Conlang
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Ekethin
Ekeðin
Type Agglutinative
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Head direction Head-Initial
Tonal Yes
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders None
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 0%
Statistics
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words ? of 1500
Creator WOLFBLOOD115

Overview[]

Ekethin (natively Ekeðin [ˈɛkêːðɪn], also Ekeðin maulinn) is an agglutinative language spoken natively by approximately 140,000 of the Ekeði people in the Ekeði Kingdom, an island nation far-west of the Barents sea. It is a solely suffixing agglutinative language which has a relatively simple syntax and free word order. The language beares many morphological features similar to the Finnic-Ugric languages, though due to Ekeði Kingdom's proximity to the Scandinavian countries, it features a similar phonology and a vast quantity of words related to Old Norse and the other Scandinavian languages, notably Norwegian and Icelandic.

All text in Ekeðin on this page will be written in the Standard Romanisation of Ekeðin, instead of the usual Norse Runes script for better accessibility.

History of the Ekeði Kingdom[]

The Ekeði Kingdom (Ekeðin Kongerikinn) is a far northern island in the Barents Sea, characterised by two large mountain ranges, the Thornvari and Vrejarvari ranges, and rolling green hills. By the south-west coast, lies the ancient and historically important capital of Þæivell where an archipelago of 17 islands spans out into the Barent and Norwegian Seas. The country has a long history of trading with Nordic tradesmen who formed the now culturally-important port town of Ansitti (in the south of the country) where Viking migrants and tradesmen eventually settled. The Ekeði Kingdom is perhaps best known for the battle of Helnakk, a medieval town with a stronghold on the outskirts of Þæivell, one of the earliest recorded Viking battles against the ethnic Ekeði people. There were big losses on both sides, but by a slim margin, the Vikings took over the island and forged the modern-day capital Þæivell. The Ekeði people learnt how to live alongside the Vikings, and the two peoples intermarried over time and thus, a language was needed to communicate between the Ekeði people and the Vikings. These sequences of events altered the people and the culture of the Ekeði Kingdom, giving rise to the modern Ekeði language and people today.

A citizen of the Ekeði Kingdom is called an "ekeðinmen", the language is called "ekeðin (maulinn)", the relative adjective is "ekeðis" and the name of the Ekeði Kingdom is often informally shortened to "Ekeðia" [ˈɛkêːði.ɑ].

Phonology[]

Consonants[]

Bilabial Coronal Retroflex Dorsal Glottal
Nasal m n (ɳ) ŋ
Plosive p pʰ t tʰ (ʈ) k kʰ
Fricative Sibilant s (ʂ) ɕ
Non-sibilant θː ð h
Approximant ʋ l j
Flap or tap ɾ
Trill

Notes:

  1. /l/ is a velarized laminal [ɫ] after back vowels /ɔ, oː/, /ɑ, ɑː/, /ʊ, uː/.
  2. /n, t, d/ are laminal [n̻, t̻].
  3. /s/ is a dentalized laminal alveolar [s̪]
  4. /ɾ/ is a voiced apical alveolar flap [ɾ̺]. It is a trill [r] in clusters ⟨rr⟩ and in emphatic speech.
  5. /p, t, k/ are unaspirated fully voiceless [p˭, t˭, k˭], whereas /pʰ, tʰ, kʰ/ are aspirated, and fully voiceless [pʰ, tʰ, kʰ]. After /s/ within the same syllable, only unaspirated voiceless stops occur.
  6. /ŋ, k, ɡ/ are velar, whereas /j/ is palatal and /ɕ/ is alveolo-palatal.
  7. /h/ is usually a voiceless fricative. The friction is normally glottal [h], but sometimes it is dorsal: palatal [ç] when near front vowels and velar [x] near back vowels.
  8. /ʋ/ may be a voiced bilabial fricative /v/ in some dialects.
  9. /ɳ, ʈ, ʂ/ are retroflex mutations of the sequence of /ɾ/ + /n, t, s/ and only occur word-medially.
  10. /θː/ and /rː/ are always geminated.
  11. A nasal consonant (/m, n, ŋ/) and unstressed /ɛ/, in either order, can become a syllabic consonant [m̩, n̩, ŋ̍]. For example, lykkinen 'luck' /ˈlʏkːinɛn/ → [ˈlʏkːinn̩].

