Englisc is a language based on Old Englisc, carried forward to today. There is a bit of German in it, and some modern English, but it maintains its core language, unlike our language. This language is basically Old English as if it evolved like Modern German.

Calendar Information

Basic Grammar[]

Here is a basic grammar of Englisc:


  • Capital: A, Æ, B, C, D, Ð, E, F, G, Ȝ, H, Ƕ, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, Œ, P, Q, R, S, T, Þ, U, V, W, X, Y, Z
  • Lowercase: a, æ, b, c, d, ð, e, f, g, ȝ, h, ƕ, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, œ, p, q, r, s, t, þ, u, v, w, x, y, z
  • Runic: ᚪ, ᚫ, ᛒ, ᚳ, ᛞ, ᚧ, ᛖ, ᚠ, ᚸ, ᚷ, ᚻ, ᛰ, ᛁ, ᛄ, ᛣ, ᛚ, ᛗ, ᚾ, ᚩ, ᛟ, ᛈ, ᛢ, ᚱ, ᛋ, ᛏ, ᚦ, ᚢ, ᚡ, ᚹ, ᛉ, ᚣ, ᛊ; additionally: ᛥ (st), ᛝ (ng), ᛡ (ia, io), ᛠ (ea), ᛤ (kk), (eo)
  • (please download Junicode to view the Runes)
Rune table

Table of Runes for Englisc

The alphabet can also be written with runic characters, and when done in this form, can be written backwards, forwards, boustrephedonically, and vertically up or down, depending on the need of the writer. The Runic letters are arranged alphabetically in their own arrangement, different from Latin form. The V is simply a dotted-F rune. The rune ᛢ stands for QU and KW in any word. The conjunction "and" can also be shortened, especially in writing with Runes, to .

Runic alphabetical order: f u þ o r c; ȝ w h n i j; eo p x s t b; e m l ng œ d; a æ y ea ia k; kk g kw st ð v; z ƕ

There is also the letter hwair (Ƕ, ƕ) used to write "hwa" and other words beginning with HW, which is ordered after H. This is mostly a written convention to merge the two letters, but some dictionaries will order words beginning with HW as a separate letter, not between HU and HY words.

When writing Englisc, there are some abbreviations you might see, most notably the letter þ with a stroke through the top (Ꝥ ꝥ) which is short for þat.  The second is what is called 'Tironian et', a short version of 'and', written like the number 7, but straight, and descending below the line ().


See: Pronunciation Examples

short /a/ /ɛ/, /æ/ /ɛ/, /ə/ /ɪ/ /ɔ/ /œ/ /ʊ/ /ʏ/
long /aː/ /ɛː/, /eː/ /eː/ /iː/ /oː/ /øː/ /uː/ /yː/



  • In some dialects, sounds like /ɒ/
  • Umlaut of a, æ has two pronunciations: short like Bett and long like air; or short like hat and long like gäbe (stage German pronunciation)
  • The schwa [ə] occurs only in unstressed syllables, for instance in besetten [bəˈsɛt:ən] 'occupy'. It is often considered a complementary allophone together with [ɛ] which cannot occur in unstressed syllables. If a sonorant follows in the syllable coda, the schwa often disappears so that the sonorant becomes syllabic, for instance Kyccen [ˈkʰytʃn̩] 'kitchen', Esel [ˈeːzl̩] 'donkey'. Before /r/, this is realized as [ɐ] in some varieties, for instance better [ˈbɛt:ɐ] 'better'.
  • The vowel written either as ⟨æ⟩ or ⟨ea⟩ in some cases is pronounced as the long variant of the short /æ/
digraph ai, ei, aȜ, eȜ ie æȜ ea au eo io
pronunciation /aɪ̯/ /iː/ /ɛɪ/ /æː/ /aʊ̯/ /eːɔ/ /i̯o/


  • The diphthong ⟨io⟩ is often pronounced with a slight 'y' sound at the start, so that ⟨Biologie⟩ sounds like "bjo-lo-gie"

The letters b, d, g, k, l, m, n, p, t, v, w, x sound like modern English.

