Type isolating fusional
Alignment nominative accusative
Word Order SOV
Head direction final
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Topic-Prominence Yes
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

General information[]



Bilabial Alveolar Retroflex Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plain stop p~b t~d k~g
Aspirated stop
Plain affricate ts tɕ~dʑ
Aspirated affricate tɕʰ
Fricative ɸ s ɕ h
Tap or l~ɽ
Approximant j ɥ ɰ w


(Near-)Front Central Back
Close i y ɯ u
Near-close ɪ
Close-mid e o
Mid ə
Open-mid ɛ ø ʌ
Open a


Fenhwi uses the korean hangul in combination with chinese logographs. The logographs will be covered in the vocabulary, the hangul here.

there are three places a consonant can occur. One is initially, this is on the beginning of a syllable. There also is medial, this is when a consonant is at the end of a syllable, but is not in the last syllable of a word. The last place is on the end of a syllable, being the last syllable of a word. the next table show the general pronunciation of every grapheme based on it's location. the cells that contain an x do not occur in the language.

grapheme initial medial final romanisation alternative
(none) ŋ ŋ (nothing)/ng (nothing)/ng
k k g k
x k̚s gs ks
k kh
n n n n n
x ndʑ n nj ntš
x n nh nh
t t d t
t th
l l l l l
x lt lt lth
x lm m lm lm
x lp lb lp
x lpʰ lp lph
x ls l ls ls
x l lh lh
m m m m m
p~b p b p
ɸ x x f f
x ps bs ps
p ph
s s s s
ts ts q ts
tɕ~dʑ j
ɕ x x x š
tɕʰ tɕʰ ch tšh
h h h h h

There are two kinds of syllables in fenhwi, ones with a final consonant, called closed syllables, and ones without a final consonant, called open syllables. The pronunciation of vowels depend on whether the syllable is open or closed. the following table shows their pronunciation in both kinds of syllables.

grapheme open syllable closed syllable romanisation alternative
a a a a
ja ja ya ya
ɛ ɛ ae ǎ
wa wa wa wa
ʌ ʌ eo ŏ
e ə e e
je ye ye
we we we
i ɪ i i
ɰi ɰɪ ui ǐ
ø ø oe ʌ
ɥi ɥɪ wi wi
ɯ ɯ eu ŭ
y y u u
ju jy yu yu
o o o
jo jo̞ yo yo

Ordering the hangul is a done slightly "odd", to organize a syllable, you first need to group them by "general initials consonant", after that the're grouped by the vowels, after which they are grouped by the "detailed initial consonant". Finally they are grouped by final consonant.

general initial
detailed initial
general vowel
detailed vowel
extra detailed vowel
general final
detailed final
extra detailed final


Nouns 【名词마찌[]


after vowel after consonant
genitive 르/리 1
locative 이사
Informationals after vowel after consonant
and 이나

1 the (르) leu and (리) li, also occur after consonants, this is speaker preffered, and not regular.

Click here to go to the Examples and Explainations page.


form Positive Negative
normal 나이
comperative 솨이
superlative 스싱
inclusive 마이

Click here to go to the Examples and Explainations page.

verbs 【动词동찌[]

general verb particles[]

verb particles come after the conjugation.

function hanja hangul
interrogative 吗? 마?
interrogative 2
interrogative 3 不! 블!
clairification 료/요!
perfective 了태 잇태
iterative double the regular verb ending
terminative 了타이 잇타이
secondairy negative 나이
volitional 让 + copula 후 + copula

interrogative 2 : used for things alike to tag questions.

interrogative 3 : used to express amazement.

the volitional form takes the place of the standard verb-ending, the verb than is conjugated using the copula

Click here to go to the Examples and Explainations page.

Processive verbs[]

list of pre-conjugated processive verbs

plain honorative positive negative
non past past non past past
Indicative 스다 아이사 아이스다
Imperative 오사
Optative 버라 입바 입라
Potential 래다 르사 랜사
Causative 아이칸
Conditional 입카
Passive 한 + copula
Stacking 아이사

Processive verb conjugations in other honoratives

statementive verbs[]

list of pre-conjugated statementive verbs

plain honorative positive negative
non past past non past past
Indicative 므다 마이 마이다
Imperative 머나
Optative 므비 므바 므바이 므바다
Potential 므리 므라 므라이 므라다
Causative 므카 마이칸
Conditional 믑카 먼벜
Passive 자 + copula
Stacking 이머

Statementive verb conjugations in other honoratives

Descriptive verbs[]

the ni (니) and nai (나이) are unaffected by the doubling for the iterative in the plain and polite forms. They also can be altered to fit other forms of the adjective (note that the negative form of the discriptive verbs are have the same suffixes as the positive forms, this is becuase the negativeness comes from the adjective-form itself.)