Vowels[]

Monophthongs[]

Front Back
Unrounded Rounded
Long Short Long Short Long Short
Close ɪ ʏ ʊ
Mid ɛ øː œ ɔ
Open æː æ ɑː ɑ
Diphthongs œʏ ʏœ æɪ ɛɪ ɑɪ œɪ ɔɪ ɔʊ ɑʊ

Diphthongs[]

Diphthongs Ending with /i/ Ending with /u/ Ending with /y/ Ending with /ø/
Starting with /ɑ/ ⟨ai⟩ [ɑɪ] ⟨au⟩ [ɑʊ]
Starting with /æ/ ⟨æi⟩ [æɪ]
Starting with /o/ ⟨oi⟩ [ɔɪ] ⟨ou⟩ [ɔʊ]
Starting with /e/ ⟨ei⟩ [ɛɪ]
Starting with /ø/ ⟨øi⟩ [œɪ] ⟨øy⟩ [œʏ]
Starting with /y/ ⟨yø⟩ [ʏœ]

Vowel Harmony[]

Screenshot 2023-08-15 164359

A diagram illustrating the vowel groups of Ekeðin.

Ekeðin, like many other agglutinative languages, has the phenomenon called vowel harmony, which restricts the cooccurrence in a word of vowels belonging to different articulatory subgroups. Vowels within a word "harmonize" to be either all front or all back. In particular, no native noncompound word can contain vowels from the group {a, o, u} together with vowels from the group {æ, ø, y}. Vowel harmony affects inflectional suffixes and derivational suffixes, which have two forms, one for use with back vowels, and the other with front vowels. Compare, for example, the following pair of abstract nouns: hallitus 'government' (from hallita, 'to reign') versus helvæ 'health' (from helvis, healthy).

There are exceptions to the constraint of vowel harmony. For one, there are two front vowels that lack back counterparts: /i/ and /e/. Therefore, words like kello 'clock' (with a front vowel in a non-final syllable) and tuli 'wind' (with a front vowel in the final syllable), which contain /i/ or /e/ together with a back vowel, count as back vowel words; /i/ and /e/ are effectively neutral in regard to vowel harmony in such words. Kello and tuli yield the inflectional forms kellonna 'in a clock' and tulenna 'in a wind'. In words containing only neutral vowels, front vowel harmony is used, e.g. veiveillæ ('road' – 'on the road').

Pitch accent[]

Ekeðin is a stress-accent language, but has elements of pitch accent, with two distinct pitch patterns. They are used to differentiate polysyllabic words with otherwise identical pronunciation (such as anðinn/anðinn). Generally, monosyllabic words use tone 1, while polysyllabic words use tone 2. In Ekeðin orthography, doubled consonants are pronounced long and the vowel directly preceding it is always short (e.g. long a, malin; short a, mallin). In a compound word, the pitch accent is lost on one of the elements of the compound (the one with weaker or secondary stress), but the former tonic syllable retains the full length (long vowel or geminate consonant) of a stressed syllable. This is usually the last or first syllable, i.e. the last syllable doesn't have to end in a doubled consonant for the preceding vowel to be short if the stress falls in a different place. For instance, in most Ekeðin dialects, the word anðinn ('the duck') is pronounced using tone 1 (/ˈɑ̀nðɪnː/), while anðinn ('the spirit') uses tone 2 (/ˈɑ̂nðɪnː/).

Pulmonic ingressive[]

The words ja ('yes') and æi ('no') are sometimes pronounced with inhaled breath (pulmonic ingressive) in Ekeðin. The same phenomenon occurs across the Scandinavian languages, and can also be found in German, French and Finnish, to name a few.

Phonotactics[]

At a minimum, a stressed syllable must consist of either a long vowel or a short vowel and a long consonant. Like many other languages, Ekeðin has a tendency for closed syllables with a relatively large number of consonant clusters in initial position, though it is more restricted in final position. The syllable structure of Ekeðin can therefore be described with the following formula:

(C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)

This means that an Ekeðin one-syllable morpheme can have up to three consonants preceding the vowel that forms the nucleus of the syllable, and three consonants following it. Examples: skræmping /skræmping/ (noun 'scaring'). All but one of the consonant phonemes, /ŋ/, can occur at the beginning of a morpheme. All consonants except for /h/ and /ɕ/ can occur finally.

Writing System[]

Ekeðin Futhark Alphabet (ᛇᚴᛇᚠᛁᛋ ᚹᚢᚦᛆᚱᚴᛁᛦᛇᛦ ᛆᛚᚴᚮᛋᛋᛇᛁ Ekeðis Vuþarkinen Alkossei)

Native Letters

Letter
Romanization Aa Ææ Ðð Ee Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo
Sound /ɑ/ /æ/ /ð/ /e, ɛ/ /h/ /i, ɪ/ /j/ /k/ /l/ /m/ /n/ /o, ɔ/
Letter
Romanization Øø Pp Rr Ss Şş Tt Þþ Uu Yy Vv (ng)
Sound /ø, œ/ /p/ /ɾ, rː/ /s/ /ɕ/ /t/ /th:/ /u, ʊ/ /y, ʏ/ /ʋ/ /ŋ/

