Elene (Sprottu Elene /sprotːu eleɲe/) is an a priori conlang spoken in Northern Amortunańm. Verbs are conjugated according to person, tense, and number. Nouns are declined according to number. 

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Elene
Sprottu Elene
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Nominative–accusative
Head direction
Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect




Phonology[edit | edit source]

Consonants[edit | edit source]

Bilabial Labio-dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ ɴ
Plosive p b t d g q ʔ
Fricative f v s ʃ ç ʝ χ
Affricate t͡ʃ d͡ʒ
Approximant w j ɥ
Trill r
Lateral app. l ɫ

Vowels[edit | edit source]

Front Back
High i y u
Mid e ɤ o
Low a

Allophones[edit | edit source]

Before e, i, or j some consonants change:

t→[t͡ʃ]
d→[d͡ʒ]
n→[ɲ]
s→[ʃ]
h→[ç]

Before a velar consonant, n becomes ŋ:

ng→[ŋ]
ngg→[ŋgː]

Before a uvular consonant, n becomes ɴ:

nq→[ɴq]
nh→[ɴq͡χ]

Phonotactics[edit | edit source]

Consonants /m, p, b, n, t, d, s, l, ɫ, ʃ, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ, ɲ, ŋ, g, q/ can be geminated. This is achieved orthographically by doubling the consonant grapheme, or in the case of the nasals and lateral approximates, preceding it by the letter v.

Consonant Length Written IPA Meaning
/m/ Short somà /soma/ "to use"
Long sovma /somːa/ "flower bud"
/d/ Short edu /edu/ "poem"
Long eddù /edːu/ "to gather up"
/t͡ʃ/ Short mete /met͡ʃe/ "smooth"
Long mette /met͡ʃːe/ "very"
/ŋ/ Short enga /eŋa/ "clover"
Long evnga /eŋːa/ "breeze"

Words can begin with any consonant besides the glottal stop /ʔ/. Syllables can begin with two-consonant clusters so long as they (a) begin /s/, or (b) end with /r/; if they follow both of said conditions, a cluster can feature a maximum of three consonants. In addition, any consonant following /s/ in a cluster must be voiceless. Nasals and approximates cannot precede /r/ within a cluster. For example: /sn/-, /qr/-, and /sqr/- are all acceptable clusters, while /qs/-, /sd/-, and /snr/- are unnacceptable.

Native words can end in /m, p, b, n, t, d, s, r, ɫ, ʝ, ŋ, g, q/. Consonant clusters are not permitted in syllable codas.


Vowels can exist in any combination of up to three morae, so long as no two identical vowel sounds occure adjacent to one another. For example, /ae/, /aoɪ̯/, and /uɤe/ are all acceptable clusters, while /aa/, /uue/, and /iiː/ are not. Diphthongs and long vowels count as two morae. Vowels /e/, /i/, and /o/ can be lengthened—written as ei, ÿi, and ou, respectively.

Diphthongs[edit | edit source]

+/i/ +/u/
/a/ /aɪ̯/ /aʊ̯/
/e/ /eː/ /eʊ̯/
/i/ /jy/
/o/ /oɪ̯/ /oː/
/ɤ/ /ɤɪ̯/ /ɤʊ̯/
/u/ /ɥi/

Lessons[edit | edit source]

Unit 1[edit | edit source]

1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

Alphabet[edit | edit source]

A consonant is considered wide if it is followed by a, o, õ, u or ÿ. Consonants followed by e, i, or j are considered narrow. If a letter only fills one box, it maintains that pronunciation for both instances.

Letter Wide Long
A /a/
B /b/
C /q/ or /t͡s/ /ʃ/
D /d/ /d͡ʒ/
E /e/
F /f/
G /g/
H /χ/ /ç/
I /i/
J /j/
K /q/
L /ɫ/ /l/
M /m/
N /n/ /ɲ/
Ń /ʔn/ ɲ/
O /o/
Õ /ɤ/
P /p/
Q /q/
R /r/
S /s/ /ʃ/
T /t/ /t͡ʃ/
U /u/ or /y/ /ɥ/
V /v/
W /w/ /ɥ/
X /ʃ/
Y /ʝ/
Ÿ /j/
Z /d͡z/ /d͡ʒ/
Letters C, K, W, X, and Z are not used in native words, but are used in loan words, names, etc.