  • ⟨C⟩ is always like /tʃ/ in church.
  • ⟨Ȝ⟩ (yogh) is a /j/-sound like yes in all positions. In inflectional endings is replaced with /g/, such as ⟨DæȜ⟩ "day" becoming ⟨Dage⟩ "days". In these cases, the ⟨G⟩ is pronounced like German ach-laut, sounding like "Daa-kheh". In adjective endings, mainly -iȜ, the yogh is replaced with a G before all inflectional endings. This should be pronounced like a regular G, though some dialects would pronounce it as an ich-laut in less formal registers.
    • In foreign loanwords, ⟨J⟩ indicates the same sound.
  • ⟨Þ⟩ and ⟨Ð⟩ sound like think and that, respectively.
  • ⟨H⟩ at the beginning of a word is like hard; at the end of a word (after a/o/u) like Scottish loch and after front vowels ⟨æ/e/i/œ/y⟩ like German ich.
  • ⟨Q⟩ is always in the combination qu and is only used in foreign words; the native version is spelled as ⟨kw⟩.
  • ⟨S⟩ is pronounced like sing in all cases except between vowels, when it sounds rose.
  • ⟨W⟩ is always like wire, except in the combination ⟨wl⟩ or ⟨wr⟩ when it can sound like victor.
  • ⟨Z⟩ sounds like /ts/ as in cats in any unstressed syllable, and /dz/ in a stressed syllable.
  • B - like b in bed.
  • C - like ch in chisel.
  • D - like d in dog.
  • Ð - like that. Alternates with þ in words such as "werþ" becoming "werðem" in an inflected form
  • F - like f in father. Between vowels, voiced to v
  • G - like g in gold.
  • Ȝ - like y in yes. In the adjective ending , it is replaced with g in inflected forms. In nouns ending in ȝ it is often replaced with g in plural forms, especially after back vowels, where it is pronounced like German 'ach'. The digraph ȝh is written to keep a vowel short, and is an ich-laut or ach-laut, depending on whether the preceding vowel is front or back.
  • H - like h in hotel.
  • Ƕ - like /hw/, similar to Gothic hwair.
  • J - like y in yes.
  • K - like k in kilogram
  • L - like l in liter
  • M - like m in man
  • N - like n in now
  • P - like p in post
  • Q - always seen as qu, pronounced as in queen. Native words have kw in place of this combination
  • R - like r in rose or water (American English). It is always pronounced. More common is the trilled version as in Scottish. Uvular R is found in some dialects.
  • S - like s in since at the beginning and end of syllables. Between vowels it is voiced to z.
  • T - like t in tiger
  • Þ - like th in think. It alternates with ð
  • V - like v in vase. This occurs only in foreign words
  • W - like w in water
  • X - like ks in ex
  • Z - like ts in cats. In stressed syllables, sounds like dz


  • ⟨H⟩ can have the pronunciation /h/ at the beginning of a syllable, and /ç/ after front vowels, and /x/ after back vowels.


See also: Nouns
Nouns have three genders (masculine, feminine, neuter), two numbers (single, plural), and four cases (nominative, genitive, dative, accusative), which are marked with case endings and the use of a definite article.


Masculine nouns are nouns which use the article þe and can also describe male beings (Doktor, Baker, Maker, etc.), or words ending in -dom, -els, -had, -ing, -oþ. The gender is arbitrary on things, so the gender does need to be memorized.

_ singular plural
nominative - -es
genitive -(e)s -es
dative -(e) -en
accusative - -es
  • As an example, the word Stan, stone in the singular: Stan, Stanes, Stan, Stan; plural: Stanes, Stanes, Stanen, Stanes


Neuter nouns are nouns which use the article þat and can also describe things and children (Cild, Barn, etc.), or words ending in -in, -el, -incel. The gender is arbitrary on things, so the gender does need to be memorized.

_ singular plural
nominative - -e/-er
genitive -(e)s -e/-er
dative -(e) -en/-ern
accusative - -e/-er

As an example, the word Barn, child, baby in the singular: Barn, Barnes, Barn, Barn; plural: Barne, Barne, Barnen, Barne


Feminine nouns are nouns which use the article þie and can also describe female beings (Doktorin, Bakestre, Makestre, etc.), or words ending in -estre, -in, -nes, -ung. The gender is arbitrary on things, so the gender does need to be memorized.

_ singular plural
nominative - -e/-en
genitive - -e/-en
dative - -en
accusative - -e/-en

  • As an example, the word Ruun, secret in the singular: Ruun; plural: Rune, Rune, Runen, Rune.
  • Feminine nouns that end in an -e in the singular will have en plurals.


Pronouns operate like any other language, replacing the nouns already mentioned and indicating the speaker, and one to whom you speak.

Personal Pronouns[]

First person[]

These are the pronouns including the speaker, that is, I, we two, and we. The following table indicates modern English forms of these pronouns:

_ singular dual plural
nominative I we two we
genitive my our two's our
dative to/for me to/for us two to/for us
accusative me us two us

And now in Niw Englisc:

_ singular dual plural
nominative ic wit wiȝ
genitive mein unker user
dative miȝ unk us
accusative mic unkit usic

Second Person[]

The second person is the person to whom you are speaking. It is thou (you), ye two, and ye.

_ singular dual plural
nominative þu ȝit ȝiȝ
genitive þein inker ȝuer
dative þiȝ ink ȝu
accusative þic inkit ȝuic

Third Person[]

The third person is whomever you're talking about; it is the person 'over there.'