Native Digraphs

Aspiration Aspirated Preaspirated
Letter ᛒᚺ ᛏᚺ ᚴᚺ ᚺᛒ
Romanization ph th kh hp ht hk
Sound /pʰ/ /tʰ/ /kʰ/ /ʰp/ /ʰt/ /ʰk/

Non-Native Letters

Letter
Romanization Bb Dd Ff Gg
Sound /b~p/ /d~t/ /f/ /g~k/

Grammar[]

Morphology[]

Ekeðin morphology is typical of rich agglutinative systems found in the Finno-Ugric and Turkic languages since nouns and verbs can become very long and rather complicated. Nouns and adjectives are declined for case, number, and definiteness. Ekeðin possesses a definite article, but not an indefinite one. The definite article is a suffix added to the noun -inn. Verbs are conjugated for tense, mood, person, number and voice. There are four voices: active, passive, causative and adjutative. There are three simple tenses, present, preterite and imperfect along with a periphrastic future and perfect tenses. There are three moods, conditional, presumptive and potential. There also exists a present continuous tense analogous to English "to be doing" as well as a variety of participles and an interrogative verb suffix, which is not in itself considered a stand-alone interrogative mood.

Nouns[]

The Ekeðin language does not distinguish gender in nouns or even in personal pronouns: hæn is 'he', 'she' or 'they' (singular, indeterminate) depending on the referent. There is only one article, the definite article, which is a suffix -inn appended to nouns only.

Cases[]

Ekeðin has fourteen noun cases: six grammatical cases (seven in some Eastern dialects), three lative cases, two essive cases, and three additional cases.

Ekeðin cases
Case Suffix English prep. Example Translation
Grammatical
nominative (perusinen) sen1, hus you, house
genitive (omaisinen) -(e)n of, 's sinen, husen your(s), house's
accusative (saksinen) -(e)t sinet, huset you (thee) (direct object)
dative (satasinen) -(a)nti / -(æ)nti to, for sinnti, husanti to you, for a house (indirect object)
locative (invensinen) -(i)nna / -(i)nnæ in, at, on sininnæ, husinna at your's (your place), in/at a house
vocative (khallasinen)* -i sini, husi O you!/Hey, you! A house!
Lative
lative (motveisinen) -(e)rt into, towards husert, katort into a house, into a roof
ablative (vækveisinen) -(i)lta / -(i)ltæ from husilta from a house
perlative (þurveisinen) -(a)ksi / (æ)ksi through, across katoksi, husaksi through a roof, through a house
Essive
essive (olhetsinen) -ra / -ræ as husra as a house
abessive (skortsinen) -(i)lla / -(i)llæ without husilla without (being) a school
Other cases
temporal (thiðsinen) -(e)ssin at + time (e.g. 18:30) husessin during the house
comitative-instrumental (meðelsinen) -vou / -vøy together (with), by way of husvou with a house, by way of a house
terminative (entirsinen) -(i)tka / (i)tkæ until, up to, as far as husitka as far as the house

1 Irregular.

In some Eastern dialects, the partitive is the seventh grammatical case. It is nowadays obsolete in Modern Ekeðin and is almost exclusively found in a few fossilised forms and is therefore not usually considered a living noun case. The suffix is -a / -æ. Its meaning is partiality, some common examples being:

With nouns of indefinite number or substance nouns (the partitive object):
  • "hatko kirjo|j|a?" = "do you have any books?"
  • "villun vett|æ" = "I want some water"

*NB: the vocative and partitive case suffixes are vowels so when in the plural, a /j/ glide must replace the /i/ of the diphthongs ei, æi, øi, oi, ai and then followed by the -i ending of the vocative and the -a/æ ending of the partitive.

Pronouns[]

Personal pronouns are used to refer to human beings and inanimate objects. The personal pronouns in Ekeðin in the nominative case are listed in the following table:

Personal pronouns[]
Ekeðin English Ekeðin English
Singular Plural
Jen I Me We
Sen You (sg.) Te You (pl.)
Hæn (S)he He They
Ðen It Ne They (inan.)

Because verbs are inflected for person and number, in the Ekeðin standard language subject pronouns are not required, and the first and second-person pronouns are usually omitted except when used for emphasis.

Possessive pronouns[]

Possessive pronouns are not inflected for number in Ekeðin since the number is inflected on the noun they modify.

Singular English Plural English
Mine My, mine Meina Our(s)
Sine Your(s) Teina Your(s)
Hæne His, her(s) Heina Their(s)
Ðene Its Neina Their(s)
Sæite reflexive Sæina reflexive
Demonstrative pronouns[]

The demonstratives are used of non-human animate entities and inanimate objects. Furthermore, the demonstratives are used to refer to group nouns and the number of the pronoun must correlate with the number of its referent.

