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Dongbuzenytihach is the language spoken in the Dongbuzenytihav, an ocean located on the planet Baltus. The primary speakers are Encephalopods, inhabitants of the planet.

Dongbuzenytihach
Dońbuzenytihać
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Mostly Head-Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



Phonology

Consonants

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal m n ɲ~ŋ
Occlusive unvoiced p t t͡ɕ k
voiced b d d͡ʑ g
Fricative voiceless sibilant s ɕ x͡ɕ
non-sibilant f θ̠ x
voiced v z ʑ
Approximant w ɹ ɫ

There is an undefined sound that is most similar to the "sj-sound" and is commonly considered a co-articulated [x] and [ɕ]. It is a relatively rare sound in the language.

/j/, /t͡s/ and /d͡z/ are only seen in loanwords from nearby languages which have these sounds.

Vowels

Front Central Back
Close i y u
Close-mid ɘ ɤ
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Open a

/ɤ/ is silent when in unstressed position and not in the first syllable of a word.

Sound history

a e ə i o u ɯ y b d ɸ g j k
a ɛ ɘ i ɔ u ɯ y b d f g ɟ ʝ k c
a ɛ ɘ i ɔ u ɤ y b d f g d͡ʑ ʑ k t͡ɕ
ʟ m n ŋ p ɹ s t x z β β̞ʷ θ̠
ʟ m n ŋ p ɹ s t x ç z v w θ̠
ɫ m n ɲ p ɹ s t x ɕ x͡ɕ z v w θ̠

Writing system

Dongbuzenytihach, like many other Encephalopod languages, use a sophisticated combining script, referred outside of the planet as "Encephalopod script", but called in the language "Lapore Kapurafete".

Transcription

a b ɕ d d͡z d͡ʑ ɛ ɘ f g i j k ʟ m n ɲ
a b ś d dz đ ä e f g i j k l m n ń
ɔ p ɹ s t t͡s t͡ɕ u ɤ v w x x͡ɕ y z ʑ θ̠
o p r s t c ć u ë v w h y z ź þ

ISO Basic Latin friendly

a b ɕ d d͡z d͡ʑ ɛ ɘ f g i j k ʟ m n ɲ/ŋ
a b sj d dz dj @ e f g i j k l m n nj
ɔ p ɹ s t t͡s t͡ɕ u ɤ v w x x͡ɕ y z ʑ θ̠
o p r s t c cj u & v w h x y z zj th

Glyphs

Decipher.png

To transcribe loanwords with /ts/ and /dz/, one takes the glyphs for /t͡ɕ/ and /d͡ʑ/ respectively, and adds a vertical stroke in the middle of the glyph.

Words with more complex consonant clusters than CV, usually NCV or LCV, are written with the ë glyph following the sonorant.

Phonotactics

Thanks to the null glyph and ë, the phonotactics are slightly more variable than the script could suggest. Some of the most common formations include CV and V.

Sound Changes

  • /ɤ/ becomes [o] when stressed and after /w/.
  • /k/, /g/, /x/ shift to [c], [ɟ], [ç] respectively before /i/, /y/.
  • /ɹ/, /ɫ/ become [j], [ʎ] respectively before /i/, /y/.
  • /i/, /y/ shift to [ɨ], [ʉ] after /w/, /s/, /z/.

Grammar

Dongbuzenytihach grammar is relatively complex, as the language is fusional.

Verbs

Verbs conjugate according to mood, tense, person, number and aspect. Each verb can have one of two endings, -oti and -iti. The vowels in the conjugation depend on the infinitive form's suffix and ending. <o> is often substituted by <e>, while <i> is replaced by <y> in the same positions. Verbs have an indicative mood with present, past and future tense, the latter two of which can have a perfective and an imperfective form, an interrogative mood, an imperative mood and a subjunctive mood with present, past and future tense. Verbs can also assume a negative mood by adding the prefix će- if the verbs starts with a consonant, and ćed- if the verb starts with a vowel. When combined with the optative mood, the verb assumes the meaning of "may not". In -iti verbs whose roots end in -ar-, -al- or -aw-, a turns into ä if a front vowel follows the approximant, as such vubäliti => vubalu. All verbs are accented on the vowel following the root.

-oti verbs

Inf = reśoti Indicative Imperative Subjunctive Optative
Present Past Future Present Present Past Future Future
Perfective Imperfective Perfective Imperfective
se reśo reśemo reśemiro reśeþo reśeþiro / reśeo reśomo reśoþo reśeþopo
đa reśu reśemu reśemiru reśeþelu reśeþeliru reśe reśeu reśomu reśoþu reśeþelopu
do reśe reśeme reśemire reśeþe reśeþire reśe reśey reśome reśoþe reśeþope
ku reśuto reśemuto reśemito reśeþuso reśeþiso reśuto reśuto reśomuto reśoþuso reśeþoputo
reśoto reśemoto reśemito reśeþoso reśeþiso / reśoto reśomoto reśoþoso reśeþopoto
đä reśoze reśemoze reśemozi reśeþoze reśeþozi reśoze reśoze reśomoze reśoþoze reśeþopoze
du reśake reśemake reśemaki reśeþake reśeþaki reśake reśako reśomake reśoþake reśeþopake
Converbs reśerä (while), reśä (after)

