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Drevljanski
Древляаньскiй єзик
Type East Slavic ?
Alignment Nominative-accusative
Head direction Final
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders Four
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 0%
Statistics
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words of 1500
Creator exospheric-pressure

Drevljanski /drɛvˈliɑnski/ (древляаньскiй єзик drevljan'skij jezyk /drɛʋʎaɲskɪj jezʲɪk/) is an East Slavic language native to southern Belarus and northern Ukraine, as well as in large diaspora communities in eastern Poland and across the United States. It has no official status in any country, but it a recognized minority language in Ukraine, Belarus, Poland, and a handful of counties in northwestern New York. Written Drevljanski uses a variant of the Ukrainian alphabet with the addition of ⟨ё⟩ /jo/.

Classification and DialectsEdit

While traditionally grouped with East Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family, modern linguists are split as to the origins of the Drevljanski language. While some still argue for the traditional grouping, others suggest that Russification of the Drevljanski has caused it to absorb loanwords and some grammar but remains its own separate branch of the Slavic family, as its relation to Old East Slavic is unverified.

Drevljanski came into its modern form in the late 18th century, but with the Russian Empire banning minority languages such as Polish and Ukrainian, it fell out of popular use, except in small areas between Ukraine and Belarus, with some escaping into rural Poland as well. With the fall of the Soviet Union, many Drevljanski emigrated to the United States. Drevljanski has no regulatory body, but are highly intelligible between dialects.

There are two major dialects of the language: Volhynian and Polesian, also called West and East, respectively. Volhynian dialects, common in Poland and Ukraine, tend toward full palatalization (/tʲ/ → /c/) and penultimate stress, as well as preferring the labiodental fricative to the approximant, while Polesian, common in eastern Ukraine and Belarus, prefers the retroflex fricatives and affricates. In general, American speakers tend to favor Volhynian features, though notable exceptions are speakers in Lewis and Schuyler counties in New York, where most have a noticeably Polesian way of speaking.

Drevljanski Sprachbund

Speakers of Drevljanski in Eastern Europe and New York State. The European map shows where Drevljanski is spoken most often, however, no density of speakers is shown. The New York map shows counties where 20,000 speakers and/or ≥ 5% of residents speak Drevljanski.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar
Nasal m n ɲ (ŋ)1
Plosive p b t d (c ɟ)3 k g
Fricative f (v)2 s z ʃ ʒ (ʂ ʐ)3 (ç)1 x
Affricate t͡θ2,4 t͡s d͡z t͡ʃ d͡ʒ (t͡ʂ d͡ʐ)3 k͡x2,4
Approximant ʋ j5
Trill r
Fricative Trill 5

1 Allophonic sounds, found in all dialects

2 Found in the Volhynian dialects

3 Found in the Polesian dialects

4 Occur where an aspirated stop would normally be expected in other Slavic languages. /t͡θ/ more common in rural areas and American speakers.

5 All consonants are subject to palatalization except for /j r̝/

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
High i u
Near-high ɪ ʊ
High-mid e o
Mid ə
Low-mid ɛ ʌ ɔ
Near-low
Low ä

PhonotacticsEdit

Writing SystemEdit

The Drevljanski alphabet is based on the Ukrainian and Russian alphabet and contains 33 letters. Most Drevljanski keyboards have the same layout as Ukrainian keyboards, sometimes with an added ⟨ё⟩ key because of of the host of words in the Drevljanski vocabulary with it.

Letter Aa Бб Вв Гг Дд Ее Ёё Єє Жж Зз Ии Ii
Sound /a/ /b/ /v~ʋ/ /g/ /d/ /e/ /jo~ʲo/ /je~ʲe/ /ʒ~ʐ/ /z/ /ʲɛ/ /i~ɪ/
Letter Її Йй Кк Лл Мм Нн Оо Пп Pp Cc Тт Уу
Sound /ji~ʲi/ /ɪ̯/ /k~k͡x/ /ɫ/ /m/ /n/ /o~ɔ/ /p/ /r/ /s/ /t~t͡θ/ /u~ʊ/
Letter Фф Xx Цц Чч Шш Щщ Ьь Юю Яя
Sound /f/ /x/ /t͡s/ /t͡ʃ~t͡ʂ/ /ʃ~ʂ/ /ʃt͡ʃ~ʂt͡ʂ/ /ʲ/ /ju~ʲu/ /ja~ʲa/

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

The nominal declension has seven cases (nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, instrumental, locative, and vocative), in three numbers (singular, dual, and plural), and obeying grammatical gender (masculine, feminine, and neuter). Adjectives, pronouns, and the first two cardinal numbers have gender specific forms. The forms, particularly noticeable in spelling, are also determined by whether the word ends in a "soft," palatalized, or "hard," unpalatalized consonant.

There are four major declension patterns for normal nouns: masculine, animate masculine, feminine, and neuter. Below are examples of regular declension patterns. Acute accents indicated stress and are only used in linguistic works.

Masculine inanimate Edit

гроб "grave" and грïш "sin"

Singular (Hard) Dual (Hard) Plural (Hard) Singular (Soft) Dual (Soft) Plural (Soft)
Nominative гроб (grob) грóбa (gróba) грóбi (gróbi) грïш (grjiš) грḯxa (grjíha) грḯxi (grjihi)
Accusative грóби (gróby) грḯxи (grjíhy)
Genitive грóбa (gróba) грóбy (gróbu) грóбов (gróbov) грḯxa (grjíha) грḯxy (grjíhu) грḯxов (grjíhov)
Locative грóбy (gróbu) грóбeш (gróbeš) грḯxy (grjíhu) грḯxy (grjíhu) грḯшeш (grjíšeš)
Dative грoбóмa (grobóma) грóбoм (gróbom) грḯxóмa (grjihóma) грḯxoм (grjíhom)
Instrumental грóбом (gróbom) грóби (gróby) грḯxoм (grjíhom) грḯxи (grjíhy)
Vocative грóбe (gróbe) грóбa (gróba) грóбi (gróbi) грḯшe (grjíše) грḯxa (grjíha) грïш (grjiš)

Masculine animate Edit

посол "ambassador" and нeтoпирь "bat (flying mammal)"

Singular (Hard)

Dual (Hard) Plural (Hard)

Singular (Soft)

Dual (Soft) Plural (Soft)
Nominative пóсол (pósol) посóлa (posóla) посóлi (posóli) нéтoпирь (nétopyr') нéтoпиря (nétopyrja) нéтoпирї (nétopyrji)
Accusative посóлa (posóla) посóлy (posólu) посóлов (posólov) нéтoпиря (nétopyrja) нéтoпирю (nétopyrju) нéтoпирёв (nétopyrjov)
Genitive
Locative посóлy (posólu) посóлeш (posóleš) нéтoпирю (nétopyrju) нéтoпирїx (nétopyrjih)
Dative посoлóмa (posolóma) посóлoм (posólom) нéтoпирєма (nétopyrjema) нéтoпирєм (nétopyrjem)
Instrumental посóлoм (posólom) посóли (posóly) нéтoпирїm (nétopyrjim) нéтoпирї (nétopyrji)
Vocative посóлe (posóle) посóлa (posóla) посóлi (posóli) нéтoпирю (nétopyrju) нéтoпиря (nétopyrja)

Feminine Edit

гyба "fungus, mushroom" and ёpoть "war"

Singular (Hard)

Dual (Hard) Plural (Hard

Singular (Soft)

Dual (Soft) Plural (Soft)
Nominative гýба (gúba) гýбї (gúbji) гýби (gúby) ёpóть (jorót') ёpóтi (joróti)
Accusative гýбy (gúbu)
Genitive гýби (gúby) гýбy (gúbu) гyб (gub) ëpóтi (joróti) ёpóчу (joróču)1 ёpóт (jórot)
Locative гýбi (gúbi) гýбaш (gúbaš) ёpóтi (joróti)
Dative гyбáмa (gubáma) гýбaм (gúbam) ёpoти́ма (jorotýma) ёpóти́м (jorótým)
Instrumental гýбом (gúbom) ёpóщю (joróshchju) ёpóтмi (jorotmi)
Vocative гýбо (gúbo) гýбї (gúbji) гýби (gúby) ёpóтi (joróti)

1 Unintegrated form ёротю also common.

Neuter Edit

ёзеро "lake, pond" and полє "field"

Singular (Hard) Dual (Hard) Plural (Hard)

Singular (Soft)

Dual (Soft) Plural (Soft)

Nominative

ë́зеро (józero) ë́зери (józery) ë́зерa (józera) пóлє (pólje) пóлї (pólji) пóля (pólja)
Accusative
Genitive ë́зерa (józera) ë́зерy (józeru) ë́зeр (józer) пóля (pólja) пóлю (pólju) пoль (polj)
Locative ë́зерy (józeru) ë́зеш (józeš) пóлю (pólju) пóлїx (póljih)
Dative ë́зерiмa (józerima) ë́зерiм (józerim) пóлєма (póljema) пóлєм (póljem)

Instrumental

ë́зерoм (józerom) ë́зери (józery) пóлєм (póljem) пóлї (pólji)

Vocative

ë́зеро (józero) ë́зери (józery) ë́зерa (józera) пóлє (pólje) пóлї (pólji) пóля (pólja)

Fleeting-A Edit

Fleeting-A nouns are masculine nouns where the stemmed-A in the final syllable nucleus before the final coda sound is removed, so-called because it seems as if the A is fleeting and has moved to the end before declining. This almost always occurs in polysyllabic words, but also in a few monosyllabic words as well. When the noun has a palatalized ending, the declension is usually unpalatalized, as in the example below. The Fleeting-A is comparable to Serbo-Croatian nouns in similar circumstances.

