Dongbuzenytihach is the language spoken in the Dongbuzenytihav, an ocean located on the planet Baltus. The primary speakers are Encephalopods, inhabitants of the planet.

Dongbuzenytihach
Dongbuzenytihach
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Priori
Head direction
Mostly Head-Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

Classification

Dongbuzenytihach is one of the East Kifekutulan languages, a relatively large language family native to Baltus. Other languages of this family include Kifekutuleshi and Razimgopyts, as well as the extinct language of Banlokame.

Phonology

Consonants

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal m n ŋ
Occlusive unvoiced p t (t͡s) t͡ɕ k
voiced b d (d͡z) d͡ʑ g
Fricative sibilant s ɕ x͡ɕ
non-sibilant f θ̠ x
voiced v z ʑ
Approximant w ɹ (j) ʟ

There is an undefined sound that is most similar to the "sj-sound" and is commonly considered a co-articulated [x] and [ɕ]. It is a relatively rare sound in the language.

/j/, /t͡s/ and /d͡z/ are only seen in loanwords from nearby languages which have these sounds.

Vowels

Front Central Back
Close i y u
Close-mid ɘ ɤ
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Open a

Writing system

Dongbuzenytihach, like many other Encephalopod languages, use a sophisticated combining script, referred outside of the planet as "Encephalopod script".

Transcription

a b ɕ d d͡z d͡ʑ ɛ ɘ f g i j k ʟ m n ŋ
a b ś d dz ä e f g i j [1] k l m n ng
ɔ p ɹ s t t͡s t͡ɕ u ɤ v w x x͡ɕ y z ʑ θ̠
o p r s t c ć u ô v w h ś y z ź th

Glyphs

Decipher.png

To transcribe loanwords with /ts/ and /dz/, one takes the glyphs for /t͡ɕ/ and /d͡ʑ/ respectively, and adds a vertical stroke in the middle of the glyph.

Phonotactics

Thanks to the null glyphs, the phonotactics are slightly more variable than the script could suggest. Some of the most common formations include (CV)CVCV and CV(C)CV. The loanwords in the language can include a /j/.

Sound Changes

  • /ɤ/ becomes [o] after /w/.
  • /k/, /g/, /x/, /ŋ/ shift to [c], [ɟ], [ç], [ɲ] respectively before /i/, /y/.
  • /ɹ/, /ʟ/ become [j], [ʎ] respectively before /i/, /y/.
  • /i/, /y/ shift to [ɨ], [ʉ] after /w/.
  • /i/,/y/ also shift to [ɪ], [ʏ] after /s/, /z/.
  • In many positions, /ʟ/ is realized as [ɫ].

Grammar

Dongbuzenytihach grammar is relatively complex, as the language is fusional.

Verbs

Verbs conjugate according to mood, tense, person, number and aspect. Each verb can have one of two endings, -oti and -iti. The vowels in the conjugation depend on the infinitive form's suffix and ending. <o> is often substituted by <e>, while <i> is replaced by <y> in the same positions. Verbs have an indicative mood with present, past and future tense, the latter two of which can have a perfective and an imperfective form, an interrogative mood, an imperative mood and a subjunctive mood with present, past and future tense. Verbs can also be negated by adding the prefix ćô- if the verbs starts with a consonant, and ćôd- if the verb starts with a vowel.

The short verb oti (to be) has an own conjugation, although it mostly follows the conjugation pattern of -oti verbs. Oti has an archaic form that is ogoti, which reflects most changes in the conjugation.