_ He She It They
nominative he schie it hie
genitive sein her sein her
dative him her him hem
accusative hin schie/scho it hie

Indefinite Pronouns[]

These pronouns indicate someone unknown or unnamed to the speaker or person spoken to. The prefix a- adds the meaning any, æȝ- means each

  • anyone, anything: aƕa, aƕat
  • each/everyone, each/everything (individually): æȝƕa, æȝƕat
  • each/every one, each/every thing (as a group, together): geƕa, geƕat
  • no one, nothing: neƕa, neƕat
  • someone, something: natƕa, natƕat
  • anything: oȝht
  • nothing: noȝht

Indefinite Pronouns with Adjective Endings[]

These words function like pronouns, but have adjective endings

  • each: æȝƕilc
  • each of two, both (individually); æȝƕæðer
  • both, each of two (as a group, together): geƕæðer
  • each, every, any: geƕilc
  • neither of two: neƕæðer

The most commonly used:

  • ælc: each
  • swilc: such
  • þyslic: such

Not a pronoun, but closely associated:

  • maniȝ: many a
  • Example: Many a student came by the school: maniȝ Student kaam be þer Skole forbiȝ.

Interrogative Pronouns[]

These pronouns are question words, asking information from someone

_ Who? What?
nominative ƕa ƕat
genitive ƕas ƕas
dative ƕam ƕam
accusative ƕan ƕat
_ Which of two? (m)
nominative ƕæðer
genitive ƕæðeres
dative ƕæðerem
accusative ƕæðeren/ƕæðer
Which of many?
_ masculine feminine neuter plural
nominative ƕilc ƕilce ƕilc ƕilce
genitive ƕilces ƕilcer ƕilces ƕilcer
dative ƕilcem ƕilcer ƕilcem ƕilcen
accusative ƕilcen ƕilce ƕilc ƕilce

It is important to note that ƕæðer and ƕilc are used with 2 or more than 2 things, respectively.

  • Mid ƕæðerem Hemþ scholde ic utgaan? with which shirt (of two) should I go outside?
  • Ƕilc Magazin scholde ic bycgen? Which magazine (of many) should I buy?


Definite Article[]

The definite article declines, or changes form, based on the gender of the noun it describes. The article can be masculine, feminine, neuter, or plural. It has cases to agree with the nouns it describes. This word translates the English 'the, that.'

_ masculine feminine neuter plural
nominative þe þie þat þie
genitive þes þer þes þer
dative þem þer þem þen
accusative þen þie þat þie

Indefinite Article[]

This word translates the English 'a, an.' An adjective following this is in the weak form.

_ masculine feminine neuter plural
nominative an ane an nane
genitive anes aner anes naner
dative anem aner anem nanen
accusative anen ane an nane

There is no plural form for 'a, an' but if it means 'single, only' then it can have a plural form, as in 'the only women here' (þie anen Weife hier). If you intend to mean 'one' instead of 'a, an' then you write a double-a, as in 'aan, aanes' et al.

This / These[]

This word translates the English 'this, these.' An adjective following this is in the weak form. In a stressed form, meaning 'this one here directly in front of me' or 'this one we have been discussing just now' you write 'þies, þiesses' et al.

This / These
_ masculine feminine neuter plural
nominative þis þisse þis þisse
genitive þisses þisser þisses þisser
dative þissem þisser þissem þissen
accusative þissen þisse þis þisse

The same, the very same[]

The same
_ masculine feminine neuter plural
nominative þe ilce þieilcen þætilce þieilcen
genitive þesilcen þerilcen þesilcen þerilcen
dative þemilcen þerilcen þemilcen þenilcen
accusative þenilcen þieilcen þætilce þieilcen

The same
_ masculine feminine neuter plural
nominative þe selfe þie selfe þæt selfe þie selfen
genitive þes selfen þer selfen þes selfen þer selfen
dative þem selfen þer selfen þem selfen þen selfen
accusative þen selfen þie selfe þæt selfe þie selfen


Strong Endings[]

Adjectives add endings to tell their function in a sentence. When standing before a noun, they add strong endings.

Strong adjective endings
_ masculine feminine neuter plural
nominative - -e - -e
genitive -es -er -es -er
dative -em -er -em -en
accusative -en -e - -e

  • Example: Stan (m), great Stan (big stone), ȝung Cild (young child), ȝunges Mæȝdens (of a young girl), aldem Mann (to an old person (male or female)), kalde Dage (cold days)

Weak Endings[]

Weak endings occur after an article having an ending is placed before a noun. This is before the words þe, þie, þat, mein, þein (et al), an, þis.