Grammar[edit | edit source]

Pronouns[edit | edit source]

Personal[edit | edit source]

Person Type Singular Plural
1 General eme emite
Formal Eo Eov
2 General ette etitte
Formal Ete Etev
3 General assa asitta
Formal Asa Asav

Possessive[edit | edit source]

Person Singular Plural
1 mei mevi
2 tei tevi
3 sai savi

Demonstrative[edit | edit source]

Singular Plural
Object Location Object Location
Proximal ÿa ÿata ÿav
Mesial na nata nav
Distal la lata lav
Interrogative ale alat

Conjugation[edit | edit source]

Verbs are only conjugated according to person and basic tense (past, present, future). The other tenses are formed by use of auxiliary verbs. All infinitives, the unconjugated verbs, get grave diacritics and end in à, è, ì, ò, ȍ, or ù. Conjugated verbs get a circumflex diacritic.

Regular Verbs[edit | edit source]

-à[edit | edit source]

Present

Person Singular Plural
1 â âi
2 ât âte
3 âus âuse

Past

Person Singular Plural
1 âta âti
2 âtta âtti
3 âusta âuti

Future

Person Singular Plural
1 âl âlo
2 âto âtjo
3 âuso âusjo
-è[edit | edit source]

Present

Person Singular Plural
1 ê êi
2 êt ête
3 âis âise

Past

Person Singular Plural
1 êta êti
2 êtta êtti
3 âista âiti

Future

Person Singular Plural
1 êl êlo
2 êto êtjo
3 âiso âisjo
-ì[edit | edit source]

Present

Person Singular Plural
1 î îe
2 ît îte
3

êis

êise

Past

Person

Singular Plural
1 îta îti
2 îtta îtti
3 êista êiti

Future

Person

Singular Plural
1 îu îlo
2 îto îtjo
3 êiso êisjo
-ò[edit | edit source]

Present

Person Singular Plural
1 ô ôi
2 ôt ôte
3 êus êuse

Past

Person Singular Plural
1 ôta ôti
2 ôtta ôtti
3 êusta êuti

Future

Person Singular Plural
1 ôu ôlo
2 ôto ôtjo
3 êuso êusjo
-ȍ[edit | edit source]

Present

Person Singular Plural
1 ỗe
2 ỗt ỗte
3 ỗus ỗuse

Past

Person Singular Plural
1 ỗta ỗtei
2 ỗtta ỗttei
3 ỗusta ỗutei

Future

Person Singular Plural
1 ỗr ỗro
2 ỗto ỗtjo
3 ỗuso ỗusjo
-ù[edit | edit source]

Present

Person Singular Plural
1 û ûe
2 ût ûte
3 ûos ûose

Past

Person

Singular Plural
1 ûta ûtei
2 ûtta ûttei
3 ûosta ûotei

Future

Person

Singular Plural
1 ûõ ûlo
2 ûto ûtjo
3 ûoso ûosjo

Irregular Verbs[edit | edit source]

È: to be[edit | edit source]

Present

Person Singular Plural
1 êe êi
2 êt ête
3 ês êse

Past

Person Singular Plural
1 êta êti
2 êtta êtti
3 êsta êsi

Future

Person Singular Plural
1 êl êlou
2 êtou êtjou
3 êsou êsjou
Hjuè: to have[edit | edit source]

Present

Person Singular Plural
1 hjuê hêe
2 hjuêt hête
3 hjuês hêse

Past

Person Singular Plural
1 hjuêta hêti
2 hjuêtta hêtti
3 hjuêsta hêsi

Future

Person Singular Plural
1 hjuêl hêlo
2 hjuêto hêtjo
3 hjuêso hêsjo
Anù: to be able[edit | edit source]

