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Progress 87%
Exgotian Natraden
Exgùrces Wženntet
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Medial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
0
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


Introduction[edit | edit source]

This language is a language that had evolved from its ancenstor language Natraden. The name derived from the Natraden word for Mode: Ëxgurz. This has lead to become the name of the language. However, the language can and is still referred to as (Exgotian)-Natraden in other languages. Exgot is a name only used to differentiate between the two languages. As Natraden evolved, the word order quickly changed to SVO. Verbs and adjectives began to inflect more and the genders were deemed unnecessary. All articles excluding the definite article were deemed unnecessary and the definite article became a noun declension.

[+x] = Footnote:

Something [+1]

[+1] Footnote

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Nouns No Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No Yes Yes No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

Phonetics[edit | edit source]

Below are the possible sounds and their corresponding letters

Table[edit | edit source]

Labial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal

m

n ɳ ɲ ŋ
Plosive

p b

t d k g ʔ
Fricative f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ç x h
Affricate p͡f t͡s d͡z t͡ʃ d͡ʒ t͡ʂ
Approximant w j
Tap ɾ
Lateral Approximant l ɭ ʟ

Alphabet[edit | edit source]

Each letter and few digraphs have their own distinct sound. This may differed whether they are word-initial or final. Below is the table for all the letters alongside a few digraphs according to the IPA . Everything below is in the alphabet excluding the ß, digraphs and stressed vowels. Everything in brackets are optional.

Sound Alphabet Pronunciation

Substitution

(If you can't write accents or they don't display)

Word-Initial IPA Word-Final
A Aj >>> a <<<
À septënne Aj a` >>> stressed a <<<
Ä Aj i Dier a: ɛ e(:) <<<
ÄÄ >>> e: cannot exist
ÄR >>> ɛɾ <<<
Å Aj i Svfetròn a* >>> o: <<<
ÅE >>> ɔj <<<
B Bää >>> b <<<
C Ca >>> t͡s <<<
CH >>> ç x
Č Ča c^ >>> t͡ʃ <<<
ČR >>> t͡ʂ <<<
D Dää >>> d <<<
Ď Ďa

D^

miniscule: d'

>>> ð cannot exist
E Ej >>> ɛ ə
È septënne Ej e` >>> stressed ɛ <<<
É Ej i Vekròn e' >>> ĕ ɛ
Ë Ej i Dier e: >>> ə cannot exist
ËU >>> ɵu̯ <<<
F Fa >>> f <<<
G Gää >>> g <<<
GG >>> d͡ʒ <<<
H Ha >>> h cannot exist
HL >>> ʟ <<<
I Iva i(:) ɪ <<<
Ì septénne Iva i` >>> stressed ɪ <<<
Ï Iva i Dier i: >>> y: <<<
J Ja >>> j <<<
K Kää >>> k <<<
L La >>> l <<<
LR >>> ɭ <<<
M Ma >>> m <<<
N Na >>> n <<<
Ŋ ng >>> ŋ <<<
Ń

Na i Vekròn

Eńe

nj

n'

>>> ɲ cannot exist
NR >>> ɳ <<<
O Oj >>> ɔ <<<
Ò septënne Oj o` >>> stressed ɔ <<<
Ö Oj i Dier o: >>> œ(:) <<<
OY >>> wa <<<
P Pää >>> p <<<
Q Qa >>> x k
R Eeré >>> ɾ <<<
S Sa >>> s <<<
Š Ša s^ >>> ʃ <<<
ŠR >>> ʂ <<<
SZ >>> ʃ <<<
ss cannot exist s: <<<
T Tää >>> t <<<
TX >>> t͡ʃ <<<
U Uu >>> ʊ w
Ù septënne Uu >>> stressed ʊ <<<
Ü Uu i Dier >>> ʉ(:) cannot exist
V Ïwé v silent v
VT >>> d <<<
W Wa >>> v f
X Exé >>> ks <<<
XH >>> ʃ <<<
Y Ypsilon >>> ʏ ɨ
septënne Ypsilon y` >>> stressed ʏ ɨ
Ý

Ypsilon i Vekròn

Ýeŋý

y' >>> w cannot exist
Z Za >>> z <<<
Ž Ža z^ >>> ʒ <<<
ŽR >>> ʐ <<<
Ź Źa z' >>> θ <<<

Phonetic Rules[edit | edit source]

