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Fangwa Land

Fangwa land in green

Welcome to the page on the Fangwa Language. (OchiFangwa)

OchiFangwa is an a posteriori constructed Bantu language based on a large number of Bantu languages. The main sources are Swahili, Afrihili, Shona, Chichewa, Lingala, Tswana, Luganda, Kikuyu, Xhosa and Zulu. This language draws a lot of its vocabulary from these sources, and the grammmar also has a strong Bantu influence. The basic order in a sentence is SVO and the language is head initial. The stress is usually on the penultimate syllable. Fangwa is part of a larger constructed Bantu-languages family: The other members are: Entesi, Oseroa, Fangwezi (that the Fangwa consider to be a dialect of their language), Entegwa, Qolape, Nashari and Zandi. There is also an unrelated language Anara being spoken (to the south east of the area where Fangwa is spoken) that has a lot of influence from Fangwa. Vocabulary:

Singular Plural Meaning
umonto obanto the person- the persons
umolendzi obalendzi the boy- the boys
umofazi obafazi the woman- the women
egitabo ebitabo the book- the books
emuti emiti the tree- the trees
esinja bizinja the dog- the dogs
oganto adzonto the giant- the giants
epinto etinto the little man- the little men
esilavu bizilavu the lion - the lions
egipewa ebipewa the hat - the hats

Vocabulary[]

umogeni = stranger/foreigner; omatsaluji= the snow; egimotsayebo = the broom; egidzulo = the sky/ heaven; ukochedza = to play; egipepo = the wind; ukovova = to speak; ukoisha = to live/ inhabit; kworebo-ney = near(by)
ukorusha = to work; egimtemo = the law; omamto = the river; omabahori = the sea
ukopá = to give; -kulu = big/ great; egidziko = the kitchen; egidzika = the spoon
ukocheka = to laugh; egiwavo = the net; egibarafo = the ice; ukosikia = to hear
umodzukala = grandchild; esiusagi = the hare; uko-imba= to sing; egisikio= ear
esinyondzi = bird; -naiba= beautiful; esikitsune = the fox; ukodota = to dream

omandzi = the water; ubonto = humanity; esingeke = tilapia; ukobaka = to build
ukopeka = to cook; ukopenya = to love; ukosopa = to like; egiatu = the shoe;
ukotunda = to teach; umofazi = the woman; emuvoka = the pear, egimbedzi = the month
ukosana = to drink ; ukosama = to find; eginyama = the meat; esinyama = the animal
esingombe = the cow; esinkoko = the chicken; ukodzira = to wait; esidaubu = the bear
ukososoli = to understand; esinahashu = the snake; esisaru= the ape; -dzuri = good

umowana = the child; umokama = the king; ukoladi = to ask; ukokimbia = to run;
egiti = the chair; egiluti = the stick; the branch; ukoluma = to bite; ukosema = to speak
ukodyá = to eat; ukolala = to sleep; ukofale = to look; egieneche = the land;
esimbudzi = the goat; esinguruve = the pig ; egimeli = the boat; ukoadza= to begin
esimpaka = the cat; umokwetu = the friend; ukobadzira = to break; egilamba= the clothing
omaruwa = the rain; ukojika = to close; ukovova = to speak; ukodzua = to know
ochiFangwa = the Fangwa Language ; ukotaya = to help; ukokabe = to advise; egidzai = the egg
egikeni = the glas; ukobinda = to write; ukolomu = to enter; ukogula = to buy; esimbisi = the fish; esijámbisi = shark (lit fish-eater); esifuorase = the horse
ukofotokodza = to explain; egibisi = the office; ukobade = to divide; ukozunda = to hate
umotsikana = the girl; omadziwa = the milk ; esindzovu = the elephant; egiumba= the room

ukofahamu = to understand; esitwiga = the giraffe; egikombe = the cup; egidzina = the name
umoru = the chief; egiature = the flower ; ukokute = to obey; ukofanya = to do; esipwoza = the octopus
egikaramu = the pen; egiadenle = the street; egitanda = the bed; ukodzá =  to come
umokulima = the farmer; ukolipa = to pay; ukopyoma = to read; egintu = the thing
esiawindzi = the sheep; esiura = the frog; egintoka = the car, umorume = the man

ukobyada= to bear children (to be pregnant); emuintore = the eggplant; 
ubomotlovo = the pride; egijidzo = the eye; umofazi umorebyada = the pregnant woman;
egiloba = the word; ukobera = to carry; egimbazi = moon; egidzuwa = the sun;ukogenda = to go; ukobona = to see; egimkono= the arm; egimpuno= the nose; -nguvu = strong; egidzewe = the lake
egiupa = the bottle; ukomada = to finish, ukofá = to die; ukodzibu = to answer; ukosenga = to get drunk; esifuorase: the horse; ukohitadzi = to need; egisanduko = the box