Strong adjective endings
_ masculine feminine neuter plural
nominative -e -e -e -en
genitive -en -en -en -en
dative -en -en -en -en
accusative -en -e -e -en
  • Example: þe Stan -> þe grœne Stan; þat Mæȝden -> þat ȝunge Mægden; þie Frowe -> mid þer wlitigen Frowe


For all adjectives, comparison is made adding the suffixes -er and -est. For example:

  • gemæn, gemæner, gemænst- (common, commoner, commonest)
  • dier, dierer, dierst- (dear, dearer, dearest)

Some adjectives have irregular comparative forms, with umlaut. They are all single-syllable, and quite common:

  • ald, ælder, ældest (old)
  • brad, bræder, brædest (broad)
  • ferr, fierrer, fierrst (far)
  • great, grieter, grietst (great, big)
  • ȝung, ȝynger, ȝyngst (young)
  • haȝh, hæȝher, hæȝhst (high)
  • lang, længer, længst (long)
  • scort, scœrter, scœrtst (short)
  • strang, strænger, strængst (strongest)

And a small number of adjectives have a completely different comparative/superlative form than the positive:

  • god, better, betst (good, better, best)
  • lytel, læsse, læst (little, less, least)
  • micel, mære, mæst ((great, much), more, most)
  • yfel, wiers, wierst (evil, worse, worst)

Word-formation: Adjective endings[]

To make new adjectives, you can use a set of adjective suffixes to nouns, forming new words:

  • bær - bearing, having; ex: liȝhtbære light-bearing, hornbære having horns; with verbs means 'able/ible' - hieren 'to hear' becomes hierbær 'hearable'
  • en - made of X; ex: wuden wooden, fellen made of skins, gylden golden
  • ern - in the direction of; ex: norðern, suðern, western, eastern
  • fæst - fast, fixed, firm; ex: aarfæst firm in honor, virtuous, ærendfæst fixed in an errand
  • fald - X-fold, X-times; ex: anfald one time; single, twifald two times, double
  • full - full
  • iȝ - having the quality of X (note: the ȝ turns to g before adjective endings)
  • iȝht - a more emphatic version of , noting a higher degree of the trait; ex: geþyldiȝ, geþyldiȝht patient
  • isc - having a trait like X; cildisc - childish
  • lic - X-like
  • læs - X-less; arlæs honorless
  • el - forms adjectives from verbs; spreken -> sprekel talkative, etten -> ettel voracious
  • sum - in an X manner
  • ward - notes position or direction
  • wende - forms adjectives from nouns and other adjectives


Verbs are those words describing an action or a state of being. Verbs are either strong or weak, like nouns and adjectives. Strong verbs change their vowel to indicate tense, while weak verbs add a dental suffix (-de, -te) to indicate tense. All verbs conjugate for person, singular/plural, and tense (past/present).

Weak Verbs[]

See: Liste þer waken Verben

A weak verb has the following endings in the present tense, using maken to make, do as an example:

_ sg. pl.
Ic make mak
þu makest mak
he/schie/it mak mak
_ sg. pl.
I make, do make, am making we make, do make, are making
thou makest, doest make, art making ye make, do make, are making
he/she/it makes, does make, is making they make, do make, are making

So, the endings for weak and strong verbs are:

  • ic -e
  • þu -(e)st
  • he -(e)þ
  • wiȝ/ȝiȝ/hie -eþ

Just add the endings to the stem (maken is the stem mak- and the infinitive ending -en)

If the verb ends in a d/t, or some consonant cluster that makes it difficult to hear the ending, you keep the e in the 2nd and 3rd person. The plural ending is the same for all persons.

You can also derive verbs from adjectives by means of umlaut. For example:

  • full - full -> fyllen to fill
  • gold - gold -> gylden - to gild
  • hard - hard -> hærden - to harden
  • lang - long -> lengen - to lengthen
  • strang - strong -> strengen - to strengthen

Past tense of weak verbs[]

Weak verbs form the past tense with either -de or -te. If the word ends in a voiceless consonant, such as k, p, s/z, then it will add -te, otherwise, -de. If the verb ends in some kind of consonant cluster that makes the ending hard to hear, add e between the verb stem and the ending (gelanden -> gelandede).

The following illustrate the past tense endings:

_ sg. pl.
Ic makte makten
þu maktest makten
he/schie/it makte makten
_ sg. pl.
Ic gelandede gelandeden
þu gelandedest gelandeden
he/schie/it gelandede gelandeden

Irregular Weak Verbs[]

See: Irregular Weak Verbs
There are some weak verbs which, like modern English and German, are irregular. They are equivalent to think, thought, thought.

_ sg. - pl.
Ic þenke wiȝ þenk
þu þenkst ȝiȝ þenk
he/schie/it þenkþ hie þenk

And the past:

_ sg. - pl.
Ic þoȝhte wiȝ þoȝhten
þu þoȝhtest ȝiȝ þoȝhten
he/schie/it þoȝhte hie þoȝhten

Strong Verbs[]

Strong verbs are those verbs that change the vowel in the stem to indicate the tense, such as 'write, wrote, written' in modern English. It works essentially the same way in Niw Englisc, just that there are a few more strong verbs, and you can place them into 7 broad types to make it easier to predict their forms. Basically, a strong verb will look like this in the present:

_ sg. - pl.
Ic fare wiȝ far
þu færst ȝiȝ far
he/schie/it færþ hie far

And the past:

_ sg. - pl.
Ic foor wiȝ foren
þu foorst ȝiȝ foren
he/schie/it foor hie foren

Like all verbs, the plural is the same ending for all three persons. The ic and he forms are the same, however, in the past tense.