Present

Person Singular Plural
1 anûa anûe
2 anûat anûate
3 anûas anûase

Past

Person Singular Plural
1 anûta anûti
2 anûtta anûtti
3 anûsta anûsi

Future

Person Singular Plural
1 anûal anûlo
2 anûatto anûtjo
3 anûasso anûsjo
Yè: to go[edit | edit source]

Present

Person Singular Plural
1 yêe yêi
2 yêt yête
3 yês yêse

Past

Person Singular Plural
1 yêta yêti
2 yêtta yêtti
3 yêsta yêsi

Future

Person Singular Plural
1 yêl yêlou
2 yêtou yêtjou
3 yêsou yêsjou

Syntax[edit | edit source]

The usual syntax of Elene is SVs(O). Conjugated verbs, however, show person so that the subject is implied. Both SVs(O) and Vs(O) are allowed.

Eme oî ette. Anûate rotì.
[eme oj et͡ʃːe] [anuat͡ʃe rot͡ʃi]
S Vs O Vs O
1s love(1s,pr) 2s able(2pl,pr) eat(inf)
I love you. You all can eat.

Number[edit | edit source]

Plurals in Elene are expressed depending on noun endings.

Ending in a Vowel[edit | edit source]

  • a, o, õ, or u. 
-v
vuttja vuttjav
bird birds
  • Some proper nouns such as names or demonyms can end in i or e.
-'v
i armeni iv armeni'v
an armenian some armenians

Ending in a Consonant[edit | edit source]

Singlular nouns can also end in all consonants, except for f, h, j, n, ń, or v. What makes the words plural depends on endings:

  • b, d, g, y, ÿ
-ev is added
eÿ eÿev
egg eggs
  • l, r
-ov
toral toralov
back backs
  • m
ń is placed in front of the m
asastam asastańm
stick sticks
  • ng
ń replaces the n
lõng lõńg
ash ashes
  • p, q, s, t
-jav
omboit omboitjav
belly bellies
  • If a noun, in loan words or proper nouns such as names, ends in f, h, j, n, ń, or v
-'ov
e iv e iv'ov
the eve the eves

Questions[edit | edit source]

Syntax does not change if a sentence becomes interrogative. The distiguishing features are:

  • Rising pitch on the main verb.
  • The diacritic on the first conjugated verb is changed to an acute (or double acute in the case of ỗ).
Yêtou. Yétou?
[ʝetoː] [↗ʝetoː]
go(2s,f) go(2s,f,?)
You will go. Will you go?
Hjỗt inè. Hjőt inè?
[çʊt iɲe] [↗çʊt iɲe]
drink(2s,pr) not drink(2s,pr,?) not
You don't drink. You don't drink?

Particles[edit | edit source]

In Elene, separate words, or particles, are added to a sentence to express additional grammatical information.

Tense[edit | edit source]

Tense particles follow a verb to add a tense that can't be conjugated. These get the same diacritics as verbs, however they remain unconjugated and can end in consonants. They follow the verb/verb phrase that they modify.

Particle Meaning Example Elene Example English
Negative inè not Santtâusta inè assa. He did not hit him.

Imperative

tèt command Santtâus tèt assa. Hit him.
Perfect completion Santtâuso dà assa. He will have hit him.
Participle lȍn currently occuring Ês santtà lȍn assa. He is hitting him.

Emotion[edit | edit source]

To emphasize the emotion the subject is feeling, particles are sometimes used in informal and archaic speech and writings. These are usually used at the end of a sentence or phrase.

Particle Example Elene Example English
Joy e

Yêi e!

Let's go!
Sadness lo Lolouâ lo. I'm sorry.
Anger sa Yêt tèt sa! Go away!
Sencerity la Altaggâ la. Thank you very much.
Pain ai Satâ ai! It burns!

Vocabulary Some words can double as verbs.



