Conlang

Dongbuzenytihach is the language spoken in the Dongbuzenytihav, an ocean located on the planet Baltus. The primary speakers are Encephalopods, inhabitants of the planet.

Dongbuzenytihach
Dongbuzenytihach
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Priori
Head direction
Mostly Head-Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



Phonology

Consonants

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive/Affricate unvoiced p t t͡ɕ k
voiced b d d͡ʑ g
Fricative sibilant s ɕ (x͡ɕ)
non-sibilant f θ̠ x
voiced v z ʑ
Approximant central ɹ (j) w
lateral ʟ

There is an undefined sound that is most similar to the "sj-sound" and is commonly considered a co-articulated [x] and [ɕ]. It is a relatively rare sound in the language.

Vowels

Front Central Back
Close i y u
Close-mid ɘ ɤ
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Open a

Writing system

Dongbuzenytihach, like many other Encephalopod languages, use a sophisticated combining script, referred outside of the planet as "Encephalopod script".

Transcription

a b ɕ d d͡ʑ ɛ ɘ f g i j k ʟ m n ŋ
a b ś d ä e f g i j [1] k l m n ng
ɔ p ɹ s t t͡ɕ u ɤ v w x x͡ɕ y z ʑ θ̠
o p r s t ć u ô v w h ś y z ž th

Glyphs

Decipher.png

Phonotactics

Thanks to the null glyphs, the phonotactics are more variable than the script could suggest. Some of the most common formations iinclude (CV)CVCV and CVCCV. The loanwords in the language can include a /j/.

Sound Changes

  • /z/ becomes [s] before an unvoiced consonant and /s/ becomes [z] before a voiced consonant.
  • /ɤ/ becomes [o] after /w/.
  • Velar stops shift to palatal consonants before /i/, /y/.
  • /ɹ/, /ʟ/ become [j], [ʎ] respectively before /i/, /y/.
  • /i/, /y/ shift to [ɨ], [ʉ] after /w/.
  • In many positions, /ʟ/ is realized as [ɫ].

Grammar

Dongbuzenytihach grammar is relatively complex, as the language is fusional

Verbs

Verbs conjugate according to mood, tense, person, number and aspect. Each verb has one of two endings, -oti and -iti. The vowels in the conjugation depend on the infinitive form's suffix and ending. <o> is often substituted by <e>, while <i> is replaced by <y> in the same positions. Verbs have an indicative mood with present, past and future tense, the latter two of which can have a perfective and an imperfective form, an interrogative mood, an imperative mood and past subjunctive mood.

The short verb oti (to be) has an own conjugation, although it mostly follows the conjugation pattern of -oti verbs. Oti has an archaic form that is ogoti, which reflects most changes in the conjugation.

Inf = reśoti Indicative Imperative Subjunctive
Present Past Future Past
Perfective Imperfective Perfective Imperfective
se reśol reśomal reśomaleri reśethol reśetholeri - reśepol
ća reśeze reśomze reśomzeri reśetheze reśethezeri reśez reśepze
do reśeka reśomaka reśomakari reśethaka reśethakari reśek reśefka
sô/ky reśeto reśometo reśometori reśethel reśetheleri reśet reśefto
bo reśezô reśomzô reśomzôri reśethezô reśethezôri reśezwa reśepzô
vi reśekä reśomakä reśomakäri reśethakä reśethakäri reśekwa reśefkä
Inf = kaćiti Indicative Imperative Subjunctive
Present Past Future Past
Perfective Imperfective Perfective Imperfective
se kaćil kaćimal kaćimalori kaćithil kaćithilori - kaćypol
ća kaćyze kaćimze kaćimzeri kaćithyze kaćithyzeri kaćyz kaćypze
do kaćyka kaćimaka kaćimakari kaćithaka kaćithakari kaćyk kaćyfka
sô/ky kaćito kaćimito kaćimitori kaćithyl kaćithylori kaćit kaćyfto
bo kaćyzô kaćimzô kaćimzôri kaćithyzô kaćithyzôri kaćyzwa kaćypzô
vi kaćykä kaćimiakä kaćimiakäri kaćithykä kaćithykäri kaćykwa kaćyfkä

Oti (Be verb)

Inf = oti Indicative Imperative Subjunctive
Present Past Future Past
se ogol omal ethol - ogepol
ća eze omze etheze ez epze
do ogeka omaka ethaka ogek ogefka
sô/ky eto ometo ethel et efto
bo ezô omzô ethezô ezwa epzô
vi ogekä omakä ethakä ogekwa ogefkä

Nouns

Nouns can have three suffixes: -a, -e, and -o. Their plural form is -ä, -ô and -u, respectively. A noun never ends in an open front vowel, unless it is a loanword, in which case it does not conjugate.

Declination Example word root Singular suffix Plural suffix Singular Plural
1st declination fôr- (unit of capacity) -a fôra fôrä
2nd declination goh- (tentacle) -o -u goho gohu
3rd declination däźv- (an animal) -e däźive däźivô

Adjectives

Adjectives form the same declesion pattern as their respective nouns. The following table declines the root "wisios-", "slimy". Adjectives are pre-nominal, meaning that they come before the noun they are referring to.

Declination Singular suffix Plural suffix Singular Plural
1st declination -a wiśosa wiśosä
2nd declination -o -u wiśoso wiśosu
3rd declination -e wiśose wiśosô

Articles

There are no indeterminative articles. Determinative articles have 6 forms, depending on the noun referred to.

SIngular Plural
1st ra
2nd ro ru
3rd re

Adpositions

Adpositions in Dongbuzenytihach are prepositions, since the language is majorly head-initial. Some prepositions include: ćo/ću (to), nge/ngô (from), ze/zô (of), tha/thä (because of) and po/pu (by, using). Historically, these prepositions were prefixes, but they slowly started to detach and transformed into separate particles.

Syntax

Word order

The word order is commonly SVO. Absence of cases makes this rule relatively strict, however an SOV sentence is still intelligible to any speaker, despite not being encouraged by experts on the language.

Interrogative particles

Dongbuzenytihach uses interrogative particles to denote quesitons. One such particle is ka, which is used to confirm a statement. If the statement is agreed upon, the listener responds "ka" as well, while in the opposite case, the listener responds "će", which assumes the value of "no", or negation.

Another particle is a, which is used after information-seeking questions.

Lexicon

See Dongbuzenytihach/Vocabulary.

Notes

  1. Used in loanwords