  • Nouns never end in an o
  • When R proceeds an unaccented or stressed vowel, it makes the sound /w/ unless it proceeds U/Ù where in which case makes the sound /ɒ/
    • This doesn't apply to Y/
    • This doesn't apply across different words in a compound word
    • This doesn't apply after double vowels:
      • AAR makes the sound /a:ɾ/
  • Double letters make a lengthened sound
    • This doesn't apply to GG
    • Two stressed vowels cannot occur in one word, let alone next to each other
      • This can happen in compound words however
    • Two already elongated letters cannot proceed one another
      • Preferably
  • Ŋ can become /ɑ̃/ when used in the following formations:
    • Vowel Consonant Nothing
    • VŋC
      • This actually makes the vowel before it nasal as opposed to /a/.
    • CŋN
    • CŋC
  • An voiced sound followed by its unvoiced counterpart, the unvoiced sound is used
    • This doesn't apply across different words in a compound word
    • This can apply to non-counterparts
      • B makes the sound /p/ when preceding the letter T.
        • Although they aren't counterparts, they are both plosive consonants
  • The difference between Ä and ÄÄ is that in the single letter, the elongation is optional.
  • E does not make the /ə/ but the /ɛ/ at the end of a word if a vowel directly precedes it.
  • If any of these vowels preceding E make a different sound:
    • I /j/
    • O /w/
    • U /w/
    • Likewise, the e in eo is pronounced /j/
  • Glottal Stop (represented by ') is automatically pronounced in the following vowel formations:
    • e'a
    • o'a
    • e'o
    • a'o
    • o'i
    • (double vowel) same vowel
      • like ää'ä

Word Order[edit | edit source]

This has remained fairly intact in evolution, There is a noticeable change from SOV to SVO. 

  1. (Subject)
  2. (Auxiliary) Verb
  3. Indirect Object
  4. Adverb
  5. Object
  6. Time
  7. Manner
  8. Preposition
  9. Prepositional Object
  10. Separable Part of a Separable Verb
  11. Participle
  12. Infinitive [when auxiliary verb is used]

This word order is strict unless inversion happens.

Verb Conjugation[edit | edit source]

During evolution, the language developed the use of person and number in conjugation. This was for the purpose that in rapid speech, the pronoun could be omitted (and now it mostly is). All verbs end in en and only one of them is irregular. The continuous aspect uses the same conjugation as the simple aspect and the subjunctive mood uses the same conjugation as the indicative. The perfect aspect uses the auxiliary verb to havehelben. The structural and auxiliary forms of to be and to have were removed and used the same verb for both. Below is the conjugation of the verb to be; the only irregular verb.

To Be[edit | edit source]

Person 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person
Number

Singular

Ivò

Plural

Üren

Singular

Uvo

Plural

Vöt

Singular

Äs

Plural

Ällån

Infinitive älwen
Past Participle geèlwet
Indicative & Subjunctive
Present höl sven toy äz èt zet
Past wär werd wes waar wa waare
Future fjotie älwes fjotany älwes fjotet älwes fjotona älwes fjota älwes fjotiec älwes
Other
Imperative geèlwen
Interrogative be[+1]

[+1] Normal Conjugation is underlined

Regular Verbs[edit | edit source]

Regular verbs are all the verbs except to be. They are conjugated as follows:

To Have

Person 1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person
Number

Singular

Ivò

Plural

Üren

Singular

Uvo

Plural

Vöt

Singular

Äs

Plural

Ällån

Infinitive helben
Past Participle gehelbet
Indicative & Subjunctive
Present helbie helbany helbet helbona helba helbiec
Past helbowač helbowien helbowat helbowna helbowa helbowec
Future fjotie helbes fjotany helbes fjotet helbes fjotona helbes fjota helbes fjotiec helbes
Other
Imperative gehelben
Interrogative behelb[+1]

[+1] Normal Conjugation is underlined

Doers[edit | edit source]

People doing an action often have a title: e.g. a person that kills is called a killer. Notice the prefix.

In Exgot, you add se or sa to the infinitive depending on the gender. Let's take the verb migrate:

monòwen - to migrate

Monòwense - male or gender-neutral migrant

Monòwensa - female migrant

Declension[edit | edit source]

There are ways to tell them apart when declining them. For example, to decline the above with the definite declension, different rules apply:

Monòwenset - the male or gener-neutral migrant

Monòwenstet - the female migrant

Future Tense[edit | edit source]

This tense is specified with the verb fjoten (to will) along with a conjugated participle. People can say it is a future participle but this is a thought for a name as this conjugation does not have one.

Negative Verbs[edit | edit source]

To make a verb negative, you add the prefix Nää-.

Näähelbie äs

I don't have it

Nääbehelbet äs?

Don't you have it?