Ekeðin English Ekeðin English
Singular Plural
Ðessi This Nessi These
Ðetti That Netti Those
Ðen It Ne They
Interrogative pronouns[]
Ekeðin English
kus which (of many)
kem who
kent whom (object)
kunti which (of two)
mis what
minna where
missen when
miþen how
Relative pronouns[]

jos

  • (refers to preceding word, especially persons) "Hæn ol ainan, jos mustan" "s/he is the only one whom (I) remember"
  • NB: jos for inanimate objects, jot for animate objects.

mis

  • (refers to the preceding clause/sentence or to an idea/concept) "Ðen ol ainan þingat, mis mustan "it is the only thing that (I) remember"
  • NB: mis for inanimate objects, mit for animate objects.
Reciprocal and reflexive pronouns[]
Ekeðin English
sois reciprocal pronoun, i.e. each other
sæit reflexive pronoun, i.e. myself
Indefinite pronouns[]

A large group that entails all of the pronouns that do not fall into any of the categories above.

Ekeðin English
joka (uninflected) every, each
jokainen every, everyone
jokyksi either one
jokoin some, something (inanimate)
kukainen each one
kukatoinen both
kemmæn anyone
→ ejkemmæn no-one
olmikan anything
→ ejolmikan nothing

Adjectives[]

Adjectives in Finnish are inflected in exactly the same way as nouns, and an adjective must agree in number and case with the noun it is modifying. Most regular adjectives end in -is/-s, but the past active participle is also regularly used as an adjective (cf. English -ed), regardless of vowel harmony, although there are some exceptions to this. Plural adjectives end in -eis for front vowel harmony, but either -ais or -ois for back vowel harmony. The ending of -s is appended to the end of the nominative case which is unmarked, but for other cases the -s swaps place with the vowel i and the case endings are appended onto this stem. When there are already two consonants at the end of the stem, the s is assimilated (changes to another letter) or disappears altogether.

For example, here are some adjectives:

Ekeðin English
storis 'big'
vækis 'small'
røðis 'red'

And here are some examples of adjectives inflected to agree with nouns:

Ekeðin English
storsin husen esunna 'in front of a big house' GEN
toi vækeis husoi 'two small houses' NOM
røðsinna husinna 'in a red house' LOC

Comparative formation[]

The comparative of the adjective is formed by adding -empi to the inflecting stem. For example:

Ekeðin English Ekeðin English
storis 'big' storempi 'bigger'
vækis 'small' vækempi 'smaller'
røðis 'red' røðempi 'redder'

Since the comparative adjective is still an adjective, it must be inflected to agree with the noun it modifies.

Superlative formation[]

The superlative of the adjective is formed by adding -esti to the inflecting stem. For example:

Ekeðin English Ekeðin English
storis 'big' storesti 'bigger'
vækis 'small' vækesti 'smaller'
røðis 'red' røðesti 'redder'

Adverbs[]

A very common way of forming adverbs is by adding the ending -sto / stø to the inflecting form of the corresponding adjective:

Ekeðin English
snappis, snappisto 'quick, quickly'
kaunis, kaunisto 'beautiful, beautifully'
longis, longisto 'slow, slowly'
auþis, auþisto 'easy, easily'

Adverbs modify verbs, not nouns, therefore they do not inflect. The -sto / stø adverbs are not used to modify adjectives (such as to express degree) like -ly adverbs might be in English; the genitive of adjectives is used for this purpose.

Comparative formation[]

The comparative form of the adverb has the ending -mmin.

Ekeðin English
snappis, snappisto, snappimmin 'quick, quickly, more quickly/faster'
kaunis, kaunisto, kaunimmin 'beautiful, beautifully, more beautifully'
longis, longisto, longimmin 'slow, slowly, more slowly'
auþis, auþisto, auþimmin 'easy, easily, more easily'

Superlative formation[]

The superlative form of the adverb has the ending -ttin.

Ekeðin English
auþis, auþisto, auþimmin, auþittin 'easy, easily, more easily, most easily'

Adverbial cases[]

In addition to adverbs, Ekeðin also has a small number of marginal adverbial cases which are only used to form certain adverbs, for example, from adjectives and nouns. These cases are no longer productive in Modern Ekeðin so are not treated as grammatical cases but as adverbial ones. For instance, longis "slow" to longipsi "slow and steady" [literally, slowly-slowly].