No. English Elene
1Ieme
2you (singular)ette
3heassa
4weemite
5you (plural)etitte
6theyasitta
7thisÿa
8thatna
9hereÿata
10therenata
11whoalan
12whatale
13wherealat
14whenalehe
15howalotte
16notinè
17alloto
18manymen
19somedale
20fewiman
21othertorotte
22oneeno
23twoteto
24threeyain
25fourbõn
26fivearato
27bigdoi
28longanoi
29widevatte
30thickpottõi
31heavyhomon
32smallsatin
33shortbutin
34narrowimatin
35thinvostin
36womanumula
37man (adult male)votta
38man (human being)vamana
39childsjo
40wifetumutta
41husbandvotatta
42motherama
43fatheraba
44animalsolstamina
45fishostina
46birdvuttja
47cat
48dog
49lousebomnatta
50snakeverella
51wormoutoa
52treeqiu
53forestmõriu
54stickasastam
55fruitavru
56seedtuno
57leafla
58rootsustauna
59barkmõt
60floweravalla
61grassmittia
62ropehompa
63skinsal
64meatańo
65bloodtinim
66boneomno
67fatittant
68eggeÿ
69hornfaltu
70tailentena
71featheralfu
72hairpeÿu
73headnamasta
74earallam
75eyeyoÿo
76noseoppom
77mouthqou
78toothitit
79tongueaglompu
80fingernailhimtina
81footupevma
82legapalma
83kneeuntja
84handmona
85wingavaya
86bellyomboit
87gutstantu
88neckassona
89backtoral
90breastmÿõ
91hearttoqqtõqa
92liverdolmate
93drinkhjõlla / hjȍ
94eatrotì
95biterutatta / rutattì
96suckgovmò
97spithamò
98vomitququa / ququettà
99blowhafù
100breathehasà
101laughauaran / auarà
102seeomittȍ
103hearohollà
104knowqenȍ
105thinksomnà
106smellassoto / asottù
107fearnala / nalamè
108sleeptomunat / tomì
109livetrivù
110diegattè
111killgattandà
112fightsuassam
113hunttimittò
114hitsanttà
115cutiti / itì
116splitqurutì
117stabamatì
118scratchdordutja / dordusatì
119digmigyì
120swimplottù
121flybassjap / saltȍ
122walksatsà
123comegassà
124lieumonet / umossȍ
125sitsauÿò
126standdaneà
127turnsortì
128fallonmo / dallè
129givefittù
130holdyaÿà
131squeezesjotù
132rubpovmì
133washbamnuà
134wipehafò
135pulltontalù
136pushgotjù
137throwoyattè
138tietolttu / toltimivnà
139sewtuatì
140countqettaì
141sayfalè
142singhotanè
143playunggà
144floatobloà
145flowhuttè
146freezehulassjà
147swellsoltȍ
148sunhia
149moonÿuõ
150starsjõya
151watersjaÿ
151rainamet / amettè
152riversuo
153lakelag
154seaosoq
155salthumal
156stoneortunam
157sanddovnaq
158dustuttupa
160earthsotjo / Talmer
161clouddo
162fogvamaillo
163skytjem
164windossab
165snowugia / ugì
166iceugattja
167smokemostom / tigarrà
168firefo
169ashlõng
170burnsatà
171road
172mountainanja
173redohesõi
174greeneltesõi
175yellowiyosõi
176whiteangosõi
177blackeqrosõi
178nightduallem
179daytiõ
180yearõnea
181warmmitti
182coldhuroi
183fulluli
184newuvoi
185oldehe
186goodimi
187bademÿe
188rottenuqqse
189dirtysosson
190straightgratan
191roundsate
192sharptan
193dullõne
194smoothsuli
195wetsuen
196drysasi
197correcthasse
198neardayan
199fareyon
200rightalte
201leftdane
202aton
203inon
204withne
205andol
206ifas
207becauseleto
208namelang


Example text[edit | edit source]

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