Entesi Country.JPG

Welcome to the page on the Entesi language. This language is also a Bantu conlang and is believed to have the same origin as the Fangwa language. These two languages are not mutually intelligible though. This is because Entesi has several characteristics that are not typically found in Bantu languages, the first difference is word order: Entesi has a SOV order instead of the expected SVO, secondly it is head final, so adjectives and numerals go before the nouns as well as the possessives. The third difference is that adverbs go before the verbs but the definite article comes after the noun and the conjugation particles for tense and person are attached as suffixes to the verbs; the counting system is also different instead of saying twenty two in Entesi you say: viri nga virigoma (litterally two and twenty). This very atypical grammar for a Bantu language has sparked a lot of controversy among linguists if this language should not be classified as Bantoid rather than a Bantu language, the debate is still ongoing.

Geography[edit | edit source]

The hisorical land is believed to have been the central west of the landmass Yarima, (in orange). At first the land was divided in two: North and South and with the rise of the Fangwa through their methods to successfully farm the land and feed their people the Entesi expanded to the north (in red) as merchants and displacing the Sevorian people (Sevoria is in purple) who speak a Slavic language. The Entesi even took some land that was initially conquered by the Fangwa in the north but the Entesi did no take the entire territory because the didn't want any conflict with the Fangwa.

The Entesi also headed south but they could not manage to keep the land. The modern country of the Entegwa (in dark pink) to the south is said to be a result of the Entesi travelers venturing to the south. The Entegwa language has some similarities to Entesi but is is uncertain if the two languages developed from one language and that was split in two by the Oseroa or that the Entesi sailed south past Oseroa-land (in purple) and established a colony that developed its own vernacular language.

With Fangwa-land to the east (in dark green) the Entesi people have a complicated relationship; the Entesi acknowledge their common history and the fact that the languages are related albeit distantly but at the same time the Entesi are rivals to the Fangwa because both nations want to be the largest country on Yárima. The Entesi language has also had a considerable influence on the Fangwezi language in the counting system, the distinction between the first person inclusive and exclusive and the placement of the adjective before the noun as well as in vocabulary.

Noun classes[edit | edit source]

Like other Bantu languages Entesi has a noun class system, the only difference is that Entesi employs suffixes instead of prefixes, examples: onto = person; óntomo = the person; óntova = the persons; bwéndzimo = the friend, bwéndziva = the friends

The indefinite articles go before the noun: mo onto = a person; va onto = persons. These suffixes mo/va denotes human beings.

The other classes are: taboki = the book/ tabovi = the books. These suffixes ki/vi denotes objects (inanimate class).

ndzane/ ndzadi = the dog (s). These suffixes ne/di denotes animals, insects.

timu/timi = tree(s). These suffixes mu/mi denote plants, fruit, vegetables.

dzima = the water, indefinite form madzi = water ( general name) This suffix ma is only used for certain fluids.

tsekako = to laugh; bonako = to see; this suffix ko is used to mark verbs.

bónavo = vision, view; tsékavo = laughter. This suffix vo converts a verb into an abstract noun.

There is an extra class with the suffix: -si, e.g. Entesi = the Entesi language. This class is used to indicate languages and is used exclusively in the definitive form.

The inessive noun class[edit | edit source]

Entesi has an inessive noun class like Oseroa and Entegwa but it is not really considered a noun class anymore the particle moi is attached after the noun so: nyomvake = the house ( nyomva-ke = house- inanimate class particle ); nyomvamoy = in a house (nyomva-moy = house-inessive) nyomvagemoy = in the house (nyomva-ge-moy = house- inanimate noun class particle - inessive)

Pronouns[edit | edit source]

These are the personal pronouns in Entesi: eni = I, eho = you (sg), eha = he/she, eto = we (incl), ewe = we (exclusive), evo = you (plur), eva = they. The most obvious difference in pronouns is the two forms of the first person plural: the inclusive and the exclusive forms. This feature is absent in Fangwa and Zandi and Entegwa (a mixed language originating from Entesi with very strong influences of Fangwa).