Case Suffix Example Translation Meaning
Adverbial
multiplicative (vormeisinen) psi toipsi twice, two times marks a number of actions, -ly, intensifier for swearwords
distributive (jakksinen) -ttoin / ttøin paivattoin each day expresses "per or each", in a specific manner one by one
causative (aihutsinen) -þen vorþen therefore, thus causing sth, a result or reason for sth

Verbs[]

Verbs in Ekeðin are conjugated for tense, mood, person, number and voice. Ekeðin conjugates verbs for three persons in the singular and plural. In addition to the three persons, Ekeðin also has an impersonal form, which is distinct from the passive form (cf. French on vs passive constructions) and can conveniently be translated with "one" or "someone" as the subject, conveying generality. There are four voices: active, passive, causative and adjutative. There are three simple tenses, present, preterite (also called simple past) and imperfect along with a periphrastic future and multiple perfect tenses. There are four moods, imperative, conditional, presumptive and potential. There also exists a present continuous tense analogous to English "to be doing" as well as a variety of participles and an interrogative suffix, which is not in itself considered a stand-alone interrogative mood. There are three main auxillary verbs used to construct periphrastic tenses, the non-stative verb olla (to be), the stative verb skella (to be) and the verb vaða (to become; will) which is used to construct the future tense. These auxillary verbs have separate special negative forms for periphrastic tenses. Negative sentences are made negative by the word ekki which follows the verb, except for perfect tenses which have their own unique negative auxillary (ein, eit, ei...).

Tense-aspect[]

There are three simple tenses: present, preterite and imperfect along with a range of periphrastic tenses, which are formed using the auxiliary verbs in the table below. They are formed as follows:

  • Perfect, uses the present tense of olla, plus the active past participle -nut/nyt appended to the verb.
  • Past Perfect, uses the past tense of olla, plus the active past participle -nut/nyt appended to the verb.
  • Progressive, uses the present tense of the stative verb skella, plus the gerund -nðu/nðy appended to the verb.
  • Past Progressive, uses the past tense of the stative verb skella, plus the gerund -nðu/nðy appended to the verb.
  • Future, uses the infinitive of the verb, plus the present tense of vaða.
  • Past Future, uses the infinitive of the verb, plus the past tense of vaða.

Auxiliary verbs[]

The following verbs can be used as an auxiliary for various modal meanings.

Pronoun Present
Olla (to be; non-stative) Skella (to be; stative) Vaða (to become; will)
affermative negative affermative negative affermative negative
jen (I) on ein ole skellan ein skelle van ein vaðe
sen (you) ot eit ole skellat eit skelle vat eit vaðe
hæn, on (he/she, it) ol ei ole skell ei skelle va ei vaðe
me (we) omme eimme ole skellamme eimme skelle vamme eimme vaðe
te (you pl.) otte eitte ole skellatte eitte skelle vatte eitte vaðe
he, ne (they) otan eitan ole skellatan eitan skelle vatan eitan vaðe
impersonal form olar eier ole skellar eier skelle var eier vaðe
passive olkor ei ole skelkor ei skelle vakor ei vaðe

Conjugation tables[]

Tables of conjugation are given here for the regular verb, of type I pusua (to speak), in the indicative as used in Ekeðin. The vast majority of verbs are regular, however, some are irregular such as the three auxiliary verbs shown above where the verb stems assume different suffixes and undergo different changes when inflected.

indicative mood
active voice present tense preterite imperfect present perfect past perfect
per. no. pron. affirmative negative affirmative negative
1st sg. jen pusun pusoin pusoistan on pusunut ein ole pusunut olin pusunut ein olnut pusunut
2nd sen pusut pusoit pusoistat ot pusunut eit ole pusunut olit pusunut eit olnut pusunut
3rd hæn pusu pusoi pusoista ol pusunut ei ole pusunut oli pusunut ei olnut pusunut
1st pl. me pusumme pusoimme pusoistamme omme pusunut eimme ole pusunut olimme pusunut eimme olnut pusunut
2nd te pusutte pusoitte pusoistatte otte pusunut eitte ole pusunut olitte pusunut eitte olnut pusunut
3rd he pusutan pusoitan pusoistatan otan pusunut eitan ole pusunut olitan pusunut eitan olnut pusunut
impersonal pusur pusoier pusoistar olar pusunut eier ole pusunut olir pusunut eier olnut pusunut
passive voice pusukor pusoikor pusoistakor ol pusuvu ei ole pusuvu oli pusuvu ei olnut pusuvu

The present, imperfect, perfect, and pluperfect correspond reasonably well to English: 'speaks', 'spoke', 'has spoken', and 'had spoken', respectively or in the passive voice, 'it is spoken', 'it was spoken', 'it has been spoken', and 'it had been spoken'. The auxiliary verb ei used for negation, usually with the naked stem of the main verb but with the past participle in the negative imperfect. Finnish lacks a true future tense, so normally the present tense is used for future time as well.