Type 1 -ei/a/i[]

See: Strong Verbs type 1
The first type of strong verb has a ei vowel in the stem. Verbs like wreiten, streifen, sleiden, and sweifen are all type 1 verbs, and are declined the same way:

Streifen - to strive

_ sg. - pl.
Ic streife wiȝ streif
þu streifst ȝiȝ streif
he/schie/it streifþ hie streif

And the past:

_ sg. - pl.
Ic straaf wiȝ strafen
þu straafst ȝiȝ strafen
he/schie/it straaf hie strafen

And in the perfect tense with haben to have:

  • ic habe gestriffen, etc.

Please note here that there is a slight change in the stem, doubling the consonant. This is merely to indicate the vowel preceding is short, but it does make some consonants voiceless that would otherwise be voiced (f sound instead of v sound, þ instead of ð, etc.)

Special note on þ/ð - the letter thorn (þ) is the voiceless version of eth (ð), and as such, will alternate with it in certain forms of a verb or other word, depending on how it's used in a sentence. Take here the example of leiðen - to go, sail, travel:

_ sg. - pl.
Ic leiðe wiȝ leið
þu leiðest/leiþst ȝiȝ leið
he/schie/it leið hie leið

And the past:

_ sg. - pl.
Ic laaþ wiȝ laðen
þu laðest ȝiȝ laðen
he/schie/it laaþ hie laðen
  • Perfect:
_ sg. - pl.
Ic em geliþþen wiȝ sind geliþþen
þu ert geliþþen ȝiȝ sind geliþþen
he/schie/it is geliþþen hie sind geliþþen

Type 2 ie-o-o[]

Driegen - to endure

_ sg. - pl.
Ic driege wiȝ drieg
þu driegst ȝiȝ drieg
he/schie/it driegþ hie drieg

And the past:

_ sg. prn - pl. prn
Ic droog droːχ wiȝ drogen droːχən
þu droogst droːχəst ȝiȝ drogen droːχən
he/schie/it droog droːχ hie drogen droːχən
  • Subjunctive II:
_ sg. prn - pl. prn
Ic drœge drøçə wiȝ drœgen drøçən
þu drœgest drøçəst ȝiȝ drœgen drøçən
he/schie/it drœge drøçə hie drœgen drøçə

And in the perfect tense with haben to have:

_ sg. - pl.
Ic habe gedrogen wiȝ habeþ gedrogen
þu hast gedrogen ȝiȝ habeþ gedrogen
he/schie/it haþ gedrogen hie habeþ gedrogen

Special Note: verbs whose stems end in yogh ȝ pronounce it like English yes in the present after e/i, but in the past tense, it sounds like 'ch' in the German 'ach' (IPA: x). This is a sound change based in historical linguistics, and needs to be memorized. When the vowel umlauts for the subjunctive, this sound further changes to the German 'ich' sound (IPA: ç).

Example: flieȝen to flee

Subjunctive II:

_ sg. - pl.
Ic flœȝe wiȝ flœȝen
þu flœȝest ȝiȝ flœȝen
he/schie/it flœȝe hie flœȝen

Type 3 - e/i-a-o[]

See: Strong Verbs type 3
Example: helpen - to help

_ sg. - pl.
Ic helpe wiȝ help
þu hilpst ȝiȝ help
he/schie/it hilpþ hie help

And the past:

_ sg. - pl.
Ic halp wiȝ halpen
þu halpst ȝiȝ halpen
he/schie/it halp hie halpen

Past subjunctive is a little irregular, normally taking æ, but can take the 'u' vowel as an archaism:

_ sg. - pl.
Ic hulpe wiȝ hulpen
þu hulpest ȝiȝ hulpen
he/schie/it hulpe hie hulpen


_ sg. - pl.
Ic habe geholpen wiȝ habeþ geholpen
þu hast geholpen ȝiȝ habeþ geholpen
he/schie/it haþ geholpen hie habeþ geholpen

Type 4 - e-a-o[]

beran to bear

_ sg. - pl.
Ic bere wiȝ ber
þu birst ȝiȝ ber
he/schie/it birþ hie ber

And the past:

_ sg. - pl.
Ic bar wiȝ haren
þu barst ȝiȝ haren
he/schie/it bar hie haren

Type 5 - e-a-e[]

See: Strong Verbs type 5

These verbs alternate between e-a-e in the tenses:

kweðen - to say

_ sg. - pl.
Ic kweðe wiȝ kweð
þu kwiþst ȝiȝ kweð
he/schie/it kwiþþ hie kweð

And the past:

_ sg. - pl.
Ic kwaþ wiȝ kwaðen
þu kwaþst ȝiȝ kwaðen
he/schie/it kwaþ hie kwaðen

Type 6 -a/o/a[]

See Strange Verbe Kynn 6

  • faren - to go, travel
_ sg. - pl.
Ic fare wiȝ far
þu færst ȝiȝ far
he/schie/it færþ hie far

And the past:

_ sg. - pl.
Ic for wiȝ foren
þu forst ȝiȝ foren
he/schie/it for hie foren

Type 7 -a/e/a[]

See Strange Verbe Kynn 7

  • scaden - to separate; scadend-, gescaden
_ sg. - pl.
Ic scade wiȝ scad
þu scædest ȝiȝ scad
he/schie/it scæd hie scad

And the past:

_ sg. - pl.
Ic scedd wiȝ scedden
þu sceddest ȝiȝ scedden
he/schie/it scedd hie scedden
  • floken - to clap, strike; flokendi, gefloken
_ sg. - pl.
Ic floke wiȝ flok
þu flœkst ȝiȝ flok
he/schie/it flœkþ hie flok

And the past:

_ sg. - pl.
Ic flekk wiȝ flekken
þu flekkest ȝiȝ flekken
he/schie/it flekk hie flekken
  • bannen - to summon; bannend-, gebannen
_ sg. - pl.
Ic banne wiȝ bann
þu bænnest ȝiȝ bann
he/schie/it bænn hie bann

And the past:

_ sg. - pl.
Ic benn wiȝ bennen
þu bennest ȝiȝ bennen
he/schie/it benn hie bennen

Type 7 -irregular[]

See: Type 7 Irregular Verbs
There are a few type 7 verbs with irregular past tenses, a remnant of the old reduplicated verbs that all Germanic languages had at one point.

  • beaten, beft, gebeaten
  • dræden, drerd, gedræden
  • haaten, heȝht/hett, gehaten
  • laaken, lelk, gelaaken
  • læten, lert, gelæten
  • ræden, rerd/redd, geræden
  • spaaten, speft, gespaaten

Irregular Verbs[]

These verbs are very irregular and have such a high frequency, that it's better just to memorize them.

  • don - to do
  • gaan - to go
  • haben - to have
  • hycgen - to think
  • libben - to live
  • secgen - to say
  • wesen/been - to be; the only verb to have a distinct future tense form

Modal Verbs / Preterite-Present Verbs[]

See: Preterite-Present Verbs
Modal verbs in Niw Englisc work similarly to German. They have full conjugations, and some can act alone without another verb to complete their meanings.

  • Modals: durren, kunnen, magen, moten, scullen, þurfen, willen
  • Preterite-Present: agen, benugen, dugen, gemunen, genugen, witten
  • As an example, the verb kunnen which alone means 'to be acquainted with, to know' and with an infinitive 'to be able to, can, know how to'


See: Numbers

  • 1-20: an, tweȝn, þrie, fier, feif, six, sefen, aȝht, neiȝn, tien, endlefen, twelf, þrietien, fiertien, feiftien, sixtien, sefentien, aȝhttien, neiȝntien, tweȝntiȝ
  • decades: tien, tweȝntiȝ, þrittiȝ, fiertiȝ, feiftiȝ, sixtiȝ, sefentiȝ, aȝhttiȝ, neiȝntiȝ, hund/hundred, endlefentiȝ (110), twelftiȝ (120)
  • hundreds: hund/hundred, twahund, þriehund, fierhund, feifhund...
  • larger numbers: þusend, tienþusend, hundþusend, Million (10^6), Billion (10^9), Trillion (10^12), Quadrillion (10^15), Quintillion (10^18), et al.

Writing numbers: when writing numbers, like in German, they are written together, with the digits preceding the decades. When writing hundreds, you write hundred when it's an even hundred (100, 200,..., 900), but otherwise, the shortened form is used.

  • 31: anandþrittiȝ
  • 568: feifhundaȝhtandsixtiȝ
  • 9327: neiȝnþusendþriehundsefenandtweȝntiȝ


  • Addition: aan and aan sind tweȝn, aan plus tweȝn makeþ þrie, aan and fier sind feif
  • Subtraction: aan minus aan is null; tweȝntiȝ wane þrie is sefentien
  • Multiplication: þrifeald þrie is neiȝn, feif seiðen feif is feifandtweȝntiȝ
  • Division: tweȝntiȝ gedld þurh feif is fier
  • Fractions: feif fierþlinge (5/4) (formed by the ordinal plus the ending -ling); special fraction: Half (þrie Halfe - 3/2, uses the plural)