рибарь "fisherman"

Singular

Dual

Plural

Nominative

рибарь рибрa рибрї
Accusative рибрa рибрy рибaров
Genitive
Locative рибрi рибрeш
Dative рибрy рибрoма рибрoм

Instrumental

рибром рибри

Vocative

рибрe рибрa рибрi

Running-N Edit

Running-N nouns are nouns which are inherited from Proto-Slavic words that end in *ę. This sound in Proto-Slavic was nasalized and was decoupled in declensions where the *ę is in the final syllable's coda in the nominative singular, where it is usually /ʲe/.

iме "name"

Singular

Dual

Plural

Nominative

iмє iменi iменa
Accusative
Genitive iменa iменy iмє
Locative iменy iменеш
Dative iменiма iменoм

Instrumental

iменoм iмени

Vocative

iме iменi iменa

Soft-K Edit

Soft-K nouns are nouns in which the /k/ is palatalized to /t͡s/ due to the following vowel. Unlike fleeting-A's and running-N's, soft-K's can be of any gender, but they only affect hard nouns.

рика "river" f

Singular

Dual

Plural

Nominative

рика рицi рици
Accusative рикy рици
Genitive рици рикy рик
Locative рицi рикаш
Dative рикамa рикам

Instrumental

рикoм

Vocative

рикo рицi рици
клобук "hat" m
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative клобук клобукa клубуцi
Accusative клубуци
Genitive клобукa клобуку клубуков
Locative клобуку клубукеш
Dative клубукомa клубуцoм
Instrumental клубуком клубуци
Vocative клубуче клобукa клубуцi

ëзерeкo "pond" n

Singular Dual Plural
Nominative ëзерeкo ëзерeци ëзерeка
Accusative
Genitive ëзерeка ëзерeку ëзерeк
Locative ëзерeку ëзерeкеш
Dative ëзерeцiмa ëзерeцiм
Instrumental ëзерeком ëзерeци
Vocative ëзерeкo ëзерeци ëзерeка

Pronouns Edit

First-person

Singular Dual Plural
Nominative Я1 вє ми

Accusative

ме на нас

Genitive

мене наю
Locative мнє нам
Dative мi, мнє2 нама
Instrumental мном намi

1 Always capitalized as in English

2 Used after prepositions or for emphasis

Second-person

Singular Dual Plural
Nominative ти вa вi

Accusative

те вас

Genitive

тебе ваю
Locative тебє вам
Dative тi, тебє1 вама
Instrumental тобом вамi

1 Used after prepositions or for emphasis

Third-person Edit
Singular Dual Plural

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Nominative

ён онa оно ёнa онї онi они онa

Accusative

го, нєго1 её, неё1 го, нєго1 ею, нєю1 iх, нїх1

Genitive

Locative iм, нїм1 ёй, нёй1 iм, нїм1 ею, нєю1 нямi
Dative му, нєму1 ей, ней1 му, нєму1 iмa, нїмa1 aм, нямi1 aм, нямi1
Instrumental нїм нём нїм нямi

1 Used after prepositions or for emphasis

Reflexive Edit

Singular/Dual/Plural

Nominative N/A

Accusative

се

Genitive

Locative себi
Dative сi, себi1
Instrumental собом

1 Used after prepositions or for emphasis

Possessive Edit

First-person

Singular Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter

Nominative/Vocative

мой моя моє наш нашa нашe
Accusative animate мог мою нашeг нашy
inanimate мой наш
Genitive мог моє мог нашeг нашей нашeг
Locative мом мом нашем нашем
Dative
Instrumental моїм нашiм
Plural Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter

Nominative/Vocative

мої мои моя нашi наши нашa
Accusative animate моїx нашiх
inanimate мои наши
Genitive моїx нашiх
Locative
Dative моїм нашiм
Instrumental

Second-person

Singular Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter

Nominative/Vocative

твой твоя твоє ваш вашa вашe
Accusative animate твог твою вашeг вашy
inanimate твой ваш
Genitive твог твоє твог вашeг вашей вашeг
Locative твом твом вашем вашем
Dative
Instrumental твоїм вашiм
Plural Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter

Nominative/Vocative

твої твои твоя вашi ваши вашa
Accusative animate твоїx вашix
inanimate твои ваши
Genitive твоїx вашix
Locative
Dative твоїм вашiм
Instrumental

Third-person

Singular Possessor Masculine Feminine Neuter
Possessee Masc. Fem. Neu. Masc. Fem. Neu. Masc. Fem. Neu.

Nominative/Vocative

нєгов нєговa нєговo ий ия иє нєгов нєговa нєговo
Accusative animate нєг нєгову иг ию нєг нєгову
inanimate нєгов ий нєгов
Genitive нєг нєгоє нєг иг иє иг нєг нєгоє нєг
Locative нєгом нєгом им им нєгом нєгом
Dative
Instrumental нєгiм ийм нєгiм
Plural Possessor Masculine Feminine Neuter
Possessees Masc. Fem. Neu. Masc. Fem. Neu. Masc. Fem. Neu.

Nominative/Vocative

нєговi нєгови нєговa иї ии ия нєговi нєгови нєговa
Accusative animate нєгiх иїх / иш нєгiх
inanimate нєгови ии нєгови
Genitive нєгiх иїх / иш нєгiх
Locative
Dative нєгiм
Instrumental
Singular Possessors All Genders
Possessee Masculine Feminine Neuter

Nominative/Vocative

нїхов нїховa нїховo
Accusative animate нїхог нїховy
inanimate нїхов
Genitive нїхог нїхоє нїхог
Locative нїхом нїхом
Dative
Instrumental нїхiм
Plural Possessors All Genders
Possessees Masculine Feminine Neuter

Nominative/Vocative

нїховi нїхови нїховa
Accusative animate нїх
inanimate нїхови
Genitive нїх
Locative
Dative нїхiм
Instrumental

Adjectives Edit

Indefinite declension Edit

бєлiй "white"

Singular

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter
Nominative/Vocative бєл бєлa бєлo
Accusative animate бєлa бєлy
inanimate бєл
Genitive бєлa бєли бєлa
Locative бєлy бєлой бєлy
Dative
Instrumental бєлiм бєлoм бєлiм
Plural

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Nominative бєлi бєлe бєлa
Accusative animate бєлix
inanimate бєли
Genitive бєлix
Locative бєлїx бєлaш бєлїx
Dative бєлoм бєлaм бєлoм
Instrumental бєлiм

Definite declension Edit

Singular

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Nominative бєлiй бєлая бєлоє
Accusative animate бєлєгo (бєлог) бєлаю
inanimate бєлiй
Genitive бєлєгo (бєлог) бєлий бєлєгo (бєлог)
Locative бєлим бєлiй бєлим
Dative бєлoм бєлoм
Instrumental бєлїм бєлём бєлїм
Plural Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative бєлї бєлий бєлая
Accusative animate бєлїx
inanimate бєлий
Genitive бєлїx
Locative бєлєш
Dative бєлим
Instrumental

VerbsEdit

Grammatical conjugation is subject to three persons in three numbers and three simple tenses (non-past, future, and past), with periphrastic forms for the future and conditional, as well as imperative forms. Drevljanski is unique in the Slavic family because it does not distinguish between the perfective and imperfective aspects; these are signified with grammar.

Typically, the imperfective aspect is the default for the past tense (i.e., Я чекал "I was waiting"), while the perfective is formed by using the Proto-Slavic aorist tense as a participle. The exact mechanics of how this came to be is hotly debated among Slavicists, but some linguists have suggested that the aorist's lack of tense-marking, and the perfect falling out of use, led to it fill the empty gap in grammar. In some dialects, the perfective is formed by using the past tense form of бить + по + active participle in the dative case (Я бил по чекалу "I waited/I (was) finished waiting" also cf. Irish English I was after eating), however this form is considered ungrammatical and only used by older speakers in the westernmost parts of the sprachbund. In everyday communication, the imperfective is typically preferred for simplicity, but it is common in writing, broadcasting, and formal events (esp. newspapers, television, etc.) to use the perfective. Old prefixes that indicated aspect as in other Slavic languages have been largely dropped, had their meaning changed through semantic drift, or been flatly ignored and used regardless of its original grammatical duty.