Personal Pronouns[]

English Fangwa
I nd(z)e
you u
(s)he a
we tu
you bu
they ba

Possesive pronouns[]

The possessive pronoun is formed by attaching the particle ye at the front of the pronoun, e.g. yend(z)e = my. The possessive pronoun comes after the noun. So yeu = your (sing); yea = his/her(human); yegi = its (inanimate); yesi = its (animate: animal); yemu = its (animate: plant, fruit, vegetable) ; yetu = our; yebu = your (plur); yeba = their(human); yebi = their ( inanimate); yebizi = their (animail); yemi = their (plant, fruit, vegetable)

Grammar[]

Fangwa is basically a SVO (Subject Verb Object) Language. The verbs have three tense markers ( past, present, future) and two aspect markers ( perfect and progressive aspect)

Present tense Past tense Future tense Perfect tense Prensent Progressive
-na- -li- -ta- -me- -re-

Examples:

umorume umonasana mandzi
the man drinks water
umofazi umolibona umorume
the woman saw the man
umotsikana umotapyoma gitabo
the girl will read a book
umolendzi umomepyoma egitabo
the boy has read the book
umowana umoredyá ginyama
the child is eating meat

Noun classes[]

OchiFangwa has a noun class system like a lot of Bantu languages, the classifier is a prefix that attaches to the noun. This classifying particle is also attached to the verb, adjectives, numerals that are governed by the noun. The particle has a long and a short form; the long form denotes definiteness: umo-wana = the child; the short form signals undefiniteness; mo-wana: a child.

The main noun classes are: umo/oba = (sing/plur) humans; egi-ebi = things; esi-bizi = animals; oma- : (singular) :only certain fluids e.g. omandzi (from oma-mandzi)= water; oma-ruwa = rain and oma-dziwa = milk; emu/emi = fruits/vegetables/plants; uko- = denotes verbs; ubo- : denotes abstact concepts.

The short form of the noun class particle[]

mo/ba (humans, sg/pl); gi/bi (things, inanimate sg/pl), si/(b/d)zi (animals sg/pl); ma (fluids); mu/mi (plants/fruit/vegetables sg/pl); bo (abstract nouns)

There are some classes that are almost obsolete now: epi/eti = diminutive (humans): epinto-etinto = the small man - the small men and the augmentative (humans) : ago/adzo = agonto - adzonto = the giant - the giants. The short forms are pi/ti (diminutives sg/pl) and go/dzo (augmentative nouns sg/pl). The plural form of the augmentatives is increasingly being used as the plural form of the abstract noun particle (u)bo. So adzokama also means the kingdoms as well as the big kingdoms. The indefinite form is dzokama = kingdoms. The singular is ubokama = the kingdom.

These last two classes are being slowly incorporated into the umo/oba class: umopinto-obapinto = small man- small men. And umogonto- obagonto = giant- giants. The younger people only use the newer forms, elderly people can use both and in poetry the old forms are used. It looks like the old form will only be preserved in poetry and old texts.

Adjectives:

All adjectives follow their nouns: umowana umodzuri = the good child; mowana modzuri = a good child. The adjectives get the same prefixes as the corresponding nouns that they modify.

Questions:[]

To ask a quetion you can put the particle ni in front of a sentence, for example ndenasema ochi-Fangwa = I speak the Fangwa language. Ni ndenasema Ochi-Fangwa? Do I speak the Fangwa language?

To emphasize what the question is you can place ni after de part of the sentence that you want to ask about, e.g.:

ndzéninasema Ochi-Fangwa? Do I speak the Fangwa language?

ndzenánisema Ochi-Fangwa? Do I speak at this moment the Fangwa language? (Not in the past or in the future)

ndzenasémani Ochi-Fangwa? Do I speak the Fangwa language? (not hear or write?)

ndzenasema Ochi-Fángwani? Do I speak the Fangwa language? (not English or Swahili or Zulu?)

Negation[]

The negation of an action can be expressed in two ways:

  1. First you can add the prefix - to the verb. This particle is then stressed in the pronounciation.
  2. The second way is to put te after the verb. (strong negation). It recieves the stress in the sentence.
  3. If you use both you get a very strong negation.

E.g.

Ndenapyoma egitabo
I don't read the book
Ndenapyoma egitabo te
I do NOT read the book (strong negation)
Ka pyoma ebitabo!
Don't read the books!
Ka pyoma egitabo te!
Don't read any books !

Numerals[]

Here are the numerals of Fangwa from 1 to 10, Fangwa uses a base 10.. These numerals take on the prefixes of the nouns they quantify.

