Conlang
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Ehigi
Edhṙ Èçigi
Type
Agglutinative
Alignment
Accusative
Head direction
right
Tonal
Yes
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General Information[]

Ehigi (/ˈɛhiːdʒiː/, native Edhṙ Èçigi [ɛ̀dʰɚ́ ʔɛ̂çìgʲī]) is a language spoken by the Àçigi ethnicity of the alien Aethos (tuqa) in the Ràçigi constituency of the United Federation of Usheira (Rauçeyṙat), a large southern island nation on the planet Aetho (Nuzohel), which orbits the two stars Ṙkhaho-soa and Ṙdoṅ-soa.

Phonology[]

Consonants[]

alveolar dorsal radical glottal
nasal n ŋ~ɲ
stop held t d~dz k g q (ɢ) (ʔ)
aspirated tʰ d̤~dz̤ kʰ g̤
fricative s z (ɬ) ɮ ç ʝ χ~ʜ ʁ~ʢ h
approximant ɹ j
flap ɾ ɾ̤
  1. The alveolars are laminal except for /s/, /z/, /ɾ/, and /ɾʰ/.
  2. /d/ and /dʰ/ are frequently pronounced with frication (i. e. as [dz] and [dz̤]).
  3. The dorsal nasal and stops are palatalized before an /i/ or before any vowel after an /i/.
  4. /q/ is voiced intervocalically.
  5. A glottal stop is epenthetically inserted between adjacent vowels.
  6. /l/ is devoiced before a voiceless consonant or when phrase-final.
  7. The radical fricatives /χ/ and /ʁ/ are typically pronounced as epiglottal trills [ʜ] and [ʢ] by younger speakers.

Vowels[]

front central back
high i ɚ ɯ
low ɛ a ʌ

Phonotactics[]

(C)VCV...CV(C)

  • There are no consonant clusters within words, any potential ones are broken up with an epenthetic /ʌ/ or /ɚ/.
  • Vowels may begin words.
  • Vowels may be consecutive, though they are phonetically broken up by the epenthetic glottal stop.
  • Consonants may end words and form cross-word clusters.

Pitch Accent[]

Words can have two pitch contours: rising and falling.

Rising contour words have a low tone on the first syllable and a rising or high tone on the last syllable, with mid tones in between. Monosyllabic rising words are rising tone. ex. Rauçeyṙat [ɾà.ʔɯ̄.çɛ̄.jɚ̄.ʔǎt.]

Falling contour words have a falling tone indicated by a grave accent somewhere in them. The syllable before the fall is high and the syllable after the fall is low. Before and after the adjacent syllables are mid tone. ex. Ràçigi [ɾâ.çì.gʲī.]

Orthography[]

Native Script[]

Ehigi is written with the same abugida as the rest of the languages of Usheira.

Usheiran Alphabet

The Usheiran Abugida

Native Collation[]

o, u, i, e, a, g, kh, k, gh, ṅ, d, th, t, dh, n, ġ, qh, q, ġh, z, s, r, rh, c, x, l, h, j, ç, y, ṙ

Punctuation[]

  • ·⟩: separates words, not necessary between parts of names, also separates clitic affixes from stems.
  • ×⟩: separates sentences

Transliteration[]

A a C c Ç ç D d Dh dh E e G g Gh gh H h I i
a co ço do dhi e go ghi haṙ i
/ä/ /ʁ/ /ç/ /d/ /dʰ/ /ɛ/ /g/ /gʰ/ /h/ /i/
J j K k Kh kh L l N n Ṅ ṅ O o Q q Qh qh R r
jo ko khi lo na ṅa o qo qhi ro
/ʝ/ /k/ /kʰ/ /l/ /n/ /ŋ/ /ʌ/ /q/ /qʰ/ /ɾ/
Rh rh Ṙ ṙ S s T t Th th U u X x Y y Z z
rhi se to thi u xo i othax zi
/ɾʰ/ /ɹ/, /ɚ/ /s/ /t/ /tʰ/ /ɯ/ /χ/ /j/ /z/
  • A grave accent is applied to vowels with a falling tone.