Regular conjugation Edit

знать "to know"

Number

Singular

Dual

Plural
Person

1st

2nd

3rd (M/F/N)

1st

2nd 3rd (M/F/N) 1st 2nd 3rd (M/F/N)
Pronoun

Я

ти

ён/она/оно

вє

вa ёнa/онї/онї ми вi онi/они/онa

Present

Simple знаю знаєш знат знав зната знаєте знам знате знают
Perfect знаш1 сeю знаш1 сeєш знаш1 сeт знаxi1 сeв знаxi1 сeта знаxi1 сeєте знаxi1 сeм знаxi1 сeте знаxi1 сeют

Future

буду знать будеш знать будет

знать

будев знать будета знать будєте знать будем знать будете знать будют знать
Past Simple Past знал1 (caм)2 знал1 (ci)2 знал1 (єст)2 зналi1 (ceв)2 зналi1 (ста)2 зналi1 (штe)2 зналi1 (cмo)2 зналi1 (стe)2 зналi1 (сут)2
Perfect знаш1 (caм)2 знаш1 (ci)2 знаш1 (єст)2 знаxi1 (ceв)2 знаxi1 (ста)2 знаxi1 (штe)2 знаxi1 (cмo)2 знаxi1 (стe)2 знаxi1 (сут)2
Pluperfect бiх знать би знать би знать биxoв знать биста знать биштe знать бихом знать бистe знать бишe

знать

Conditional

бiх знан1 би знан1 би знан1 биxoв знанi1 биста знанi1 биштe знанi1 бихом знанi1 бистe знанi1 бишe знанi1
Imperative - знай - знаїв знайта - знайм знайтe -
Active past participle знал m / зналa f / зналo n зналi m / зналe3 f / зналa3 n
Passive past participle знан m / знанa f / знанo n знанi m / знанe3 f / знанa3 n
Perfective participle знаш m / знаxa f / знаxo n знаxi m / знаxe3 f / знаxa3 n
Verbal Noun знанє Supine знатё4

1 For masculine nouns; a feminine or neuter agent would use the feminine and neuter gender forms of the active past participle and auxiliary verb, respectively.

2 The use of a conjugated бить is highly variable among dialects; if used, its placement is in the second position.

3 Palatalized forms also found in more rural areas (-є f / -я n).

4 Used after verbs of motion. Uncommon in American and Polish speakers, who prefer the infinitive. Also used for purpose (рукавiца боротё "boxing gloves," lit. gloves for fighting), cf. Romanian. Found among all users.

Irregular conjugation Edit

iщь "to go"

Number

Singular

Dual Plural

Person

1st

2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3nd

Pronoun

Я

ти ён/она/оно

вє

вa ёнa/онї/онї ми вi онi/они/онa
Present Simple iдю iдиш iдит iдив iдитa iдите iдим iдитe iдют
Perfect 1 сeю 1 сeєш 1 сeт iдi1 сeв iдi1 сeта iдi1 сeєте iдi1 сeм iдi1 сeте iдi1 сeют
Future буду iщь будеш iщь будет iщь будев iщь будета iщь будєте iщь будем iщь будете iщь будют iщь
Past Simple Past шїд1 (сам)2 шїд1 (ci)2 шїд1 (єст)2 шїдi1 (ceв)2 шїдi1 (ста)2 шїдi1 (штe)2 шїдi1 (cмo)2 шїдi1 (стe)2 шїдi1 (сут)2
Perfect 1 (сам)2 1 (ci)2 1 (єст)2 iдi1 (ceв)2 iдi1 (ста)2 iдi1 (штe)2 iдi1 (cмo)2 iдi1 (стe)2 iдi1 (сут)2
Pluperfect бix iщь би iщь би iщь биxoв iщь биста iщь биштe iщь бихом iщь бистe iщь бишe iщь
Conditional бix шїд1 би шїд1 би шїд1 биxoв шїдi1 биста шїдi1 биштe шїдi1 бихом шїдi1 бистe шїдi1 бишe шїдi1
Imperative - iдiй - iдiйв iдiйта - iдiйм iдiйтe -
Active past participle шїд m / шїдa f / шїдo n шїдi m / шїдe3 f / шїдa3 n
Perfective participle m / iдa f / iдo n iдi m / iдe3 f / iдa3 n
Verbal Noun шїщє Supine їтё4

1 For masculine nouns; a feminine or neuter agent would use the feminine and neuter gender forms of the active past participle and auxiliary verb, respectively.

2 The use of a conjugated бить is highly variable among dialects; if used, its placement is in the second position.

3 Palatalized forms also found in more rural areas (-є f / -я n).

4 Used after verbs of motion. Uncommon in American and Polish speakers, who prefer the infinitive. Also used for purpose (рукавiца боротё "boxing gloves," lit. gloves for fighting), cf. Romanian. Found among all users.

Suppletive conjugations Edit

ячать "to wail; to moan" with suppletive гаять.

Number

Singular

Dual Plural
Person 1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
Pronoun

Я

ти ён/она/оно

вє

вa ёнa/онї/онї ми вi онi/они/онa
Present Simple ячаю ячиш ячит ячив ячита ячите ячит ячит ячит
Perfect гаяш1 сeю гаяш1 сeєш гаяш1 сeт гаяxi1 сeв гаяxi1 сeта гаяxi1 сeєте гаяxi1 сeм гаяxi1 сeте гаяxi1 сeют
Future буду ячать будеш ячать будет ячать будев ячать будета ячать будєте ячать будем ячать будетe ячать будют ячать
Past Simple Past гаял1 (сам)2 гаял1 (ci)2 гаял1 (єст)2 гаялi1 (ceв)2 гаялi1 (ста)2 гаялi1 (штe)2 гаялi1 (cмo)2 гаялi1 (стe)2 гаялi1 (сут)2
Perfect гаяш1 (сам)2 гаяш1 (ci)2 гаяш1 (єст)2 гаяxi1 (ceв)2 гаяxi1 (ста)2 гаяxi1 (штe)2 гаяxi1 (cмo)2 гаяxi1 (стe)2 гаяxi1 (сут)2

Pluperfect

бix гаять би гаять би гаять биxoв гаять биста гаять биштe гаять бихом гаять бистe гаять бишe гаять
Conditional бix гаян1 би гаян1 би гаян1 биxoв гаянi1 биста гаянi1 биштe гаянi1 бихом гаянi1 бистe гаянi1 бишe гаянi1
Imperative - ячiй - ячiйв ячiйта - ячiйм ячiйтe -

Active past participle

гаял m / гаялa f / гаялo n гаялi m / гаялe3 f / гаялa3 n
Passive past participle гаян m / гаянa f / гаянo n гаянi m / гаянe3 f / гаянa3 n
Perfect participle гаяш m / гаяxa f / гаяxo n гаяxi m / гаяxe3 f / гаяxa3 n
Verbal Noun ячанє5 Supine гаятё4,5

1 For masculine nouns; a feminine or neuter agent would use the feminine and neuter gender forms of the active past participle and auxiliary verb, respectively.

2 The use of a conjugated бить is highly variable among dialects; if used, its placement is in the second position.

3 Palatalized forms also found in more rural areas (-є f / -я n).

4 Used after verbs of motion. Uncommon in American and Polish speakers, who prefer the infinitive. Also used for purpose (рукавiца боротё "boxing gloves," lit. gloves for fighting), cf. Romanian. Found among all users.

5 In verbs with suppletive forms, the past form typically takes the supine position while the non-past takes the verbal noun position.

Copula Verb Edit

бить "to be"

Number

Singular

Dual Plural

Person

1st

2nd 3rd

1st

2nd 3rd

1st

2nd 3rd
Pronoun

Я

ти ён/она/оно

вє

вa ёнa/онї/онї ми вi онi/они/онa
Present сам ci єст ceв ста штe cмo стe сут
Future буду5 будеш5 будет5 будев5 будета5 будєте5 будем5 будетe5 будют5
Past бил1 (сам)2 бил1 (ci)2 бил1 (єст)2 билi1 (ceв)2 билi1 (ста)2 билi1 (штe)2 билi1 (cмo)2 билi1 (стe)2 билi1 (сут)2
Conditional бix5 би5 би5 биxoв5 биста5 биштe5 бихом5 бистe5 бишe5
Imperative - будiй - будiйв будiйта - будiйм будiйтe -
Active past participle бил m / билa f / билo n билi m / билe3 f / билa3 n

Verbal Noun

биче Supine битё4

1 For masculine nouns; a feminine or neuter agent would use the feminine and neuter gender forms of the active past participle and auxiliary verb, respectively.

2 The use of a conjugated бить is highly variable among dialects; if used, its placement is in the second position.

3 Palatalized forms also found in more rural areas (-є f / -я n).

4 Used after verbs of motion. Uncommon in American and Polish speakers, who prefer the infinitive. Also used for purpose (рукавiца боротё "boxing gloves," lit. gloves for fighting), cf. Romanian. Found among all users.

5 Use of infinitive with future (e.g., буду бить) is considered archaic in most communities.

Prepositions and Case Marking Edit

Most prepositions demand a certain case-marking for the affected noun and many prepositions have more than one case assigned to them, which can indicate movement, relation, and other such grammatical functions. Below is a list of prepositions and their assigned cases.