-oti verbs

Inf = reśoti Indicative Imperative Subjunctive
Present Past Future Present Past Future
Perfective Imperfective Perfective Imperfective
se reśol reśomal reśomaleri reśethol reśetholeri - reśepol reśemol reśethopol
ća reśeze reśomze reśomzeri reśetheze reśethezeri reśez reśepze reśemze reśethopze
do reśeka reśomaka reśomakari reśethaka reśethakari reśek reśefka reśemaka reśethofka
sô/ky reśeto reśometo reśometori reśethel reśetheleri reśet reśefto reśemeto reśethofto
bo reśezô reśomzô reśomzôri reśethezô reśethezôri reśezwa reśepzô reśemzô reśethopzô
vi reśekä reśomakä reśomakäri reśethakä reśethakäri reśekwa reśefkä reśemakä reśethofkä

-iti verbs

Inf = kaćiti Indicative Imperative Subjunctive
Present Past Future Present Past Future
Perfective Imperfective Perfective Imperfective
se kaćil kaćimal kaćimalori kaćithil kaćithilori - kaćypol kaćymol kaćythipol
ća kaćyze kaćimze kaćimzeri kaćithyze kaćithyzeri kaćyz kaćypze kaćymze kaćythipze
do kaćyka kaćimaka kaćimakari kaćithaka kaćithakari kaćyk kaćyfka kaćymaka kaćythifka
sô/ky kaćito kaćimito kaćimitori kaćithyl kaćithylori kaćit kaćyfto kaćymyto kaćythifto
bo kaćyzô kaćimzô kaćimzôri kaćithyzô kaćithyzôri kaćyzwa kaćypzô kaćymzô kaćythipzô
vi kaćykä kaćimakä kaćimakäri kaćithykä kaćithykäri kaćykwa kaćyfkä kaćymakä kaćythifkä

Be verb

Inf = oti Indicative Imperative Subjunctive
Present Past Future Past
se egol omal ethol - ogepol
ća eze omze etheze ez epze
do ogeka omaka ethaka ogek ogefka
sô/ky eto ometo ethel et efto
bo ezô omzô ethezô ezwa epzô
vi ogekä omakä ethakä ogekwa ogefkä

Nouns

Nouns can have three suffixes: -a, -e, and -o. Their plural form is -ä, -ô and -u, respectively.To create a possessive noun, one replaces the final suffix with itself preceeded by -äh-. These can be interpreted as adjectives. Both nouns and pronouns lack cases .

Declension Example word root Singular suffix Plural suffix Singular Singular possessive Plural Plural possessive
1st declension fôr- (a unit of capacity) -a fôra fôräha fôrä fôrähä
2nd declension goh- (tentacle) -o -u goho gohäho gohu gohähu
3rd declension däźiv- (an animal) -e däźive däźivähe däźivô däźivähô
Exception seth- (religion) -∅ seth sethäh sethä sethähä

Adjectives

Adjectives form the same declension pattern as their respective nouns. The following table declines the root "wiśos-", "slimy". Adjectives are post-nominal, meaning that they come after the noun they are referring to. Possessives are treated as adjectives as well, as such they are declined identically to the adjective in the table.

Declination Singular suffix Plural suffix Singular Plural
1st declination -a wiśosa wiśosä
2nd declination -o -u wiśoso wiśosu
3rd declination -e wiśose wiśosô

Articles

There are no indeterminative articles. Determinative articles have 6 forms, depending on the noun referred to, and come before the referred-to noun.

Singular Plural
1st ra
2nd ro ru
3rd re

Adpositions

Adpositions in Dongbuzenytihach are prepositions, since the language is majorly head-initial. Some prepositions include: ćo/ću (to), nge/ngô (from), ze/zô (of), tha/thä (because of) and po/pu (by, using). Historically, these prepositions were prefixes, but they slowly started to detach and transformed into separate particles.

Syntax

Word order

The word order is commonly SVO. Absence of cases makes this rule relatively strict.

Interrogative particles

Dongbuzenytihach uses interrogative particles to denote quesitons. One such particle is ka, which is used to confirm a statement. If the statement is agreed upon, the listener responds "ka" as well, while in the opposite case, the listener responds "će", which assumes the value of "no", or negation.

Another particle is a, which is used after information-seeking questions.

Lexicon

See Dongbuzenytihach/Vocabulary.

Notes

  1. Used in loanwords
Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted.