang
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Dongbuzenytihach is the language spoken in the Dongbuzenytihav, an ocean located on the planet Baltus. The primary speakers are Encephalopods, inhabitants of the planet.

Dongbuzenytihach
Dongbuzenytihach
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Mostly Head-Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



Phonology[]

Consonants[]

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal m n ɲ~ŋ
Occlusive unvoiced p t t͡ɕ k
voiced b d d͡ʑ g
Fricative voiceless sibilant s ɕ x͡ɕ
non-sibilant f θ̠ x
voiced v z ʑ
Approximant w ɹ ʟ

There is an undefined sound that is most similar to the "sj-sound" and is commonly considered a co-articulated [x] and [ɕ]. It is a relatively rare sound in the language.

/j/, /t͡s/ and /d͡z/ are only seen in loanwords from nearby languages which have these sounds.

Vowels[]

Front Central Back
Close i y u
Close-mid ɘ ɤ
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Open a

Sound history[]

a e ə i o u ɯ y b d ɸ g j k
a ɛ ɘ i ɔ u ɯ y b d f g ɟ ʝ k c
a ɛ ɘ i ɔ u ɤ y b d f g d͡ʑ ʑ k t͡ɕ
ʟ m n ŋ p ɹ s t x z β β̞ʷ θ̠
ʟ m n ŋ p ɹ s t x ç z v w θ̠
ɫ m n ɲ p ɹ s t x ɕ x͡ɕ z v w θ̠

Writing system[]

Dongbuzenytihach, like many other Encephalopod languages, use a sophisticated combining script, referred outside of the planet as "Encephalopod script", but called in the language "Lapore Kapurafete".

Transcription[]

a b ɕ d d͡z d͡ʑ ɛ ɘ f g i j k ʟ m n ɲ/ŋ
a b c d dz[1] dj ä e f g i j [1] k l m n ng
ɔ p ɹ s t t͡s t͡ɕ u ɤ v w x x͡ɕ y z ʑ θ̠
o p r s t ts[1] tc u ô v w h ç y z j th

Glyphs[]

Decipher.png

To transcribe loanwords with /ts/ and /dz/, one takes the glyphs for /t͡ɕ/ and /d͡ʑ/ respectively, and adds a vertical stroke in the middle of the glyph.

Phonotactics[]

Thanks to the null glyphs, the phonotactics are slightly more variable than the script could suggest. Some of the most common formations include CV and V.

Sound Changes[]

  • /ɤ/ becomes [o] after /w/.
  • /k/, /g/, /x/, /ŋ/ shift to [c], [ɟ], [ç], [ɲ] respectively before /i/, /y/.
  • /ɹ/, /ʟ/ become [j], [ʎ] respectively before /i/, /y/.
  • /i/, /y/ shift to [ɨ], [ʉ] after /w/.
  • /i/,/y/ also shift to [ɪ], [ʏ] after /s/, /z/.
  • In many positions, /ʟ/ is realized as [ɫ].

Grammar[]

Dongbuzenytihach grammar is relatively complex, as the language is fusional.

Verbs[]

Verbs conjugate according to mood, tense, person, number and aspect. Each verb can have one of two endings, -oti and -iti. The vowels in the conjugation depend on the infinitive form's suffix and ending. <o> is often substituted by <e>, while <i> is replaced by <y> in the same positions. Verbs have an indicative mood with present, past and future tense, the latter two of which can have a perfective and an imperfective form, an interrogative mood, an imperative mood and a subjunctive mood with present, past and future tense. Verbs can also be negated by adding the prefix tce- if the verbs starts with a consonant, and tced- if the verb starts with a vowel.

The short verb oti (to be) has an own conjugation, although it mostly follows the conjugation pattern of -oti verbs. Oti has an archaic form that is ogoti, which reflects most changes in the conjugation.