Preposition

Case

Meaning

Usage Notes

без Gen. without -
блiзо Gen. close to -

до

Gen. until; (up) to; as far as; before; by (a certain time); before; prior to i.e., be there by five; meet me here before we go
для Gen. due to; because of i.e., it's green due to photosynthesis

Gen. out of; from з in Polesian dialects
iзмеджу Gen. from among змеджу in Polesian dialects
Instr. from between
iзпод Gen. out from under зпод in Polesian dialects

к

Dat. to; towards ко when before /k g x/
кроми Gen. except; besides; outside of -
меджу Instr. between i.e., between the store and the gas station
Gen. among; amongst i.e., wolf among sheep

на

Loc. on; at; in -
Acc. onto; by; at (usually indicating movement) i.e., by the hour and don't yell at me
над Instr. over; above -
Acc. over; above (usually indicating movement) -
назад Instr. behind See за
Nom. ago postpositional

нiз

Acc. down by; through; along i.e., down by the shore; stand along the wall
о Loc. about; concerning; of; on (the topic of); regarding об when before a vowel; i.e., conversations about taxes
Acc. against See above; also i.e., against the law; lean against a table
од Gen. from (denoting cause); away from; starting from; since i.e., tremble from (due to) fear and die of flu
перед Instr. in front of; before (someone) i.e., stand before the king
Acc. just before; in front of (usually indicating movement) Different from до. Indicates immediacy; get there just before dawn; move in front of the house

по

Acc. for i.e., go get milk; bad for you; for the whole day
Loc. over; onto; through; across (usually for uncountable nouns); during i.e., through the forest; water spilled onto the floor; travel by air; during the snow
Dat. per; each; after (forming the perfective with verbal nouns; see Verbs) i.e., two dollars per person; each person got two dollars
под Instr. under; below also under suspicion/surveillance/pressure
Acc. under; below (usually indicating movement); near (the end); in imitation; à la Indicates final temporal position as well i.e., near/at the end
прi Loc. in the presence of; indicating work with (note 1); during (temporal co-occurrence); while; next to Note 1: Usually an institution i.e., as a cashier at the store. Also i.e., drinking while driving
протiв Gen. opposite; on the other side of i.e., the house is across the street. Also i.e., he's on the other side of this issue
радi Gen. for the sake of i.e., for God's sake; for the children
с Instr. with; in the company of со before /s z ʃ ʒ x/; i.e., with my brother
Acc. off of; from (usually indicating movement) See above; also i.e., from the rafters, from the mountains
Gen. indicating temporal distance (with по) See above; also i.e., from 9 to 5 (с 9 по 5)
y Gen. by; near; at i.e., at the doctor's office; near her house cf. Serbo-Croatian kod/код
умисто Gen. instead of; in place of Older speakers prefer у мистї + gen.
в Loc. at; in; during (time) во before "awkward" clusters; this varies regionally. Also i.e., in a day; during my youth
Acc. into; to (usually indicating movement); at; on (time) i.e., on Tuesday; at five o'clock; go into the store
воз Gen. in spite of; despite i.e., in spite of what I've heard
за Acc. for; headed for; in (time); as; (with до) time before an event; instead of i.e., the road to Paris; declare as president; minutes before the insanity (за минути до блядї); to fill in for someone
Loc. behind; in the back of; after i.e., sit at the table; one after another; repeat after me
Gen. during i.e., during the war
Instr. while i.e., while reading a book
через Acc. in (time); via; through; with the help of; thanks to; throughout (arch.) i.e., 100 meters in nine seconds; fly through Moscow to Dublin; with the help of my friend

Affixes Edit

Prefixes Edit

Prefix

Meaning

Example

без-

dis-; un-; -less; a- данiй "taxed" → безданiй "untaxed; tax-exempt"

чащ "honor; respect" → безчашнiй "disrespectful; without honor"

i- any- кхо "who" → iкхо "anyone"

когда "when" → iкогда "anytime"

iз- out-; out of; out from ловiть "to catch" → iзловiть "to catch by chasing"

дать "to give" → iздать "to give out; to hand out"

меджу- inter- страна "country" → меджустранiй "international"
над- super-; over- глидать "to look at" → надглидать "to supervise; to oversee"

брещь "to think pensively" → надбрещь "to overthink"

най- forms superlative
нe- un-; de- давно "long ago; in a long time" → нeдавно "recently"

честo "frequently" → нeчестo "infrequently"

some- кхо "who" → нeкхо "someone"

когда "when" → нeкогда "sometime"

нi- no- кхо "who" → нiкхо "no one"

когда "when" → нiкогда "never"

о(б)- around; wholly; completely єбать "to fuck" → oбєбать "to be the village bicycle"

глотать "to swallow; to devour" → oглотать "to clean one's plate"

-ish; kinda; sorta малiй "small; little" → oмалiй "kinda small; sort of small"

дужiй "strong; big" → oдужiй "kinda strong; sort of big"

под- sub-; under-; below вода "water" → подводнiк "submarine (n.)"

пiсать "to write" → подпiс "signature"

пол- half-; semi-; hemi-; part- бог "god" → полбог "demigod"

брат "brother" → полбрат "half-brother"

пра- great-; pre-; fore-; proto- дїд "grandfather" → прадїд "great-grandfather"

отеч "father" → праотеч "forefather"

с(о)- with-; together; unitary; oneness брещь "to think pensively" → cбрещь "to brainstorm; to think with others"

чiнiть "to repair" → coчiнiть "to repair every part; to refinish"

само- auto-; self- брещь "to think pensively" → cамобрещь "to self-reflect"

борона "defense(s)" → cамоборона "self-defense"

веле- high-; chief-; arch-; upper- бiскуп "bishop" → велебiскуп "archbishop"

менаджмент "management" → велеменаджмент "upper management"

Suffixes Edit

Suffix

Meaning

Example

-aчь m / -aчка f

forms demonyms Польска "Poland" → Полячь "Pole"
Польска "Poland" → Полячка "Pole (f.)"
some fossilized nominals мудрaчь "wiseman;" старачь "old timer"
-aк some fossilized nominals пєтaк "Friday;" четвртак "Thursday"
-нiй (definite) adjective forming дим "fog" → димнiй "foggy"

биc "demon → биcнiй "demonic; satanic"

-aн (indefinite)
-aнiн m / -aня f forms demonyms of towns/cities Прiпять "Pripyat" → Прiпятянiн "someone from Pripyat"

Нюёрк "New York" → Нюёрканя "New Yorker (f.)"

-арь m / -арїца f forms professional titles риба "fish" → рибарь "fisherman"

полiцiя "police" → полiцiярїца "police officer (f.)"

-aчь m / -ачiца f some fossilized professions ковачь "smith;" богачь "landlord"
-це m n / -ца f forms diminutives доля "fate; destiny" → долцa "a serendipitous event"

чадь "smoke" → чадце "cigarette (clq.)"

-eк m / -eкa f / -eкo n дёш "breath" → дёшeк "affectionate term for one's infant"

ëзерo "lake" → ëзерeкo "pond"

-iще forms place-names; -ery вiнo "wine" → вiнiще "winery"

блуд "adultery; lechery" → блудiще "whorehouse; brothel"

forms augmentatives (using Gen.) брюхо "belly" → брюшiще "big belly; beerbelly"

бережiй "pregnant" → бережiщiй "almost to term; very pregnant"

-нiк forms nominals of an action or state жар "embers; hearth" → жарнiк "innkeeper"

ходiть "to walk" → ходнiк "wanderer"

some tools and specific objects мєсo "meat" → мєснiк "cleaver; butcher's knife"

пiвo "beer" → пiвнiк "beer mug"

-нє forms verbal nouns ячать "to wail; to moan" → ячанє "moaning; wailing"
-нощ -ness молодiй "young" → молоднощ "youth; youthfulness"

душ "spirit; ghost" → душнощ "spirituality"

-ство -hood брат "brother" → братство "brotherhood"

отач "father" → отачство "fatherhood"

some place names посол "ambassador" → посольство "embassy"
-тель m / -телїца f forms nominals regarding its nature; -er просiть "to beg" → просiтель "beggar"

прiять "to like; to please" → прiятель "friend"

-штiна denotes language or dialect; -ish, -ese ческiй "Czech" → чештiна "the Czech language"

Волинь "Volhynia" → волинштiна "the Volhynian dialect"

Words of Particular Note Edit

Numerals Edit

Numbers in Drevljanski

Number

Drevljanski

1 єдян
2 два
3 трї
4 четрi
5 пєть
6 шесть
7 сєм
8 oсєм
9 девєть
10 десєть
11 єднадест
12 дванадест
13 трїнадест
14 четрiнадест
15 пєтьнадест
16 шестьнадест
17 сємнадест
18 oсємнадест
19 девєтьнадест
20 двадест
21 дванадест (i)

єдян

30 трїдест
100 сто
101 сто (i)

єдян

110 сто (i)

десєть

1,000 тисєча
1,000,000 мiлiён
1,000,000,000 мiлiярд

Number

Case/Number

Example

0 Acc. Pl. Не мают дирвa.
1 Nom. Sg. (acts as adj.) Мат єднo дирвo.
2 Nom. Dual Матєте дви дирви.
3 Gen. Sg. Мают трi дирвa.
4 Gen. Sg. Мают четрi дирвa.
5+ Gen. Pl. Мают пєть дирв.