Mood[]

There are four moods: conditional, imperative, potential and presumptive, which are conjugated as follows:

Conditional and potential mood[]
conditional mood potential mood
active voice present tense past tense perfect present tense past tense perfect
per. no. pron. affirmative negative affirmative negative
1st sg. jen pususin pusoisin olisin pusunut ein olisi pusunut pusuhan pusoihan linen pusunut en liene pusunut
2nd sen pususit pusoisit olisit pusunut eit olisi pusunut pusuhat pusoihat linet pusunut et liene pusunut
3rd hæn pususi pusoisi olisi pusunut ei olisi pusunut pusuha pusoiha line pusunut ei liene pusunut
1st pl. me pususimme pusoisimme olisimme pusunut eimme olisi pusunut pusuhamme pusoihamme linemme pusunut eimme liene pusunut
2nd te pususitte pusoisitte olisitte pusunut eitte olisi pusunut pusuhatte pusoihatte linette pusunut eitte liene pusunut
3rd he pususitan pusoisitan olisitan pusunut eitan olisi pusunut pusuhatan pusoihatan linetan pusunut eitan liene pusunut
impersonal pususir pusoisir olisir pusunut eier olisi pusunut pusuhar pusoihar liner pusunut eier liene pusunut
passive voice pususikor pusoisikor olisi pusuvu ei olisi pusuvu pusuhakor pusoihakor line pusuvu ei liene pusuvu

The conditional mood corresponds mostly to 'would' or 'should' or to the past subjunctive in English. (Ekeðin lacks a subjunctive mood.) The potential mood corresponds to 'can' or 'could' in English. The perfect forms of these moods are easily understood as 'would have', 'should have', 'could have', etc.

Imperative and presumptive mood[]
imperative mood presumptive mood
active voice present past perfect
per. no. pron. affirmative negative
1st sg. jen pusuman pusoiman lieðen pusumanut ein lieðe pusumanut
2nd sen pusu pusumat pusoimat lieðet pusumanut eit lieðe pusumanut
3rd hæn pusulli pusuma pusoima lieðe pusumanut ei lieðe pusumanut
1st pl. me pusummi pusumamme pusoimamme lieðemme pusumanut eimme lieðe pusumanut
2nd te pusutti pusumatte pusoimatte lieðette pusumanut eitte lieðe pusumanut
3rd he pusutin pusumatan pusoimatan lieðetan pusumanut eitan lieðe pusumanut
impersonal pusumar pusoimar lieðer pusumanut eier lieðe pusumanut
passive voice pusumakor pusoimakor lieðekør pusumavu ei lieðe pusumavu

The first and third person imperative forms here correspond to English 'let us speak', 'let him not speak' etc. Unlike other moods such as the indicative and conditional, there are no impersonal or passive voice forms for the imperative mood.

Voice[]

A verb-stem can be lengthened with certain suffixes for the following voices. The passive is one voice, but it doesn't use an suffix on the verb-stem, rather it has its own unique conjugation.

Voice Suffix Notes Formation
Causative -ve subject causes causee / change of state voice suffix + personal ending, object in ACC
Adjutative -þu / -þy used to mean "help to", "support" voice suffix + personal ending, object in DAT
Passive constructions[]

Passive sentences are constructed with the patient in the nominative case, the verb in passive conjugation, followed by the agent in the instrumental case. The parts in bold are part of the passive conjugation in the past tenses.

Husinn ol malavu Lukasvou. The house has been painted by Lucas (immediate past)

Husinn malikor Lukasvou. The house was painted by Lucas (distant past).

Causative constructions[]

Causative sentences are constructed with the subject in the nominative case, the verb conjugated with the suffix -ve, followed by the object in the dative case.

(Jen) syøvein hænnti. I made her eat.

Adjutative constructions[]

Adjutative sentences are constructed somewhat similarly to causative sentences above. The subject must be in the nominative case, the verb conjugated with the suffix -þu/þy, followed by the preposition "vur" and the object in the dative case. The vowels y and u cannot be followed by i, so an -h- must be inserted between the y/u and the last vowel which is usually -i.

Kvinna syøþyhi vur kompisenti sæite. A woman helped her friend (to) eat.

Verbal suffixes[]

Aspectual suffixes[]
Voice Suffix Example Meaning Notes Formation
Inchoative -esta souvesta "to start sleeping, to fall asleep" used for a process of beginning or becoming aspect suffix + personal ending
Frequentative -ella mentellæ "to go regularly, to attend" used for habitual and repeated actions
Momentane -ahta seirahta "to take a look" used for sudden, short-lived actions
Connective suffix[]

The connective verbal suffix (-ja / jæ) is used to mark a successive action and connects two clauses together. This is appended to the infinitive and is not conjugated. It roughly means "and (then)" when connecting one verb to another such as the sentence "dogs eat and sleep", which would be rendered as "koirai syøtæ souva"

Interrogative suffix[]

The interrogative suffix (-ko / kø) is used to mark a question. It is appended to the verb, but it is sometimes rarely appended to a noun for emphasis.