Passive Verbs[edit | edit source]

This is done by the use of the verb to willfjoten as an auxiliary verb used with the past participle. 

Äs fjota geljaadet

It is loaded

Imperative[edit | edit source]

When you use the imperative with the passive whilst omitting the subject, the noun comes first.

Laawentoltodem gelaßen.

Leave the game.

Aspects[edit | edit source]

As stated before, the continuous is merged with the simple aspect and the perfect tense uses the auxiliary verb helben. However, for emphasis that the aspect is continuous, one can use the verb älwen followed by the past participle.

Seperable Verbs and Verbs with Prefixes[edit | edit source]

The separable part of separable verbs, when conjugated, is the third last part in the word order. This means that the separable part has to go an the end of a phrase before participles. Verbs with prefixes conjugated normal then the prefix is added. For example:

R-ljaaden

To reload

Ivò r-ljaadé

I reload

Äs exed r-geljaadet

It is reloaded

Personal Pronouns[edit | edit source]

A quick note, if you don't know the gender and you are speaking in third person, you use the word for it. In English, this may be offensive but in Exgot (like Natraden) it is quite normal.

Person

0th ("One")

1st 2nd 3rd
Number - Sing. Pl. Sing. Pl. Sing. Pl.
Gender - - - - - M F N -
Nominative Åt Ivò Üren Uvo Vöt Äré Äan Äs Ällån
Accusative Mjò Ùnc Ggò Åech Iin Iva Zii

Dative and Locative

Miiýo Diiýo Iim
Vocative - - - Òu Vtu - - - -
Genetive [+1]

Åts

[+2]

Joove Ünze Ggoove Vöte Zoove Hääve Ece Ďoove

[+1] Everything in this row is treated as an infinitive adjective

[+2] The above doesn't apply to the 0th person.

Definiteness & Pluralisation[edit | edit source]

Definiteness is defined with a suffix and is tied in with the pluralisation. The indefinite suffix does not exist but can be specific if you specify the quantity as one

Plural Definite Both
Declension -ie -(t)et -iet
Example (Mànna) Mànnie Mànntet Mànniet
Example (Pfeŋcii) Pfeŋcie Pfeŋctet Pfeŋciet
Example (Tys) Tysie Tyset Tysiet

When to use et and tet?[edit | edit source]

Both replace the last vowel in a word when applicable but -tet is used:

  • when replacing ii (becomes itet)
  • after a single-syllable word
  • after a double-syllable word ending with a vowel
  • after a marked-stressed syllable or the main syllable

-et is used:

  • when the above isn't true
  • after a single-syllable word ending in s
  • after a t

Case Marking[edit | edit source]

Nouns decline according to case via a suffix. The cases are: Nominative, Accusative, Dative, Genetive, Locative and Vocative.

Case Suffix Example (Mànna) Example (Mànnie)

Example (Mànntet)

Example (Mànntiet)
NOM N/A Mànna Mànnie Mànntet Mànniet
ACC[+1] (o)dem Mànnadem Mànniedem Mànntodem Mànniodem
DAT c Mànnac Mànniec Mànntetc Mànnietc
GEN s Mànnas Mànnies Mànntes Mànnies
LOC[+1] (o)ga Mànnaga Mànniega Mànntoga Mànnioga
VOC u Mànnau Mànnieu Mànnteu Mànnieu

[+1] Definite nouns ending it t declining to case whilst definite keep their e when using odem and oga. This is because the t is part of the root as opposed to tet and thus when declined normally, produce toga and toga.

Atwenteodem - e underlined

Atwentodem - this means adventure as opposed to the adventure

Genetive Case[edit | edit source]

The genetive case is stringed when there are more than two nouns:

Manntets Fŋmme

The man's wife

Manntetsfŋmmespfeŋcii

The man's wife's answer

Fact: Family Names (or surnames) always end in oga (LOC declension). The locative is used because there is an imaginary of between names. Here's mine:

Dańel (fvå) Färnàndecioga

Prepositions[edit | edit source]

Prepositions can appear in the dative, genetive and locative.

Preposition DAT GEN LOC
do towards to
et into,onto about in,on
net out of off
svo among above,over
svonie below,under
žren with
fvå for of
za since at
na across next to, beside
pšre from through

Adjectives[edit | edit source]

Adjectives decline to case and number. All adjectives come before the noun, are regular and their infinitive forms always end in e.

Below is the declension of the word Exgotian-NatradenExgùrce.