The verb iмать (1 Sg. маю) is usually translated as "to have," but in this context, it means "there is; there are."

Days of the Week Edit

English

Drevljanski

Monday понедєляк
Tuesday вторак
Wednesday середа
Thursday четвртак
Friday пєтaк
Saturday субота
Sunday недєля

Months Edit

English

Drevljanski (Native)

Drevljanski (Latin)

January Сичань Януар
February Лютiй Фебруар
March Берьзань Марачь
April Цвєтань Априль
May Травань Май
June Червань Юнь
July Липань Юль
August Сирпань Аугуст
September Врєшiнь Септембар
October Листопад Октобар
November Студань Новембар
December Грудань Десембар

Family Members Edit

Category

English

Written/Literary Drevljanski

Colloquial Drevljanski
Family Groups whole family роджiна цил рода
household семя
parents родiтелї (Nsg родiтель)
cousins кузинi
children дїть дечкi (Nsg дечко)
grandchildren внучад (Gsg внучда)
in-laws родня
Grandparents grandfather овак (Npl овцi) дїд
grandmother овка баба
Parents father отачь (Gsg оца) тата/тятя
mother матe (Gsg матера) майка/мама
Parents-in-Law father-in-law тист (Gsg тищя) тещ
mother-in-law теща
Parents' Siblings uncle (father's brother) стрeй стрiчь
uncle (mother's brother) уй уяк (Gsg уйка; Npl уйцi)
aunt (father's sister) тета тетка
aunt (mother's sister) уйна
Siblings older brother баче (Gsg батна)
brother брат (Npl брачя)
older sister сещa
sister сестра
Cousins cousin (father's brother's son) стрeїчь
cousin (father's brother's daughter) стрeйка
cousin (father's sister's son) тетiчь
cousin (father's sister's daughter) тетiна
cousin (mother's brother's son) уїчь
cousin (mother's brother's daughter) уйка
cousin (mother's sister's son) уйначь
cousin (mother's sister's daughter) уйка
Siblings-in-Law brother-in-law (husband's brother) диверь
sister-in-law (husband's sister) золовка
brother-in-law (wife's brother) шуряк (Npl шурцi)
sister-in-law (wife's sister) свищ
Children son син1
daughter щi (Gsg щера) дочка
Niblings nephew нєчак
niece нєщора
Children-in-Law son-in-law зеть зетяк
daughter-in-law снаха снашка
Grandchildren grandson внук (Npl внуцi)
granddaughter внучка

1 Син has the -ов suffix in plural forms (i.e., Npl синовi)

Syntax Edit

Because of Drevljanski's rich case system, word order is generally free and allows for different interpretations based on the order involved. In general, Drevljanski follows SVO word but, while this can be modified to SOV in many instances to emphasize the object, most other words orders are thought of as archaic and rarely used in everyday speech. In Drevljanski, adjectives precede the nouns they modify and are declined according to case as necessary.

Drevljanski syntax closely observes Wackernagel's Law, which demands that clitics be placed in the second position with the following hierarchy:

  1. The Question Particle лi, which is an optional yes-no particle in questions.
  2. Any form of бить (this includes буду, сам, бix, or any other form that has grammatical function other than as the central verb).
  3. Dative pronouns
  4. Accusative pronouns
  5. Reflexive pronouns

Drevljanski grammar allows for multiple negatives (in European varieties, this is typically mandatory). Single negatives are often grammatically incorrect because when negation is used in complex sentences every part that could be grammatically negated should be negative. Objects of a negated verb declined as genitive, where they would normally be declined as accusative if the verb were not negated.

Drevljanski is also a pro-drop language. When a pronoun is implied or obvious from either context or other grammatical means, it can be dropped from the sentence.

When a preposition is necessary, it must immediately precede the noun or noun phrase (c бруснiцамi or c чирвeним бруснiцамi).