Verbs[edit | edit source]

In Entesi verbs are marked for tense and person.The tense suffixes are: ye (present tense), li (past tense), zo (future tense). To conjugate for person you have to use the short form of the personal pronouns and attach that after the basic verb + tense form, eg: bonako = to see, bonáyeni = I see (present tense) [ see-pres-I] , bonálini = I saw ( past tense), bonázoni = I will see (future tense). So ni denotes the first person singular and is the short form of the personal pronoun used in conjugation. The stress in the pronounciation of the conjugated form of the verb falls on the last vowel of the bare stem of the verb. The short versions of the other personal pronouns are: o = you (sing), a = he/she/ (it), to = we (incl), we = we (excl) , vo = you (plur), va = they.

Negation[edit | edit source]

Entesi also has also two negative particles ka and te, The particle ka is inserted directly after the stem of verb but before the tense particle and the personal pronoun particle, the particle ka also recieves the stress in the pronounciation. The particle te comes after the verb . Eg:

Dzánamo pyomáyemo = the child reads [child-the read-pres.tense-human class particle]

Dzánamo pyomayemo = the child doesn't read [child-the read-neg-pr.tense-hum class part]

Dzánamo taboki pyomayemo = The child doesn't read the book

Dzánamo te taboki pyomáyemo luokeni guozetiki = the child doesn't read the book but the newspaper.

Dzánamo pyomáyemo te = the child doesn't read ( the child does something else than reading but definitely does not engage in the act of reading) [child-the read-pres.tense-human class part + neg part type 2]

Combing both particles gives a very strong negation, just like in Fangwa:

Dzánamo pyomayemo te = the child doesn't read at all [child-the read-neg-pres.tense-human class + neg part 2]

Numbers[edit | edit source]

1 = mozi, 2 = viri, 3 = tato, 4 = nye, 5 = tano, 6 = tandato, 7 = sombo, 8 = none, 9 = kenda, 10 = goma, 100 = kemi, 1000 = kale, 1000.000 = fuko.

20 = virigoma, 30 = tatogoma etc,,these numerals also have a shorter form, these forms are: viroma = 20; tatoma = 30; nyoma = 40; tanoma = 50; tandatoma = 60; somboma = 70; nonoma = 80; kendoma = 90. There are also short for the multiples of 100 and 1000: viremi = 200, tatemi = 300, nyemi = 400, tanemi = 500, tandatemi = 600, sombemi = 700, nonyemi = 800, kendyemi = 900. Two thousand (2000) = viryale, 3000 = tatale, 4000 = nyale, 5000 = tanwale, 6000 = tandatale, 7000 = sombale, 8000 = nonale, 9000 = kendale, 10.000 (ten thousand) = gomale, 20.000 (twenty thousand) = viromale, The short forms of the multiples of ten thousand are made by taking the corresponding short form of the multiples of 10 and adding le to it as a suffix. Twelve thousand = viryale nga gomale, 100.000 (one hundred thousand) = kemale. For fuko there are no short forms yet, it is possible to make them but they are rarely used. The short forms are used in everyday speech and the longer forms are used in formal occasions and documents. The number 12 is formed like this viri nga goma ( two and ten). All the numbers between 10 and 100 are formed this way so the lower number + nga + higher number. The number 101 is kemi nga mozi (one hundred and one) but one can also say: mozi nga kemi (one and a hundred)

Numerals go before the nouns that are counted, the first numeral takes the suffix of the noun that is being counted in the specified form. The unspecified number is the bare numeral + the noun class and the bare noun. Eg tátova kádziva = the 3 women (refering to 3 specific women), tato va kadzi = three of the women (partitive); tato kadzi = three women (indefinite)

Adjectives[edit | edit source]

The adjectives in Entesi precede the noun and they take on the suffix of the noun class that it describes:

dzúrimo dzánamo = the good child [good-the child-the (in this case mo is the human class suffix)]

dzúriva dzánava = the good children [good-plur child-plur]

dzúriki taboki = the good book [good-the book-the] ki = inanimate suffix marker

dzúrine ndzane= the good dog [ ne is the suffix that denotes an animal (sg)]

Numerals go in front of the other adjectives, e.g. tátova dzúriva dzánova = the three good children [ three-pl good-pl child-pl] (the definite form); tato va dzuri dzano = three of the good children (partitive form); tato dzuri dzano = three good children (indefinite)

Sample texts[edit | edit source]

rúmemo dzima nowáyea = the man drinks the water (lit: man-def art [human] water(definite form) drink-pres tense-he [human class])

Entesi wekwáyeto = We speak Entesi (lit: Entesi [language] speak-pres tense -we [incl])

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