Surprise/emphatic suffix[]

The emphatic suffix (-han / hæn) is used for emphasis or to show the surprise of the speaker. It is similar to emphatic particles in Korean and Japanese such as -네 and -よ.

Infinitives and participles[]

In Ekeðin, there are two infinitive forms, with past and present participles for active and passive voices.

Infinitives[]
Infinitive I[]

The first infinitive is the dictionary form of the verb: pusu-a = 'to speak' (stem pusu), and it corresponds in meaning and function to the English infinitive introduced by the particle 'to'. The suffix of the first infinitive depends on the type of the verb stem. With so-called "vowel" stems, the first infinitive suffix is -a/, whereas with "consonantal" stems, the suffix is most often -ta /-tæ. The first infinitive generally takes on no inflected forms. It appears as the dictionary form of the verb. For example, muista "to remember", thænkæ "to think", syøta "to eat", thakka "to thank".

Infinitive II[]

The second infinitive is used to make transitive verbs, whose original infinitive is not already transitive (thus intransitive). It cannot occur where an object is present as in intransitive verbs. It may be formed from the first infinitive by appending -tta / -ttæ. It's meaning mostly corresponds to particle and phrasal verbs in the Scandinavian languages (cf. Swedish ta emot). For example, intransitive herræ vs transitive herrættæ. Naturally transitive verbs do not employ any suffix as these are semantically marked.

Participles[]
Present active participle[]

This participle, also called a gerund, is formed simply by removing the infinitive ending and adding -nðu / nðy, and must be converted to -nðis when it acts as an adjective describing what the object or subject of the sentence is doing, for example:

Ekeðin English
souva|nðis koira 'sleeping dog'
kirkale|nðis valo 'blinding light'
þykastin skella luke|nðu 'I pretended to be reading'

[past-I inf inf + gerund]

thevra|nðu 'while painting'
Past active participle[]

Basically, this is formed by removing the infinitive ending and adding -nut / nyt (depending on vowel harmony). There are however some irregular endings, such as verbs whose stems end in -n and -m which become -nnut / nnyt and -mmut / mmyt respectively. This is a remnant of consonant gradation from Old Ekeðin. This always affects the bilabial and alveolar plosives and nasals (m, p and n, t). For instance:

1st infinitive Past active participle
pusua pusunut
syøtæ syønyt

Irregular forms

1st infinitive Stem Past active participle
haluta (halut-) halunnut
rapa (rap-) rammut
reinæ (rein-) reinnyt
thorma (thorm-) thormmut
Present passive participle[]

The present passive participle can be constructed from the 3rd person singular form of the present tense plus the ending -rut / ryt, which can be inflected in the same way as the present active participle. For example:

1st infinitive Present 3rd sg. Present passive participle English
anta ante ante|rut which is to be given
syøtæ syø syø|ryt which is to be eaten
sejæ sie sie|ryt which is to be told

It is possible to translate this participle in several related ways e.g. sannorut 'which must be/is to be said', 'which can be said', 'which will be said' or 'which is said'. Here are some sentences and phrases further illustrating the formation and use of the present passive participle:

Ekeðin English
Jotterut vatnit Drinkable water
Hatko jokoiten sieryt? Do you have anything to say?
Olko porðinna jokit syøryt? Is there anything to eat on the table?
Past passive participle[]

This participle is also formed from the 3rd person singular form of the present tense plus the ending -vu / vy.

Ekeðin English
læhtevy evtir kotirt 'after having gone home'
Verbal noun[]

There is also a verbal noun which transforms a verb into a noun e.g to discover > discovery. It is formed from the 1st infinitive minus the ending plus the ending -ing.

Ekeðin English
oli fini løyting 'it was a great discovery'

Adpositions[]

Ekeðin possesses both postpositions and prepositions, with the former being more common. Adpositions are given below along with their English translation and their appropriate assigned case(s). The genitive is the most common case with postpositions.

Postpositions[]

Ekeðin Case Motive English
tuppina genitive location on top of
tuppart genitive movement onto, to the top of
takominna genitive location behind
verinnæ genitive location beside, by, next to
nærinnæ genitive location near, close to
esunna genitive location in front of
vuostapa genitive location opposite
vastert genitive movement (to the) left of
høyrert genitive movement (to the) right of
miðinnæ genitive location in the middle of
untinna genitive location under(neath)
untirt genitive movement downwards
yllinæ genitive location overhead, above
ylørt genitive movement upwards
jaukinna genitive location amongst
samkinna genitive reason according to
vrart ablative movement off (from)
varten genitive purpose for the benefit/sake of
længvøy prolative movement along(side)

Prepositions[]

Ekeðin Case Motive English
mellan genitive location in between
utert genitive location out, outside, outdoors
vur dative purpose for, intended for
siðan accusative time during/while
innan accusative time before
evtir accusative time after
hom accusative reason about, concerning
utom accusative reason except, other than
hjaunna genitive location at the house of
thakki dative reason thanks to, due to

Numerals[]

The ordinary counting numbers (cardinals) from 0 to 10 are given in the table below. Cardinal numbers may be inflected and some of the inflected forms are irregular in form.