Exgùrce Singular Plural
Nominative Exgùrces Exgùrcé
Accusative Exgùrcär Exgùrcen
Dative Exgùrcet
Other Exgùrces

Example Phrase[edit | edit source]

Exgùrces Wženntodem

The Exgotian-Natraden language

Ivò wžennie exgùrcär Wženntodem

I speak the Exgotian-Natraden language

Comparative and Superlative[edit | edit source]

To create these adjectives, you take the infinitive and add the suffixes ere and este respectively.

güle - green

gülere - greener

güleste - greenest

Adjectival Verbs[edit | edit source]

To create adjectival verbs, you take the infinitive, change the en to ën and add a suffix:

sploozen - to burst

sploozënde - bursting

sploozënne bursted

"Articles"[edit | edit source]

Articles don't properly exist in Exgot but more rather exist in different parts of speech. Here are a list of "articles":

  • ett [Number]
    • Means a or an
    • Literally means one
    • The "article" doesn't have to be used
      • Mànna and ett Mànna both mean the same thing
        • The only difference is that ett Mànna is specific that there's one
  • älwënde [Adjective]
    • Means some
    • Literally means being
  • dötälwënde [Adjective]
    • Means many
    • Literally means there-being
  • nääälwënde [Adjective]
    • Means no
      • As in no cars
    • Literally means not being
    • Nicknamed Diers Wšëste
      • Diaeresis Galore
  • näädötälwënde [Adjective]
    • Means few
    • Literally means not there-being
  • žèllënne [Adjective]
    • Means this or that (never specific)
    • Literally means specifying
  • Pfäanne [Noun]
    • Means all or every
    • Literally means all
    • Used with genetive and plural
      • Pfäannes Mànnie

Suffixes of Purpose[edit | edit source]

Some suffixes provide meaning:

[Infinite Verb]+tol[edit | edit source]

This shows a tool in order to accomplish the verb. For pen, you write Szrirbentol meaning Writing tool.

[Non-Noun]+nas[edit | edit source]

This changes any word into a noun. The English equivalent would be -tion for verbs, -ness for adjectives etc.

[Infinite Verb]+plaza[edit | edit source]

This shows a plac where the purpose of the said place is for [verb]. For school, you write Knöllenplaza meaning Learning place.

[Noun]+mekànnik[edit | edit source]

This translates into a tool used to generate the noun or operate with it.

Booläanmekànnik

Switch

Boolean Mechanic

[Noun; stressing last vowel]+llen[edit | edit source]

This shows a miniature version of the noun. However, the declension of llen in different.  The definite and plural forms are lltet and llie respectively. Take the word Person, stress the last vowel and add the suffix to create Child:

Älwensèllen

Interrogation[edit | edit source]

Interrogation is quite simple. The word order stays the same and the verb gains a prefix, along with the place of the answer filled in with an adverb:

  • pšreza - what
  • pšrezé - where
  • pšrezii - when
  • pšrezo - who
  • pšrezu - how
  • pšrezy - why

Question and Response Example[edit | edit source]

Ivò bepšrennie pšrezy?

Why am I apologising?

Ivò pšrennie dwa ...

I am apologising because ...

Notice how the word for why became the response word because in the answer and also how the verb lost the interrogative inflection.

Adverb Response Replacement
what [thing]
where [place or related adverb]
when [time or related adverb]
who [person]
how [adverb]
why because [continuation]

Numerical System[edit | edit source]

Numerics are in base 10.

List[edit | edit source]

Numeral

Cardinal

Ordinal

0

ljec

ljece

1

ett

este

2

žraa

žraste

3

cià

ciàste

4

wòq

wòste

5

pent

penste

6

šrep

šrepste

7

svep

svepste

8

ït

ïste

9

nanaràčé

naste

10

jest

jeste

11

èlwé

elève

12

tor

tåte

13

ciàjest

ciàjeste

14

wòqiest

wòqieste

15

pentiest

pentieste

16

šrepiest

šrepieste

17

svepiest

svepieste

18

ïtiest

ïtieste

19

najest

najeste

20

žràsta

žràcte

21

žràstett

žràsteste

22

žràstžraa

žràstžraste

23

žràstcia

žràstaciaste

30

ciàsta

ciàcte

40

sta

wòcte

50

pèncta

pèncte

60

šrèpsta

etc.