Typographic Style Edit

Historical Typography (before 1300 AD) Edit

Polish Conquest and Linguistic Displacement (1300-1660) Edit

Reforms of Father Bogdan and Modern Typography (1660-1920) Edit

Soviet Era Reformation and Modern Typography (1920-present) Edit

LexiconEdit

Drevljanski

Definition

Type

Gender/Motion

Etymology
a and; but conj. - *a (PS)
авї clearly; in reality adv. - ⰰⰲⱑ (OCS)
баба grandmother, old lady noun f-hard *baba (PS)
бадать to investigate verb regular-stationary *badati (PS)
бадла nurse noun f-hard *badli (PS)
басня tale; story noun f-soft *basnja (PS)
баять to talk nonsense verb regular-stationary *bajati (PS)
бoбёp beaver (animal) noun m-hard (animate) *bobrъ (PS)
бедра thigh noun f-hard *bedra (PS)
болнiть to rage against; to revolt (+gen.) verb regular-stationary *bolniti (PS)
бережiй pregnant; with child adj. - *berdjь (PS)
берeг bank, shore noun m-hard *bergъ (PS)
береме weight; load; stress noun n-hard (running-n) *bermę (PS)
без without (+gen.) prep. - *bez (PS)
бїда misery; grief; misfortune noun f-hard *běda (PS)
бїдiть to torment; to torture (emotionally) verb regular-stationary *běditi (PS)
бїгать run; jog verb regular-VOM *běgati (PS)
бєлiй white adj. - *bělъ (PS)
биc demon; evil spirit noun m-hard (animate) *běsъ (PS)
бижать run away; escape verb irregular-VOM (G-type) *běžati (PS)
бічь whip; lash noun m-soft *bičь (PS)
било meeting; meeting room noun n-hard било (ORus)
бiть to beat; to strike; to thrash verb regular-stationary *biti (PS)
блекот crazy person; schizophrenic noun m-hard (animate) *blekota (PS)
блек flock (of sheep) noun m-hard *blekъ (PS)
блїдiй pale; sober (emotion) adj. - *blědъ (PS)
блядь insanity; craziness noun f-soft блядь (ORus)
бляащь to go insane; to lose one's way (refl.) verb irregular-stationary (D-type) бляасти (ORus)
блищать to shine; to sparkle (refl.) verb regular-stationary *bliscati (PS)
близна scar; wound; permanent mark noun f-hard близна (ORus)
блiзкiй close; close to (+genitive); near prep./adv. - *blizъ (PS)
блющь to guard; to watch verb irregular-stationary (D-type) *bljusti (PS)
блювать to vomit; to throw up (refl.) verb irregular-stationary (J-type) *bljuvati (PS)
блудiть to fornicate; to sleep around verb irregular-stationary (Ž-type) *blǫditi (PS)
блуд lechery; adultery noun m-hard *blǫdъ (PS)
блyха flea noun f-hard *blъxa (PS)
блёкнiй faded; pale adj. - блёкний (MRus)
блёкнуть to fade (away); to wither (away) verb regular-stationary блёкнуть (MRus)
бодать to stab verb regular-VOM *bodati (PS)
Бог God noun m-irregular (Ž-type, animate) *bogъ (PS)
богатiй rich; wealthy adj. - *bogatъ (PS)
богачь landlord; HNIC of living space(s) noun m-soft (animate) *bogačь (PS)
боять to fear; to be afraid of (refl.) verb regular-stationary *bojati sę (PS)
бой fight; battle (archaic) noun m-soft *bojь (PS)
болить to hurt; to ache verb irregular-stationary (L-type) *bolěti (PS)
болого the righteous (Christianity); good (coll.) noun n-hard болого (ORus)
болє more (+gen.) adv. - *bolje (PS)
болїй better; greater adj. - *boljьjь (PS)
болонє swamp; bog noun n-soft *bolnьje (PS)
болото swamp (archaic); mud(dy area) noun n-hard *bolto (PS)
боль pain; illness; sickness; disease noun m-soft (ё-stem) *bolь (PS)
борода beard; facial hair noun f-hard *borda (PS)
бородатiй bearded; with facial hair adj. - *bordatъ (PS)
борог stack; pile (+gen) noun m-hard *borgъ (PS)
борона defense; defenses noun f-hard *borna (PS)
боронь battle; combat noun f-soft *bornь (PS)
борошно flour noun n-hard *boršьno (PS)
бороть to fight; to spar (refl.) verb regular-VOM *borti (PS)
боров hog; boar; male pig noun m-hard (animate) *borvъ (PS)
бор woods; forest noun m-hard *borъ (PS)
борозда canal; large creek noun f-hard *borzda (PS)
босiй barefooted; uncouth; yee-yee adj. - *bosъ (PS)
бубен drum noun m-hard *bǫbьnъ (PS)
брат brother noun m-hard (singular only) *bratъ (PS)
брачя brothers noun f-soft (singular declension) *bratьja (PS)
брещь to wade; to think pensively verb irregular-VOM (D-type) *bresti (PS)
бризг early morning as dawn is breaking noun m-hard *brězgъ (PS)
брекнуть to swell; to expand verb regular-stationary *bręknǫti (PS)
брiтва razor (shaving instrument) noun f-hard *britva (PS)
брїдакiй sharp adj. - *bridъkъ (PS)
брiть to shave verb regular-stationary *briti (PS)
брюхо belly; abdomen noun n-hard *břuxo (PS)
бродiть to wander; to roam verb regular-VOM *broditi (PS)
бруснiца cranberry noun f-hard *brusьnica (PS)
брость bud, shoot, sprout noun f-soft *brъstь (PS)
бривя eyebrow noun f-soft *bry (PS)
брьна clay; thick mud noun f-hard *brьna (PS)
бучать to roar; to cry loudly verb regular-stationary *bučati (PS)
будить to awaken; to wake up (refl.) verb regular-stationary *buditi (PS)
буря storm; stormwind noun f-soft *buřa (PS)
бeдить to keep watch; to keep vigil (archaic) verb regular-stationary *bъděti (PS)
бёдaр cheerful; happy; joyous adj. - *bъdřъ (PS)
брть beehive; hive of insects noun f-soft *bъrtь (PS)
брзiй fast; quick; speedy adj. - *bъrzъ (PS)
бидло cattle (obs.); possessions; one's things noun n-hard *bydlo (PS)
билє weed (garden); marijuana (slang) noun n-soft *bylьje (PS)
бить to be verb hyperirregular-stationary *byti (PS)
битє existence; life as a whole noun n-soft *bytьje (PS)
бивать to happen verb regular-stationary *byvati (PS)
пчела bee (insect) noun f-hard *bьčela (PS)
брать to take; to grab verb regular-stationary *bьrati (PS)
чiдiть to strain; to filter verb irregular-stationary (Ž-type) *cěditi (PS)
чiлiть to heal; to cure verb regular-stationary *cěliti (PS)
человать to kiss verb irregular-stationary (J-type) *cělovati (PS)
чiлiй whole; entire; full; all adj. - *cělъ (PS)
чiна price; cost noun f-hard *cěna (PS)
чiнiть to value; to evaluate (esp. price) verb regular-stationary *cěniti (PS)
цеста road; street (larger than улiца) noun f-hard *cěsta (PS)
чадь smoke; fumes (pl.) noun m-soft *čadjь (PS)
чаять to expect; to hope for verb regular-stationary *čajati (PS)
чeкать to wait; to await verb regular-stationary *čakati (PS)
чара magic; sorcery noun f-hard *čara (PS)
чародий sorcerer; wizard; enchanter; magician noun m-soft (animate) *čarodějь (PS)
час hour; moment noun m-hard *časъ (PS)
челесьнiк school principal; small time manager noun n-hard (animate) *čelesьnъ (PS)
чело forehead noun n-hard *čelo (PS)
чoловiк fellow; person; dude; guy noun m-hard (animate) *čelověkъ (PS)
чемер venom; illness caused by venom noun m-hard *čemerъ (PS)
черєда queue; line noun f-hard *čerda (PS)
черeнов molar; relating to the molars adj. - *černovъ (PS)
черeнь trunk (of a tree); stem (of a mushroom) noun m-soft *černь (PS)
чёрщь to carve; to cut through; to slash verb irregular-VOM (D-type) *čersti (PS)
чесно garlic noun n-hard *česno (PS)
четвор a group of four; quartet noun m-hard (singular) *četvorъ (PS)
четвртiй fourth adj. - *četvьrtъ (PS)
четрi four num. - *četyre (PS)
чезнуть to disappear; to vanish; to wither verb regular-stationary *čeznǫti (PS)
чед young lad (arch.) noun m-hard (animate) *čędъ (PS)
чест frequent; dense; packed; close together adj. - *čęstъ (PS)
честo frequently; often adv. - *čęstъ (PS)
чхать to sneeze verb regular-stationary *čьxati (PS)
чiнiть to repair; to fix verb regular-stationary *činiti (PS)
чicтiть to clean; to wash verb irregular-stationary (Щ-type) *čistiti (PS)
чicтiй clean; pure; virgin (euph. of woman) adj. - *čist (PS)
чiтать to read; to count verb regular-stationary *čitati (PS)
чудiть to be surprised; to marvel at (refl.) verb regular-stationary *čuditi sę (PS)
чудо wonder; miracle noun n-hard *čudo (PS)
чуть to sense; to have a gut feeling about (smt.) verb regular-stationary *čuti (PS)
чирнiй black; dark adj. - *čьrnъ (PS)
чрствiй strong; tough adj. - *čьrstvъ (PS)
чртя border; divider noun f-soft *čьrta (PS)
чирвeнiй red adj. - *čьrvenъ (PS)
черв worm; maggot; guts (pl.) noun m-hard *čьrvь (PS)
чащ honor; respect noun f-soft *čьstь (PS)
што what pron. - *čьto (PS)
даять to allow; to permit verb regular-stationary *dajati (PS)
далекiй far (away); distant adj. - *dalekъ (PS)
даль distance noun f-soft *dalь (PS)
дань tax; tribute (arch.) noun f-soft *danь (PS)
датель donor; giver noun m-soft (animate) *dateljь (PS)
дать to give verb irregular-stationary (-m-type) *dati (PS)
давiть to strangle; to suffocate (also refl.) verb regular-stationary *daviti (PS)
давнiй ancient; from another time adj. - *davьnjь (PS)
давнo a long time; in awhile; a while adv. - loaned from Uk.
дебелiй plump; in good aesthetic health adj. - *debelъ (PS)
дебельство wealth; opulence noun n-hard *debelьstvo (PS)
дегать tar noun m-soft *degъtь (PS)
дирво tree noun n-hard *dervo (PS)
десєть ten num. - *desętь (PS)
десєтiй tenth adj. - *desętъ (PS)
деснiй right (side); not left adj. - *desnъ (PS)
девєть nine num. - *desętь (PS)
девєтiй ninth adj. - *desętъ (PS)
дїд grandfather; term of respect for an old man noun m-hard (animate) *dědъ (PS)
дїлать to do; to make verb regular-stationary *dělati (PS)
дїлiть to divide; to split verb regular-stationary *děliti (PS)
для due to; because of; because (+ verb) prep. - *dьlja (PS)
дило work; deed; affairs (pl.); job noun n-hard *dělo (PS)
дїл part; division; section noun m-hard *dělъ (PS)
дїтє child; kid noun n-soft (running-n) *dětę (PS)
дїть children; kids noun f-soft *děti (PS)
дївiцa maiden (arch.); virgin noun f-hard *děva (PS)
дївьство virginity noun n-hard neologism
дїверь husband's brother; brother-in-law noun m-soft (animate) *děverь (PS)
дига belt noun f-hard *dęga (PS)
дитель woodpecker noun m-soft (animate) *dętelъ (PS)
дiкiй wild; untamed adj. - *dikъ (PS)
дiря hole; crack noun f-soft *diřa (PS)
дiвiть to surprise; to astonish verb regular-stationary *diviti (PS)
дiвнiй divine; wonderful; amazing; great adj. - *divьnъ (PS)
до until; to (+ gen) prep. - *do (PS)
доба time noun f-hard *doba (PS)
добрiй good adj. - *dobrъ (PS)
доїть to give milk; to be milking verb regular-stationary *dojiti (PS)
доля fate; destiny noun f-soft *dolja (PS)
дол valley; dale noun m-hard *dolъ (PS)
дома at home adv. - *doma (PS)
дом home noun m-hard *domъ (PS)
дорога path; way noun f-hard *dorga (PS)
дорогiй dear; close to the heart adj. - *dorgъ (PS)
дуб oak (tree) noun m-hard *dǫbъ (PS)
дуга arch; rainbow noun f-hard *dǫga (PS)
дуть to blow; to puff verb irregular-stationary (1sg диму) *dǫti (PS)
драпать to tear; to rip; to scratch; to nick verb regular-stationary *drapati (PS)
дражiть to incite; to provoke verb regular-stationary *dražiti (PS)
дрїв before (+ gen); earlier prep./adv. - *drevje (PS)
дрїмать to doze off; to nap verb regular-stationary *drěmati (PS)
дрочiть to caress; to tease; to stroke; to snuggle verb regular-stationary *dročati (PS)
дрозд blackbird; thrush noun m-hard (animate) *drodzъ (PS)
дрожда yeast; leaven noun f-hard *droždža (PS)
друкь bar; pole; rail; long cylinder noun f-soft *drǫgъ (PS)
друг best man; dear friend noun m-soft (animate) (Gsg дружа) *drugъ (PS)
другiй other; second adj. - *drugъ (PS)
дружiна group; party; squad (also youth slang) noun f-hard *družina (PS)