plain honorative positive negative
non past past non past past
Indicative 니다 니태 나이다 나이태
Imperative 니요 나이요
Optative 니바 니패 나이바 나이패
Potential 니라 니개 나이라 나이개
Causative 니카 나이카
Conditional 니반 나이반
Passive 니한 + copula
Stacking 니사 나이사

Descriptive verb conjugations in other honoratives

Copulative and existential verbs[]

the copula after vowels.[]
plain honorative positive negative
non past past non past past
Indicative 나이
Imperative 우됴
Passive 닷한 + copula
Stacking 바이
the copula after both consonants and vowels[]
formal honorative positive negative
non past past non past past
Indicative 미다 미다스 미나이다 미나이닷
Imperative 미요 미유
Optative 미반 미바시 미나이바 미나이밧
Potential 미라 미라시 미나이라 미나이란
Causative 마카 미나이카
Conditional 미밬 미나이밬
the copula after consonants[]
plain honorative positive negative
non past past non past past
Indicative 이다 이대 이나이 이나이대
Imperative 이요 잇쇼
Optative 입사 입새 입나이 입나이대
Potential 일사 일사 일차이 일차이대
Causative 잌사 잌칸
Conditional 입카
Passive 입한 + copula
Stacking 입야 입카이

Copula conjugations in other honoratives

existential verb

for inanimate


positive negative
non past past non past past
Indicative 있스 있다 있사 있스
Imperative 있소 있오사
Optative 있바 있버라 있입바 있입라
Potential 있래 있래다 있르사 있랜사
Causative 있카 있아이칸
Conditional 있밬 있입카
Passive 한 + copula
Stacking 있사 있아이사

for animate

(humans and animals)

positive negative
non past past non past past
Indicative 아스 아스다 아이사 아이스다
Imperative 아소 아오사
Optative 아바 아버라 아입바 아입라
Potential 아래 아래다 아르사 아랜사
Causative 아카 아이칸
Conditional 아밬 아입카
Passive 한 + copula
Stacking 아사 아이사



Personal pronouns【人词인찌[]

hanja hangul usage
1st person
외시 informal
낭신 formal
와사이 informal~formal (females only)
와애 intimate
informal (males only)
我킨 낭화킨 extremely formal
私我 완낭신 extremely formal
rude (males only)
2nd person
당신 formal
요您 요당시 extremely formal
手前 태지 rude
으前 으지 rude
3rd person
커신 formal
intimate (someone you know well)
彼女 저초 female friend/girlfriend
彼男 저치 male friend/boyfriend
彼人 저힌 informal
这人 가힌 rude
这子 가코 rude

for both the 2nd and 3rd person it's usual that you refer with a name + honorific combination instead of a pronoun.

function affix (hanja) affix (hangul)
plural (formal~informal) -们 -매
plural (general use) -达 -치
plural (superfomal) -方 -던



function hanja hangul
interrogative 언- / 넌-


function hanja hangul

1 "this human" is used to redely refer to a 3rd person, as well as a weird way to refer to oneself.

numerals 【数字수지[]

number hanji hangul (cardinal) romanized (cardinal) hangul (ordinal) romanized (ordinal)
0 空/零 (空)코 ko (零)로스(쓰) loseu(qeu)
1 하나 hana 히도(쓰) hido(qeu)
2 deol 뿌다(쓰) fuda(qeu)
3 saed 밑(쓰) mit(qeu)
4 ji 욘(쓰) yon(qeu)
5 gon 다섣(쓰) daseod(qeu)
6 lyu 여섣(쓰) yeoseod(qeu)
7 qad 나나(쓰) nana(qeu)
8 beolh 야(쓰) ya(qeu)
9 gweo 하옵(쓰) haob(qeu)
10 yeol 싶(쓰) sip(qeu)
100 on 햨(쓰) hyak(qeu)
1000 saen 즘(쓰) jeum(qeu)
10000 man 욜(쓰) yol(qeu)

numeral comparison

weekdays 【周日주비[]

english hanja hangul romanized lit
monday 月요日 휼요비 hyulyobi moon day
tuesday 火요日 뽠요비 fwanyobi fire day
wednesday 水요日 쉬요비 suiyobi water day
thursday 木요日 킨요비 kinyobi tree day
friday 金요日 칠요비 chilyobi gold day
saturday 土요日 믄요비 meunyobi ground day
sunday 日요日 이요비 iyobi sun day

yearmonths 【年月년휼[]

english hanja hangul romanized litteral meaning
January 雪月 윸유 yukyu snow month
February 融月 질유 jilyu melt month
March 雨月 빕유 bibyu rain month
April 爱月 사이유 saiyu love month
May 兰月 날유 nalyu orchid month
June 花月 한유 hanyu flower month
July 热月 항희유 hanghwiyu heat month
August 生月 생유 saengyu life (brith) month
September 校月 교유 gyoyu school month
October 红月 발유 balyu red month
November 菊月 기규유 gigyuyu chrysanthemum month
December 暗月 암유 amyu darkness month

Example text[]