70

svèpsta

80

ïtsta

90

sta

100

ett Tys

101

ett Tys i ett

110

ett Tys i jest

111

ett Tys i èlwé

123 ett Tys i žràstcia

200

žraa Tysie

300

cià Tysie

400

wòq Tysie

500

pent Tysie

600

šrep Tysie

700

svep Tysie

800

ït Tysie

900

nanaràčé Tysie

1,000

ett Tysvëntie

2,000

žraa Tysvëntie

3,000

cià Tysvëntie

10,000

jest Tysvëntie

11,000 èlwé

Tysvëntie

13,000 ciàjest

Tysvëntie

20,000

žràsta Tysvëntie

21,000 žràstett

Tysvëntie

30,000

ciàsta Tysvëntie

100,000

ett Tys Tysvëntie

1 million

ett Milljèwon

10 million

jest Milljèwonie

100 million

ett Tys Milljèvonie

1 billion

ett Milljààrie

1 trillion

ett Billjèwonie

1 quadrillion

ett Billjààrie

Marking[edit | edit source]

Marking stayed the same. The dot is used to group digits and the Flek (`) as the decimal point and ordinal numbers are marked with their adjectival endings.

Äré wa za 10e

He was the tenth

10es Fŋmmtet

The tenth woman

Sample Number[edit | edit source]

383.353.326.487`2

Cià Tysie i ïtstcia Milljààrie, cià Tysie i pènctcia Milljèwonie, cià Tysie i žrastšrep Tysëntie, wòq Tysie i ïtstsvep flek žraa.

Phrases[edit | edit source]

Common phrase used, notice how most of them have the vocative declension:

  • Szennieu! - Hello!
  • Dötszennieu! - Goodbye!
  • Pšrennieu! - Sorry!
  • Džrennieu! - Thank you!
  • Geäanen! - Go away!
  • Ledieu! - Please!
  • Dötledieu! - You're welcome!

Swadesh List[edit | edit source]


No. English Exgotian Natraden
1IIvò
2you (singular)Uvo
3heÄré
4weÜren
5you (plural)Vöt
6theyÄllån
7thisžèllënne
8thatžèllënne
9herepfeezé
10theredöt
11whopšrezo
12whatpšreza
13wherepšrezé
14whenpšrezii
15howpšrezu
16notnää
17allPfäanne
18manydötälwënde
19someälwënde
20fewnäädötälwënde
21otherszewie
22oneett
23twožraa
24threecià
25fourwòq
26fivepent
27biggösze
28longlösze
29widewösze
30thickwösze
31heavymetàlle
32smallnäägösze
33shortnäägösze
34narrownääwösze
35thinnääwösze
36womanFŋmme
37man (adult male)Mànna
38man (human being)Älwense
39childÄlwensèllen
40wifeFŋmme
41husbandMànna
42motherMardènsa
43fatherVònse
44animalAnima
45fishXha
46birdÒyzen
47cat
48dogLùùmino
49louseLaus
50snakeÜßwönna
51wormÜßwönnàllen
52treeTosz
53forestToszplaza
54stickToszfrag
55fruitFöszt
56seedEqan
57leaf
58rootZumfüt
59barkKöra
60flowerBlòzom
61grassPšrents På
62ropeLan
63skinČrasifròzo
64meatČràďäjt
65bloodČràfluß
66boneČràfrag
67fatSzop
68eggÅe
69hornViik
70tailČràs Svonieplaza
71featherFejta
72hairZenwolfejtie
73headZenwol
74earHöskense
75eyeÖwšèßtense
76noseNäs
77mouthDebùńk
78toothĎenèza
79tongueÄäź
80fingernailNaaqël
81footÖ
82legEbuurentol
83kneeŽoy
84handHèltol
85wingLevetär
86bellyĎäjtär
87gutsIntestììnie
88neckZenwolžoy
89backIr
90breastBüst
91heartČràflußgepòmpense
92liverLivär
93drink
94eat
95bite
96suck
97spit
98vomit
99blow
100breathe
101laugh
102see
103hear
104know
105think
106smell
107fear
108sleep
109live
110die
111kill
112fight
113hunt
114hit
115cut
116split
117stab
118scratch
119dig
120swim
121fly
122walk
123come
124lie
125sit
126stand
127turn
128fall
129give
130hold
131squeeze
132rub
133wash
134wipe
135pull
136push
137throw
138tie
139sew
140count
141say
142sing
143play
144float
145flow
146freeze
147swell
148sun
149moon
150star
151water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
160earth
161cloud
162fog
163sky
164wind
165snow
166ice
167smoke
168fire
169ash
170burn
171road
172mountain
173red
174green
175yellow
176white
177black
178night
179day
180year
181warm
182cold
183full
184new
185old
186good
187bad
188rotten
189dirty
190straight
191round
192sharp
193dull
194smooth
195wet
196dry
197correct
198near
199far
200right
201left
202at
203in
204with
205and
206if
207because
208name
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