дргать to shiver; to shake; to tremble (refl.) verb regular-stationary *drъgati (PS)
дрво wood; timber noun n-hard *drъvo (PS)
држь tremor; shake noun m-soft *drъžь (PS)
дрколь baton; truncheon; nightstick; club noun m-soft *drьkolь (PS)
духать to breathe verb regular-stationary *duxati (PS)
душ spirit; ghost noun m-soft (animate) (Gsg духа) *duxъ (PS)
дупа ass; buttocks noun f-hard *dupa (PS)
дупля hole; cavity; hollow (of a tree) noun f-soft *duplja (PS)
дурiть to be naughty; to do smt. forbidden verb regular-stationary *duriti (PS)
дурьство stupidity; madness (arch.); foolishness noun n-hard neologism
дужiй big; strong adj. - *dužь (PS)
дужo very; very much adv. - *dužь (PS)
двор courtyard; playground noun m-hard *dvorъ (PS)
дурї door noun m-soft (plural) *dvьrь (PS)
дёш breath; steam from breath noun m-soft (Gsg дёха) *dъxъ (PS)
щi daughter noun f-irregular (Gsg щера) *dъkti (PS)
долог debt; something owed noun m-hard *dъlgъ (PS)
ндо bottom noun n-hard *dъno (PS)
два two num. f. двiє *dva (PS)
двогубiй double; twofold adj. - *dvogubъ (PS)
двой pair; couple noun m-soft *dvojь (PS)
дёждь heavy rain; rainstorm; thunderstorm noun m-soft *dъzdjь (PS)
дихать to take a deep breath; to relax (refl.) verb regular-stationary *dyxati (PS)
дим smoke; haze; steam; fog (euph.) noun m-hard *dymъ (PS)
дулгiй long adj. - *dьlgъ (PS)
длiть to last; to continue on; to persevere (refl.) verb regular-stationary *dьliti (PS)
дянь day noun m-soft (Gsg дяня) *dьnь (PS)
дянас today noun m-hard *dьnьsь (PS)
дрзiй daring; bold adj. - *dьrzъ (PS)
држать to hold; to keep; to detain; to imprison verb regular-stationary *dьržati (PS)
джило truthfully; in truth; honestly; to be honest adv. - *dzělo (PS)
єднакiй identical adj. - *edinakъ (PS)
єдян one num. f. єдна; n. єднo *edьnъ (PS)
єдвo hardly; barely; just a bit; only a little adv. - *edva (PS)
єлинь deer; stag-beetle noun m-soft *elenjь (PS)
iлокiй bitter; rancid; rotten; gone off adj. - *jьlъkъ (PS)
iмела mistletoe noun f-hard *jьmela (PS)
ёщ still; just; longer (neg.); yet adv. - *ešče (PS)
єбать to fuck; to copulate (vulg.) verb regular-stationary *ebati (PS)
ëзеро lake; large pond noun n-hard *ezero (PS)
єжевiца blackberry noun f-hard *eževica
єж hedgehog noun m-soft (animate) *ežь (PS)
идро breast; bosom noun n-hard *edro (PS)
ид poison; toxin noun m-hard *ědъ (PS)
ядь bounty; feast (arch.) noun f-soft *ědь (PS)
ихать to ride verb regular-VOM *ěxati (PS)
єрiна wool noun f-hard *ěrina (PS)
ярость fury; wrath; rage; anger noun f-soft *ěrostь (PS)
ярiй cruel; mean; evil; furious; violent adj. - *ěrъ (PS)
яснiй clear; obvious adj. - *ěsnъ (PS)
ищь to eat; to consume verb irregular-stationary (-m-type) *ěsti (PS)
ято flock (all senses including religious) noun n-hard *ěto (PS)
ижда ride; cavalry noun f-hard *ěžda (PS)
язва wound (typically mortal) noun f-hard *ězva (PS)
ячать to wail; to moan (non-past: see гаять) verb regular-stationary *ęčati (PS)
ичмє barley noun n-soft *ęčьmy (PS)
ига plague (arch.); horror; terror noun f-hard *ęga (PS)
итрo liver; ability to drink (euph.) noun n-hard *ętro (PS)
итрє (husband's) brother's wife noun m-soft (animate) *ętry (PS)
єзик language; tongue noun m-hard *ęzyk (PS)
габать to seize; to take by force or threat of force verb regular-stationary *gabati (PS)
гадать to guess; to take a stab at (smt.) verb regular-stationary *gadati (PS)
гадiть to defile; to rape (arch.); to desecrate verb regular-stationary (arch VOM) *gaditi (PS)
гад scoundrel; repulsive person; asshole noun m-hard (animate) *gatъ (PS)
гаять to wail; to moan (past form: see ячать) verb regular-stationary *gajati (PS)
гасiть to extinguish; to put out (fire) verb regular-stationary *gasiti (PS)
гаснуть to turn out (light, fire); to die (euph. w/ psv.) verb regular-stationary *gasnǫti (PS)
гатать to chatter; to talk incessantly verb regular-stationary *gatati (PS)
гладкiй smooth; plain adj. - *gladъkъ (PS)
глаз opinion; viewpoint noun m-hard *glazъ (PS)
глезнё ankle noun n-soft *glezno (PS)
глїн mucus; snot noun m-hard *glěnъ (PS)
глидать to look at; to view verb regular-stationary *ględati (PS)
глiнa clay noun f-hard *glina (PS)
глiст parasite (esp. worms); freeloader noun m-hard (animate) *glistъ (PS)
глiва fungus (inedible); tumor (arch.) noun f-hard *gliva (PS)
глоба fine; penalty noun f-hard *globa (PS)
глота crowd (arch.); family noun f-hard *glota (PS)
глубокiй deep adj. - *glǫbokъ (PS)
глухiй deaf; hard of hearing adj. - (indef. NM глуш) *gluxъ (PS)
глумiть to play (on stage, refl.); to amuse verb regular-stationary *glumiti (PS)
глум joke; amusement noun m-hard *glumъ (PS)
глупiй stupid; foolish adj. - *glupъ (PS)
глохнуть to become deaf (arch.); to fall silent/quiet verb regular-stationary *gloxnǫti (PS)
глотать to swallow; to devour verb regular-stationary *glъtati (PS)
гнисть to knead; to work dough verb irregular-stationary (D-type) *gnesti (PS)
гнив anger; wrath (esp. as sin) noun m-hard *gněvъ (PS)
гнїждо nest; home (arch.) noun n-hard *gnězdo (PS)
гнїда nit; louse noun f-soft *gnjida (PS)
гнїлiй rotten (esp. with fungus) adj. - *gnjilъ (PS)
гнїть to rot; to go bad verb regular-stationary *gnjiti (PS)
гной manure; shit noun m-soft *gnojь (PS)
гнусiть to abhor; to hate verb regular-stationary *gnusiti (PS)
гнус vermin; pus noun m-hard (animate/inanimate) *gnusъ (PS)
гнуснiй abhorrent; vile; repulsive; disgusting adj. - *gnusьnъ (PS)
годiна hour; time noun f-hard *godina (PS)
годiть to be good for (+ acc & + dat; cf. SC goditi) verb regular-stationary *goditi (PS)
год celebration; anniversary (w/ poss.); holiday (arch.) noun m-hard *godъ (PS)
годнiй suitable; nice; worthy (arch.) adj. - *godьnъ (PS)
гоїть to take care of (esp. w/ food and medicine) verb regular-stationary *gojiti (PS)
гой peace; ceasefire noun m-soft *gojь (PS)
голод hunger; addiction (+ dat) noun m-hard *goldъ (PS)
голим much; a lot adv. - *golěmъ (PS)
голинь shin; stampede (pl. only) noun m-soft *golěnь (PS)
голота the poor noun f-hard *golota (PS)
голоть ice that covers a body of water; ice sheet noun m-soft *golotь (PS)
голубiй blue (esp. light) adj. - *golǫbъ (PS)
гоюп pigeon; dove noun m-hard gołąb (Pol.)
голос voice; opinion (euph.) noun m-hard *golsъ (PS)
голова head noun f-hard *golva (PS)
голiй naked; bare; nude; (of truth) blunt adj. - *golъ (PS)
гомоля lump (from injury); small pile noun f-soft *gomolja (PS)
гонiть chase; persecute verb regular-VOM *goniti (PS)
гора mountain noun f-hard *gora (PS)
горкa hill; small mountain; obstacle noun f-hard neologism
городя fence noun f-soft *gordja (PS)
город city; town noun m-hard *gordъ (PS)
горить to burn; to singe; to overcook verb regular-stationary *gorěti (PS)
горош bean noun m-soft (Gsg гороха) *gorxъ (PS)
горє (1) hardship; grief; woe; suffering; misfortune noun n-soft *gorje (PS)
горє (2) worse adj. - *gorjьjь (PS)
гороно pulse; beat noun n-hard *gorno (PS)
горькiй bitter adj. - *gorьkъ (PS)
господiн mister; sir; gentleman; lord noun m-hard (animate) *gospodinъ (PS)
Господ the Lord; God noun m-hard (animate) *gospodь (PS)
гость guest; patron; customer; visitor noun m-soft *gostь (PS)
говєть to live well; to fear God; to do good (refl.) verb regular-stationary ⰳⱁⰲⰵⱅⰹ (OCS)
говидо cattle (arch.); oaf; idiot; a clumsy or foolish person noun n-hard *govędo (PS)
говорiть to speak; to talk verb regular-stationary *govoriti (PS)
говор conversation; talk noun m-hard *govorъ (PS)
говно shit; feces; poop; dung noun n-soft (Gsg говня) *govьno (PS)
гyба fungus; mushroom noun f-hard *gǫba (PS)
гугнять to speak a foreign language (refl.) verb regular-stationary *gǫgnjati (PS)
гугнявiй of or related to a foreign language adj. - *gǫgnjavъ (PS)
гощь to play an instrument; to hum cheerfully (refl.) verb irregular-stationary (D-type) *gǫsti (PS)
густiй thick; dense; compact; solid adj. - *gǫstъ (PS)
гусь goose noun m-soft (animate) *gǫsь (PS)
гуз buttock; rear; ass; cheek noun m-hard *guzъ (PS)
грабить to grab; to seize; to rob; to hold up verb irregular-stationary (1S грабaю) *grabiti (PS)
град hail noun m-hard *gradъ (PS)
грамада firewood noun f-hard *gramada (PS)
грєбень comb; caterpillar noun m-soft *grebenь (PS)
греть to rake; to till verb irregular-VOM (B-type) *greti (PS)
грїш sin noun m-soft (Gsg грїxa) *grexъ (PS)
грїять to warm up; to heat; to warm oneself (refl.) verb regular-stationary *grějati (PS)
грида bed; resting place; grave (euph.) noun f-hard *gręda (PS)
гристь to piss; to micturate; to urinate; to take a leak verb irregular-stationary (D-type) *gręsti (PS)
гризiть to sink; to submerge verb regular-VOM *gręziti (PS)
гроб grave; tomb noun m-hard *grobъ (PS)
гром thunder noun m-hard *gromъ (PS)
гроза horror; terror; something that inspires either noun f-hard *groza (PS)
грозд grape noun m-hard (sing only) *grodzъ (PS)
гроздє grapes noun n-soft (pl only) *grodzьje (PS)
грозiть to inspire horror/terror; to scare; to threaten verb regular-stationary *groziti (PS)
грознiй terrifying; horrifying; scary; terrible; awful adj. - *grozьnъ (PS)
грубнiй rude; disrespectful; mean; dishonorable (arch.) adj. - *grubъ (PS)
грусть sadness; melancholy; depression; forlornness noun f-soft *grustь (PS)
грмежь sleep (in the eye); gramiae noun m-soft *grъměžđь (PS)
грм bush; shrub; foliage (pl.); shrubbery noun m-hard *grъmъ (PS)
гризть to gnaw; to chew on verb irregular-stationary (Z-type) *gryzti (PS)
грмить to yell in anger; to shout angerly verb regular-stationary *grьměti (PS)
губiть to destroy; to devastate; to exterminate; to ruin verb regular-VOM *gubiti (PS)
жвизда star noun f-hard *gvězda (PS)
жвор bubble noun m-hard *gvorъ (PS)
гобеж joint; bend noun m-soft *gъbežь (PS)
грбавач humpback noun m-soft neologism
грдло throat; neck noun n-hard *gъrdlo (PS)
грдiй proud; haughty; high-and-mighty; unsportsmanlike adj.
*gъrdъ (PS)
гркать to coo; to hoot; to caw; to whistle verb regular-stationary *gъrkati (PS)
грнiдло furnace; oven (coll.) noun n-hard *gъrnidlo (PS)
грно blacksmith's hearth; blacksmith's workshop noun n-hard *gъrno (PS)
грнiк blacksmith noun m-hard (animate) neologism
грщь cupped hands; handful noun f-soft *gъrstь (PS)
Грщя the Eucharist noun f-soft neologism
наёрощь to grow up; to mature (of people) verb irregular-stationary (D-type) neologism
вичiнiть to carry out (orders); to follow (direction) verb regular-stationary neologism
вичервать to disembowel verb regular-VOM neologism
видухать to breathe out; to blow up; to blow out verb regular-stationary neologism
виєбать to fuck to exhaustion; to utterly fuck verb regular-VOM neologism
видлiть to outlast; to survive verb regular-stationary neologism
висилать to send; to send out verb regular-VOM wysyłać (Pol.)
виглидать to look out at (i.e., from window, door, etc.) verb regular-stationary neologism
Я I (1s pronoun) prn. - *azъ (PS)
яблонь apple tree noun f-soft *ablonь (PS)
яаблокa apple noun f-hard *ablъko (PS)
яагода berry noun f-hard *agoda (PS)
яє egg noun n-soft *aje (PS)
як as; like adv. - *ako (PS)
явiть to show; to reveal verb regular-stationary *aviti (PS)
явнiй obvious; manifest adj. - *avьnъ (PS)