Pronouns[]

Full pronouns[]

sg pl
1 ex neda tuneda
in azṙ
2 thṙ tuthṙ
3 lu tuṙu

ex. Kheqo-ne Edìlao Nucayo. "My name is John Doe."

Clitic pronouns[]

sg pl
1 -ne -so
2 -hṙ -çe
3 -lu

Nouns[]

Noun classes[]

# name prefix example
1 person a/0- qa "man, person"
2 tool e- esàca "shovel"
3 animal ṙ- ṙkhoo "octopus"
4 nature ra- raju "swampland"
5 group zi- zìrhi "team"
6 extension lo- lodoca "fence"
7 abstracts qhe- qheṙiza "courage"
8 action o- othax "a pause"
9 inquorate I nu- Nurhija "god of water"
10 inquorate II dace- daceyul "beloved"
plural I u- ukhoo "octopuses"
plural II tu- tuqa "men, people"
plural III ça- çasàca "shovels"
  • For any example referring to a living thing, the translation is not accurate. As Aetho is a different planet, the translations merely suggest a similar niche filled.

Class I[]

Class I's prefix is a- or none. It is used for people and some place names.

Class II[]

Class II's prefix is e-. It is used for tools and language.

Class III[]

Class III's prefix is ṙ-. It is used for animals and fire.

Class IV[]

Class IV's prefix is ra-. It is used for plant-life and natural landscapes.

Class V[]

Class V's prefix is zi-. It is used for groups of smaller units.

Class VI[]

Class VI's prefix is lo-. It is used for long, slender things.

Class VII[]

Class VIII's prefix is qhe-. It is used for abstract ideas and qualities.

Class VIII[]

Class VIII's prefix is o-. It is used for actions.

Class IX[]

Class IX's prefix is nu-. It is an inquorate class with 15 members.

Class X[]

Class X's prefix is dace-. It is an inquorate class with 6 members.

Number[]

There are three plural prefixes which replace the singular class prefixes: u-, tu-, and ça-. The number prefix must be learned separately from the class.

Possessive affixes[]

Possession is indicated by the clitic pronouns suffixed to a noun, followed by an -a, ex. Redà qhezu-nea. "Get on my level."

Adjective agreement[]

Adjectives agree in noun class with the nouns they modify.

Verbs[]

stem-voice-tense-(person)

Verbs rely on suffixes with some vowel changes.

Non-finite suffixes[]

  • Active infinitive: -li, some vowel changes including e>a.
  • Passive infinitive: -qali, no vowel changes.
  • Active participle: -gho
  • Passive participle: -qa

Passive[]

Passive voice is represented by the suffix -qa- (-qo in present tense) which appears immediately following the stem.

Tense[]

  • Present: no suffix or vowel changes including a, e>o
  • Past: suffix -ṅ, -ṅo before clitic pronouns
  • Future: suffix -s, -so before clitic pronouns

Negation[]

Negative verb dhali.

act pass
inf dhali dheqali
part dhegho dheqa
pres dho dheqo
past dheṅ dheqaṅ
fut dhes dheqas

ex. dho-ne "I don't", dheṅo-çe "you all didn't", kheqo-ne "my name is", dho-ne xaguli "I don't kill"

Person[]

The subject is optionally represented by a clitic pronoun placed on the end of the verb, before anything else in the sentence, even adverbs which are normally the first thing after the verb. This can be combined with an explicit subject for added emphasis. ex. Xaguso-lu tuṙu neda. "They're gonna kill me!"

Syntax[]

Verb-Clitic subject-Nonfinite Verbs-Adverb-Subject-Object-Prepositional phrases

Basic sentence: Xarogus tuneda thṙ! "We will defeat you!"

Full sentence: Dheso-çe sorùli ṅesṙaka tuthṙ rago-çea racòs igota ekhṙuna. "You guys won't eat your nice food messily with utensils." (lit. "won't y'all to eat messily y'all food your goof with utensil.

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