See: Prepositions


  • andlang - alongside
  • ƕeilen - during
  • inteiden - during (a variant from in Teiden - in times)
  • innerseids - inside of
  • midhelpe - with the help of
  • oferseids - on top of
  • onstede - in place of, instead of
  • to - towards, in the direction of
  • underseids - underneath, on the bottom of
  • utenseids - outside of
  • wiþ - opposite of


  • buten - besides, except
  • biȝ - by, near
  • gelang - depending on
  • mid - with
  • of - from, out of
  • onmang - among
  • oþ - until
  • seiþ - after (a period of time)
  • to - to, at;
  • ut - out of


  • þurh - through
  • wiþ - against (ic feȝhte wiþ hin I fight with/against him)


  • in - in, into
  • ofer - over, above; across; (he stændeþ ofer þem Feld he's standing over the field; he geng ofer þen Feld - he went across the field)
  • on - on, onto
  • ongeȝn - opposite, against, over against, in a direction opposite to; (it hængþ ongeȝn þem Wall - I'm against the wall; þu gæst ongeȝn þen Stream - you're walking in a direction opposite the stream)
  • under - under



All Nouns (substantives) are written with a capital letter, including adjectives acting as nouns. All nouns have gender to them; this is not an indication of natural gender, but it is merely an indicator of how to decline the noun in the sentence.
Nouns can be masculine, feminine, or neuter; they can be singular or plural in number; they have four cases: nominative, genitive, dative, and accusative.

Accusative Case[]

This is the case of the direct object of a sentence, and the object of some prepositions. In a sentence such as 'I see the boy' Ic see þen Knafen, the word Knafen is in the accusative case, as indicated by the article þen and the ending n on the noun.


Verbs agree in number and person with the subject of the sentence: Ic finde, he find. Verbs also carry tense and mood, as in 'ic fare - I travel' and 'ic for - I traveled.'

A contrary-to-fact statement is in subjunctive mood: ic fœre mid ȝu if ic Geld hæfde - I would travel with you if I had the money. A statement of fact is in the indicative mood: ic fare mid ȝu, forþen ic Geld habe - I travel with you because I do have the money. A command is in the imperative mood, and written with an exclamation point: Finde schie! - Find her! Indirect speech is in present subjunctive: Þe Eðelþeȝn sæȝde, þat he sekk sei - the foreign minister said he is sick (but I cannot verify this).

  • Þie Polizei (Burgward) sæȝde, schie werke, þat Barn to finden - the police said it is working to find the child.


  • The definite article (þe, þie, þat) serves the same function as in German, and the English words "the" and "that".
    • The difference is in how the article is emphasized in speech. Þe Knafe findeþ þat Handy The boy finds the cell-phone versus Þe Knafe findeþ þat Handy The boy finds that cellphone.
  • Direct Articles can merge with prepositions in certain instances, as in modern German.
    • In þem => im
    • To þem => tom
    • To þer => tor



  • As in any other Germanic language, prepositions come before a noun, article, and adjective to indicate its relationship with the rest of the sentence: with the young boy, in the blue ocean, etc. [mid þem ȝungen Knapen, in þen bluen Garsecg]
  • The difference between Englisc and other Germanic languages is that in certain instances, the preposition follows the noun it describes. It only occurs in certain set instances, so it's very easy to tell when it would occur.
    • A preposition may follow the pronoun when doing so places the preposition next to a verb: ic him mid gaa I go with him, þu her to geng you went to her



Coordinating conjunctions are the conjunctions that link two complete sentences together. In Englisc, they are: and, ak, oþþe (and, but, or); neither/nor eak, naƕæð; either/or æȝþer...ȝe; both/and ȝe...ȝe; therefore þonn.

  • Ic fand þat Handy and ic kallde hie I found the cellphone and I called them
  • Þu hrepst ak þu þiȝ ne ondrerdst? you screamed but weren't scared?
  • Wit kunneþ int Huus gaan oþþe wit kunneþ umtreden we can go into the house or walk around
  • Ic þenke, þonn ic em. I think, therefore I am.


Subordinating conjunctions are those that link a sentence with a dependent clause that completes the meaning of the independent clause.  They are always preceded with a comma, and the conjugated verb must be the final element of the clause.  The only exception is with modal verb phrases with 3 or more verbs.

  • als - as
  • ærþem before: Greip þeine Kæge ærþem wiȝ þie Dure klyseþ. Grab your keys before we close the door.
  • forþen because: wiȝ habeþ an niwe Auto, forþen wiȝ an Niwe bycgen þorften we have a new car because we needed to buy a new one.
  • nefne unless, except - wiȝ ne kunneþ gaan, nefne þu þeinen Rycgsakk bringst we can't go unless you bring your backpack.
  • nuþat now that
  • until
  • siþþen - since
  • so...als
  • so son - as soon as
  • soþat - so that
  • toþen in order to/that
  • þa - when (at a definite point in time) - þa he his Katte fand, hlog he when he found his cat, he laughed.
  • þeaȝh - although
  • þenden - while - þenden wiȝ þisse Rosen planteþ, gaa tor Scyppen and bring us anen Turl while we plant these roses, go to the shed and bring us a trowel.
  • þann - when (in the future at some indefinite time) - þann þu onkommst, nimm þeine Scoȝhe of when you arrive, take your shoes off.