 
Number Fangwa
1 -modzi
2 -bili
3 -tato
4 -ne
5 -tano
6 -toba
7 -sambo
8 -nane
9 -kenda
10 -kumi
11 -kumi na modzi
Number Fangwa
20 -bili omakumi
30 -tato omakumi
40 -ne omakumi
50 -tano omakumi
60 -toba omakumi
70 -sambo omakumi
80 -nane omakumi
90 -kenda omakumi
100 -keme
1000 -kalo
1.000.000 -fuku

The cardinal numerals also have a short form, eg: -bili kumi = 20; -bili keme = 200; -ne kalo = 4000;

-kenda fuku = 9.000.000. These short forms are used in everyday speach, in official documents the longer form are used.

The numerals always follow the noun that is counted with the corresponding prefix: abantu (a)babili= the two persons; bizinja bizisambo = the seven dogs; bitabo binane= eight books, bitabo bitoba = 6 books.

For numbers higher than 10 only the first part will take the prefix:

miti mikumi na ne= 14 trees

Ordinal numerals[]

Ordinal numrals are formed by putting the particle 'ye' in front of the number and after the noun it refers to, for example: "umorume ye (u)momodzi" = the first man; "umotsikana ye (u)mobili" = the second girl; "esinkoko ye (e)sikenda" = the ninth chicken;

As for ordinal numbers higher then 10 the same rule applies as for cardinal numbers: only the first part gets the same prefix as the noun that refers to, for example: esimpaka ye (e)sikumi na sambo = the 17th cat

The inessive particle[]

Fangwa also has a inessive particle but it is a suffix '-ney' to the noun instead of a prefix like all the other noun class particles, e.g. 'eginyumbaney' = in the house (lit: def part inan.-house-in), ginyumbaney = in a house; nyumbaney = inside a house.

Days of the week[]

The names of the days of the week and the months of the year come from Afrihili. They are all written with capital letters.

Lamsadlo = Monday

Taradlo = Tuesday

Woshadlo = Wednesday

Yabadlo = Thursday

Sauhadlo = Friday

Juomadlo = Saturday

Gauriadlo = Sunday

egi-usambo = the week

egisiko = the day

egibusiko = the night/the evening

Months of the year[]

Gwadze = January

Raume = February

Nyobi = March

Foraiso = April

Hambali = May

Beali = June

Jovare= July

Shobu= August

Dwaro= September

Donsau= October

Vabwa= November

Mbanze = December

egi-mbedzi = the month

egi-aka = the year

Colours[]

The names of the coulours are:

mponge = grey

gedzane = green

mwodzano = yellow

nyokaudzo = red

nyosi = black

roendzi = orange

bwaleyo = blue

nyopfe = white

fyadha = silver

dzohavo = gold

kawha = brown

dzovaro = purple

moriye = blue- green

ruonge = colour


Dialects[]

OchiFangwa has 3 dialects: the Central dialect (the basis of the standard language), the Northern dialect and the Southern dialect. The Northern dialect is most famously known for inverting the vowels of the noun class particles so "okudzoa" = to know Standard Fangwa is ukodzua. The Southern dialect is the most divergent from the other two. This is also due to the efforts of the Fangwa to turn the Fangwezi into their allies and incorporate the Fangwezi territories into the land of the Fangwa. For this reason the Southern Dialects known as Fangwe ye Kushine has lots of cognates with Fangwezi, e.g. tsondato = 6 (Fangwezi tsandato, Fangwa toba), (o)kodzo(v)a = to know (Fangwezi kodzova, Fangwa ukodzua). All verbs tend to end in -a like in Fangwezi where Fangwa may have other vowels e.g. (o)koládea = to ask (Fangwa ukoladi, Fangwezi koladya). The Southern dialects also make a distinction between the first person plural inclusive (tu) vs exclusive (ti) like Fangwezi. The Southern dialects are also head final and they can also count as in Fangwezi so above ten you can put the smaller numeral first but they can also count like in Fangwa so for example one can say bile ng'a bilekome (22 literally 2+ 20) like in Fangwezi or bilekome ng'a bile (20+2) like in Fangwa. For all these reasons it is easier for the Southern Fangwa to understand Fangwezi because this also has been fostered for a long time and there were Fangwa speaking communities in the Northern Fangwezi territories but they were expelled once the Fangwa stopped helping the Fangwezi to expand their territories to reach the sea.

Sample text[]

umorume umonasana mandzi = the man drinks water [lit: the-man human class part-pres tense-drinks water (indefinite form)]

tunavova OchiFangwa = we speak the Fangwa language [lit: we-prs-speak part.(language)Fangwa]

anaisha kworebo-ney egidzewe = he lives near the lake [he-prs-live near-iness n-class obj -lake]

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