Comparative Vocabulary Edit

Comparisons with different Slavic languages Edit

English Drevljanski

Ukrainian

Byelorussian

Russian

Polish

Serbo-Croatian
thank you; thanks мiлость дякую дзякую спасибо dziękuję hvala
truth правда правда вернасць  правда/истина  prawda istina
computer компютер комп'ютер  камп'ютар компьютер komputer računalo
hat клобук капелюх капялюш шляпа kapelusz  šešir/klobuk
garden кєма сад  сад  сад  sad/ogród sad/vrt
prison држаня в'язниця турма тюрьма więzienie zatvor
mercy; grace уласка милість міласць милость miłosierdzie milosrđe/milost
to cry (tears) плакать плакати плакаць плакать płakać plakati

Comparisons with different dialects Edit

English

Volhynian/Polesian

Polish

American

bathroom

туалет туалетa батрум
cell phone телефон телефон (цел)фон

bar

крчма or бар бар бар

soda

газiровка напой поп
car машiна / авто ауто кар / бiтaр
Russia Росiя Росiя Москвакрай / Веня

Ukraine

Україна Україна Волинь

Byelorussia

Бєларусь Бяларусь Полесiя

Basic Phrases Edit

These recordings were made by an American speaker with Volhynian features.

English

Древляанскiй (Drevljanski)

Welcome

Вiтаю (sg.)
Вiтата (du.)
Вiтают (pl.)
Hello (General greeting) Богстом (frm.) **
Здорово (inf.)
Hello (on phone) Aло?
Слушаю
How are you? Касi? (inf. sg.)
Каште? (inf. du.) (frm. sg.)
Касут? (pl.) (frm. sg./du.)
Reply to 'How are you?' Добро, а ти? (inf. sg.)
Добро, а вa? (inf. du.) (frm. sg.)
Добро, а вi? (pl.) (frm. du.)
Long time no see Несєю те бачиш давно (m>inf. sg.)
Несєю ва бачиш давно (m>inf. du./frm. sg.)
Несєю ваc бачиш давно (m>pl./frm. du.)
Несєю те бачиxa давно. (f>inf. sg.)
Несєю ва бачиxa давно. (f>inf. du./frm. sg.)
Несєю ваc бачиxa давно. (f>pl./frm. du.)
What's your name? Как се зовеш? (inf. sg.)
Как се зовета? (inf. du.) (frm. sg.)
Как се зоветe? (pl.) (frm. du.)
My name is... Зовю cе...
Where are you from? Звідки ти? (inf. sg.)
Звідки вa? (inf. du.) (frm. sg.)
Звідки вi? (pl.) (frm. du.)
I'm from... Я iз...
Please to meet you.
Good morning (Morning greeting)
Good afternoon (Afternoon greeting)
Good evening (Evening greeting)
Goodnight
Goodbye (Parting phrases)
Good luck!
Cheers! Good Health! (Toasts used when drinking)
Have a nice day
Bon appetit / Have a nice meal
Bon voyage / Have a good journey
I understand
I don't understand
Yes
No
Maybe
I don't know
Please speak more slowly
Please say that again
Please write it down
Do you speak Drevljanski?
Yes, a little (reply to 'Do you speak...?')
Speak to me in Drevljanski
How do you say ... in Drevljanski?
Excuse me
How much is this?
Sorry
Please
Thank you Miлость
Reply to thank you
Where's the toilet / bathroom?
This gentleman will pay for everything
This lady will pay for everything
Would you like to dance with me?
I miss you
I love you
Get well soon
Go away!
Leave me alone!
Help!
Fire!
Stop!
Call the police!
Christmas greetings
New Year greetings
Easter greetings
Birthday greetings
Congratulations!
One language is never enough
My hovercraft is full of eels

Example textEdit

«Значу, мiлiяард Iдiйскix чоловiк страшaн ворог. Нагло, чутю емпатiю за Пакiстан.»

"I mean, one billion Indian men is a daunting foe. I suddenly feel empathy for Pakistan."

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