Cardinal numbers and key inflected forms[]

Number Nominative Genitive Accusative
0 noll nollen nollt
1 yks yhten yhtet
2 toi toin toit
3 holm holmen holmet
4 nelle nellen nellet
5 vitte vitten vittet
6 khutte khutten khuttet
7 sæitse sæitsen sæitset
8 toihtte toihten toihtet
9 yhtte yhtten yhttet
10 lykke lykken lykket

To form teens, (e)stan / stæn is added to the base number. Hyphens are written here to separate morphemes. In writing, hyphens are not written.

  • yks-e-stæn, toi-stan, ... yhtte-stæn 11, 12, ... 19

Derivational suffixes[]

Adjectives and nouns can also take the prefix ej- to transform into negative adjectives and nouns similar to the English prefixes un- and in-.

Noun > verb[]

Verb suffix Meaning
Base form -(e)ta / tæ to + verb
Foreign verbs -itsa / tsæ

Verb > noun[]

Noun suffix Meaning
Thing -ing -ry, -ing
Process -isse -(iza)tion
Agent -lar / lær -er
Place -mo / mø -ery

Adjective > noun[]

Noun suffix Meaning
Abstract -inen -ness, -ity, -ism
Ability -heinen -able
Nationality -inmen -man, -(i)an

Noun > adjective[]

Noun suffix Meaning
Description -is -y, -ive
Description -isk -ish, somewhat, fairly + adj.
Similarity -lis -like, -y
Quality -vul / vyl -ful
Quality -los / løs -less
Ability (present) -his -able (adjective, action)
Ability (past) -hennut / hennyt -able + ~ed (past participle, state)

Verb > adjective[]

Noun suffix Meaning
Description (present) -nðis -ing, action
Possessional -nut / nyt -ed, state
Ability (present) -his -able (adjective, action)
Ability (past) -hennut / hennyt -able + ~ed (past participle, state)

Adjective > verb[]

Noun suffix Meaning
Description (present) -era / eræ -ify, -ize

Adjective > adjective[]

Noun suffix Meaning
Description -isk -ish, somewhat, fairly + adj.

Lexicon[]

Some common phrases and words found in the Ekeðin language are listed below:

General conversation[]

  • Hi = Hæi
  • Hello = Helsa
  • How are you? = Miþen morat (sen)? / Miþen moratte (te)?
  • What's your name? = Mis kallat sæit? / Mis kallatte sæit?
  • Sir / madam = Herra / Vrua
  • Please = Mellyt
  • Thank you = Thakki
  • Thank you very much = Thakkan hyvestø
  • You're welcome = Engit muremalet
  • Welcome = Hyvætullut
  • Goodbye / See you soon = Sejatka
  • Farewell = Læhtehyv
  • Good morning = Hyvi humeni
  • Good (late) morning = Hyvi vurmapaivi
  • Good afternoon = Hyvi evmapaivi
  • Good evening = Hyvi kvælli
  • Good night = Hyvi natti

Honorifics[]

Ekethin Usage English
Herra male equals Sir, Mr
Vrua female equals Madam, Ms
Tanul elders Elderly Mr/Ms
Arvost superiors Mr/Ms,

CEO, Boss

Høysten high ranking officials Mr/Ms, Lord,

Politician, etc,

Long words[]

Ekeðin, being an agglutinative, solely-suffixing language with multiple suffixes can make words that seem implausibly long to an English speaker but sound normal to the average Ekeði person. Some very long words are:

  • Pusoivekankohan (Pusoivekenkokankohan)

Example text[]

The following is an excerpt from the fable The North Wind and the Sun by Æsop:

The North Wind and the Sun had a quarrel about which of them was the stronger. While they were disputing with much heat and bluster, a Traveler passed along the road wrapped in a warm cloak.

"Let us agree," said the Sun, "that he is the stronger who can strip that Traveler of his cloak."

"Very well," growled the North Wind, and at once sent a cold, howling blast against the Traveler.

With the first gust of wind the ends of the cloak whipped about the Traveler's body. But he immediately wrapped it closely around him, and the harder the Wind blew, the tighter he held it to him. The North Wind tore angrily at the cloak, but all his efforts were in vain.

Norris tulinn okk solinn kistoitan vis kunto heiðin oli erøsempi. Missto tvistaitan veljo varmainenvou okk larmavou, verðælær minnoi længvøy væitinn linðavunna varminna kappanna.

NB: To be continued......

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