-oti verbs[]

Inf = recoti Indicative Imperative Subjunctive Optative
Present Past Future Present Present Past Future Future
Perfective Imperfective Perfective Imperfective
se reco recemo recemiro recetho recethiro / receo recomo recotho recethopo
tca recu recemu recemiru recethelu recetheliru rece receu recomu recothu recethelopu
do rece receme recemire recethe recethire rece recey recome recothe recethope
ku recuto recemuto recemito recethuso recethiso recuto recuto recomuto recothuso recethoputo
recoto recemoto recemito recethoso recethiso / recoto recomoto recothoso recethopoto
bu recoze recemoze recemozi recethoze recethozi recoze recoze recomoze recothoze recethopoze
recake recemake recemaki recethake recethaki recake recako recomake recothake recethopake

-iti verbs[]

Inf = katciti Indicative Imperative Subjunctive Optative
Present Past Future Present Past Future Future
Perfective Imperfective Perfective Imperfective
se katci katcimo katcimiro katcytho katcithilori / katcyi katcymo katcytho katcythipo
tca katcu katcimu katcimiru katcythu katcithiru katcy katcypze katcymu katcythu katcythipu
do katcy katcimi katcimiri katcythi katcithiri katcy katcye katcymi katcythi katcythipe
ku katcuto katcymuto katcymito katcithuso katcithiso katcuto katcuto katcymuto katcythuso katcythiputo
katcoto katcymito katcymito katcythoso katcythiso / katcoto katcymoto katcythoso katcythipoto
bu katcozy katcimozy katcimozi katcithozy katcithozi katcozy katcozy katcymoze katcythozy katcythipozy
katcoky katcimake katcimaki katcithake katcithaki katcaky katcaky katcymoka katcythia katcythipaky

Nouns[]

Nouns can have three suffixes: -a, -e, and -o. To create a possessive noun, one replaces the final suffix with itself preceeded by -äh-. These can be interpreted as adjectives. There are four historical cases cases, although three of them are merged into "Oblique" - Accusative; Genitive and Dative.

Declension Example word root Singular suffix Plural suffix Singular Plural
Nominative Oblique Nominative Oblique Nominative Oblique Nominative Oblique
1st declension fôr- (a unit of capacity) -a -o fôra fôro fôrä fôrô
2nd declension goh- (tentacle) -o -e -u -e goho gohe gohu gohe
3rd declension däjiv- (an animal) -e -i -u -e däjive däjivi dajivu dajive
Exception seth- (religion) -∅ -∅ seth seth sethä sethô

Adjectives[]

Adjectives form the same declension pattern as their respective nouns. The following table declines the root "wicos-", "slimy". Adjectives are post-nominal, meaning that they come after the noun they are referring to. Possessives are treated as adjectives as well, as such they are declined identically to the adjective in the table.

Declination Singular suffix Plural suffix Singular Plural
1st declination -a wicosa wicosä
2nd declination -o -u wicoso wicosu
3rd declination -e wicose wicosu

Articles[]

There are no indeterminative articles. Determinative articles have 6 forms, depending on the noun referred to, and come before the referred-to noun.

Singular Plural
1st ra
2nd ro ru
3rd re ru

Adpositions[]

Adpositions in Dongbuzenytihach are prepositions, since the language is majorly head-initial. They are inflected and agree with the head as if it were nominative-accusative, however the head is usually genitive-dative when used after a preposition.. Some prepositions include: tco (to), nge (from), ze (of), tha (because of) and po (by, using).

Syntax[]

Word order[]

The word order is commonly SVO.

Interrogative particles[]

Dongbuzenytihach uses interrogative particles to denote quesitons. One such particle is ki, which is used to confirm a statement. If the statement is agreed upon, the listener responds "ki" as well, while in the opposite case, the listener responds "tce", which assumes the value of "no", or negation.

Another particle is a, which is used after information-seeking questions.

Lexicon[]

See Dongbuzenytihach/Vocabulary.

Notes[]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Used in loanwords

Example Text[]