Simple Sentences[]

  • The word order in a simple sentence is Subject, Verb, Object
  • If the object is a single pronoun, dative or accusative, you can place it before the verb. Ic hin fand I found him, Wiȝ hem helpeþ we are helping them.
  • This is a very natural order when there is only a single pronoun object, otherwise, the objects all follow the verb: ic fand þen Knafen in þem Beam I found the boy in the tree

Complex Sentences[]

Complex sentences are those which contain a main clause and a subordinate clause. Subordinate clauses follow the order: Relative Pronoun + Subject + Object + Verb. The verb is the final unit in the sentence.


  • I see that she has a phone.
  • Ic see, þat schie an Telefon haþ

A more complex sentence:

  • I know that she will find her book
  • Ic waat, þat schie here Book finden wirþ

Another example:

  • He says that his sister has a new cellphone.
  • He sæȝþ, þat seine Swester an niwe Handy habe.

In each case, the verb is the final thing in the subordinate clause.

Here's a more complex example:

  • The brown-haired man knew that he would need to find a new car.
  • Þe brunfaxe Werr wiste, þat he an niwe Auto finden þœrfte.
  • The young girl knew, that her brother would have been seen in the box.
  • Þat ȝonge Mæȝden wiste, þat her Broðer in þer Box wære geseen worden wesen.


There are two ways to form questions - Verb-first, and using a question word. The simplest way to make a question is to put verb first, subject second, and then the rest of the sentence:

  • Þu findest þeine Swester - You find your sister.
  • Findest þu þeine Swester? - Do you find your sister? (taken as are you looking for your sister?)

The second way to ask a question uses a question word to get information, such as ƕær/ƕider/ƕanen (where/to where/from where), ƕa/ƕat (who/what), ƕei/ƕy (why?), ƕenn? (when), hu (how), to ƕon/for ƕon (to what end, for what purpose)

  • To ƕon gæst þu mid her? - To what end are you going with her?
  • ƕider foorst þu ȝesternnaȝht? - Where'd you go last night?

Word Order of Elements[]

While sentence order is typically Subject-Conjugated Verb-Object, between the verb and object, that's where you normally place the adverbs of time, manner, then place.


  • Ic will morgen to Disney faren I want to go to Disney tomorrow. (morgen time: tomorrow; to Disney place: to Disney)
  • Mein Swester snaak ȝesternnaȝht softe tom Kyccen My sister quietly snuck to the kitchen last night (time: ȝesternnaȝht, manner: softe, place: tom Kyccen)

Objects typically follow the order of dative object, then accusative object.


  • "Ic gife meinem Fader þat Geld" (I give my father the money)
  • "Ic gife it him" (I give it to him)
  • "Ic gife him þat Geld" (I give him the money)
  • "Ic gife it meinem Fader " (I give it to my father)
  • "Ic gife þat Geld meinem Fader " (I give the money to my father)


  • "Ic gife þat Geld him" (I give the money to him)

very strange (but still correct):

  • "Ic gife him it" (I give him it)
  • "Ic gife meinem Fader it" (I give my father it)


Example texts[]

  • Genesis 1:23: And þær was Æfen, and þær was Morgen-þe feifte Dæȝ
  • Genesis 1:23 (Run): ᚪᚾᛞ ᚦᚫᚱ ᚹᚪᛋ ᚫᚠᛖᚾ, ᚪᚾᛞ ᚦᚫᚱ ᚹᚪᛋ ᛗᚩᚱᚸᛖᚾ-ᚦᛖ ᚠᛖᛁᚠᛏᛖ ᛞᚫᚷ
  • If man seinen Computer mid Windows 7 aniwe, kyðe man snude seen, hu snell sein Computer been kann. Þie Swifte þisses Bedreifsystems warþ oft im Internet gewritten wesen.
  • Þe Senator haþ seine Party gewendt. Senator Arlen Spector, þe ærstens in 1966 gecosen wurðe, bodede þat he 2010 als Demokrat rinnen wolde.
  • Headline:
    • "Supersnell US-Jet ne spœwþ bei seinem Testflyht"
    • ᛋᚢᛈᛖᚱᛋᚾᛖᛚᛚ᛬ᚢᛋ᛫ᛄᛖᛏ᛬ᚾᛖ᛬ᛋᛈᛟᚹᚦ᛬ᛒᛖᛁ᛬ᛋᛖᛁᚾᛖᛗ᛬ᛏᛖᛥᚠᛚᚣᚻᛏ
  • Þe Hobbit: In anem Hol im Grund, þær lifde an Hobbit.


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