-iti verbs

Inf = kaćiti Indicative Imperative Subjunctive Optative
Present Past Future Present Past Future Future
Perfective Imperfective Perfective Imperfective
se kaći kaćimo kaćimiro kaćyþo kaćiþilori / kaćyi kaćymo kaćyþo kaćyþipo
đa kaću kaćimu kaćimiru kaćyþu kaćiþiru kaćy kaćypze kaćymu kaćyþu kaćyþipu
do kaćy kaćimi kaćimiri kaćyþi kaćiþiri kaćy kaćye kaćymi kaćyþi kaćyþipe
ku kaćuto kaćymuto kaćymito kaćiþuso kaćiþiso kaćuto kaćuto kaćymuto kaćyþuso kaćyþiputo
kaćoto kaćymito kaćymito kaćyþoso kaćyþiso / kaćoto kaćymoto kaćyþoso kaćyþipoto
đä kaćozy kaćimozy kaćimozi kaćiþozy kaćiþozi kaćozy kaćozy kaćymoze kaćyþozy kaćyþipozy
du kaćaky kaćimake kaćimaki kaćiþake kaćiþaki kaćaky kaćaky kaćymoka kaćyþia kaćyþipaky
Converbs kaćirä (while), kaćä (after)

Nouns

Nouns can have three suffixes: -a, -e, and -o. To create a possessive noun, one replaces the final suffix with itself preceeded by -äh-. These can be interpreted as adjectives. There are four historical cases cases, although three of them are merged into "Oblique" - Accusative; Genitive and Dative.

Declension Example word root Singular suffix Plural suffix Singular Plural
Nominative Oblique Nominative Oblique Nominative Oblique Nominative Oblique
1st declension fër- (a unit of capacity) -a -o fëra fëro fërä fërë
2nd declension goh- (tentacle) -o -e -u -e goho gohe gohu gohe
3rd declension däźiv- (an animal) -e -i -u -e däźive däźivi däźivu däźive
Exception seþ- (religion) seþë seþë seþä seþë

Adjectives

Adjectives form the same declension pattern as their respective nouns. The following table declines the root "wiśos-", "slimy". Adjectives are post-nominal, meaning that they come after the noun they are referring to. Possessives are treated as adjectives as well, as such they are declined identically to the adjective in the table.

Declension Singular suffix Plural suffix Singular Plural
Nominative Oblique Nominative Oblique Nominative Oblique Nominative Oblique
1st declension -a -o wiśosa wiśoso wiśosä wiśosë
2nd declension -o -e -u -e wiśoso wiśose wiśosu wiśosa
3rd declension -e -i -u -e wiśose wiśosi wiśosu wiśosa

Articles

There are no indeterminative articles. Determinative articles have 6 forms, depending on the noun referred to, and come before the referred-to noun.

Singular Plural
1st ra
2nd ro ru
3rd re ru

Adpositions

Adpositions in Dongbuzenytihach are postpositions. They are inflected and agree with the head as if it were nominative, however the head is usually oblique when used before a postposition. Some postpositions include: ćo (to), nge (from), ze (of), þa (because of) and po (by, using).

Pronouns

Pronoun Nominative Oblique Reflexive
1SG se su pyćisu
2SG đa đo pyćiđo
3SG do de pyćide
1PL INCL ku ku pyćiku
1PL EXCL se pyćise
2PL đä đë pyćiđë
3PL du de pyćide

Syntax

Word order

The word order is commonly SVO.

Interrogative particles

Dongbuzenytihach uses interrogative particles to denote quesitons. One such particle is ki, which is used to confirm a statement. If the statement is agreed upon, the listener responds "ki" as well, while in the opposite case, the listener responds "će", which assumes the value of "no", or negation.

Another particle is a, which is used after information-seeking questions. In case the answerer is not aware of the answer, they respond "ćewäri", which roughly translates as "I don't know".

Lexicon

See Dongbuzenytihach/Vocabulary.

Dialects

Subarctic Dongbuzenytihach

This variant of Dongbuzenytihach is spoken in northern colonies of the Dongbuzenytihav. It is characterized by lowering of central vowels, somewhat conservative liquids and nasals, post\alveolarization of alveolar fricatives and a v/w merger into ʋ.

Kifekutulan Dongbuzenytihach

Heavily influenced my neighbouring languages, Kifekutulan Dongbuzenytihach is most notable for its removal of unstressed high vowels in unstressed positions after obstruents. It also demonstrates partial de-palatalization of palatal consonants and voiced stop lenition intervocalicaly.

Comparison

Standard Dongbuzenytihach Subarctic Dongbuzenytihach Kifekutulan Dongbuzenytihach
a ä a if next vowel is {ɛ,i,y}

ɑ elsewhere

ɛ æ ɛ
ɘ ɘ~ɵ ə
i i ʲ after obstruents when unstressed

i elsewhere

ɔ ɒ ɔ
u u ʷ after obstruents when unstressed

u elsewhere

ɤ ʌ silent when unstressed

ɯ elsewhere

y y ʲʷ after obstruents when unstressed

y elsewhere

b b b at the beginning of a word

β between vowels

d d at the beginning of a word

ð̲ between vowels

f f xʷ~ɸ
g g g at the beginning of a word

ɣ between vowels

d͡ʑ d͡ʑ d͡zʲ
ʑ ʑ
k k k
t͡ɕ t͡ɕ t͡sʲ
ɫ ʟ~ɫ ɫ
m m m
n n n
ɲ ŋ
p p p
ɹ ɹʷ j after {i, y}

ɹ elsewhere

s ʃ s
t t
x x x
ɕ ɕ
x͡ɕ x͡ɕ x͡sʲ
z ʒ z
v ʋ β
w ʋ β̞ʷ
θ̲ θ̲ θ̲
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