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Occidental Frisian, also called Fryçais /fʁise/ in French, (Frisian: Frijsk) is a minority language of France, spoken by about 50,000 people in Northeastern France. The language is part of the larger group of the West Germanic Frisian languages.

North Frisian is closely related to Saterland Frisian of Northwest Germany, North Frisian of Germany and Denmark, and West Frisian which is spoken in the Netherlands. All of these are also closely related to the English language forming the Anglo-Frisian group.

The phonological system of the Occidental Frisian language is moderately influenced by Standard French and is slowly becoming less spoken among ethnic Frisians in the area. With a number of native speakers probably even less than 10,000 and decreasing use in France, the Occidental Frisian language is endangered. It is unprotected as a minority language, but schools in Frisian speaking areas offer Frisian courses in school, typically as a second language class. However, this is controversial, even in the Frisian regions of France.


Occidental Frisian
Frijsk
Type Germanic (West)
Alignment nominative-accusative
Head direction Final
Tonal No
Declensions No
Conjugations Yes
Genders Three
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 0%
Statistics
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words of 1500
Creator exospheric-pressure


Classification and Dialects[]

Phonology[]

Consonants[]

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n (ŋ)
Plosive p b t d c k g
Fricative f v θ ð ʃ ʒ ç x h
Affricate t͡s t͡ʃ
Approximant w ɹ j
Trill (r)
Lateral app. l

Vowels[]

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
High i y u
Near-high ɪ ʊ
High-mid e ø o
Mid ə
Low-mid ɛ œ ɜ ɞ
Near-low
Low ä

Phonotactics[]

Writing System[]

Letter Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Êê Ff Gg GHgh Hh Ii Jj
Sound /ä/ /b/ /k/ /d/ /ɛ~e~ɜ/ /eɪ̯/ /f/ /g/ /x~ç~f/ /h/ /i~ɪ/ /j/
Letter IJij Kk KJkj Ll LJlj Mm Nn NJnj Oo Pp Rr Ss
Sound /aɪ̯~ɛi̯/ /k/ /c/ /l~ɫ/ /ʎ/ /m/ /n/ /ɲ/ /o/ /p/ /ɹ~r/ /s/
Letter SJsj Tt THth TJtj Uu Ûû Vv Ww Yy Zz ZJzj
Sound /ʃ/ /t/ /θ~ð/ /t͡ʃ/ /ø~y~w/ /ʊ/ /v/ /w/ /aɪ̯~ɛi̯/ /z/ /ʒ/

Grammar[]

Nouns[]

Nouns in Occidental Frisian are declined for two numbers (singular and plural) and two genders (masculine and feminine; the historical neuter largely merged with masculine). Like English and other Germanic languages, nouns are declined in strong and weak forms. Below are examples of such paradigms:

hûnd "dog" (masculine)

Singular

hûnd

Plural

hûnden

Diminutive

hûndje
Diminutive Plural hûndjen

froa "woman" (feminine)

Singular

froa

Plural

froän

Diminutive

froët
Diminutive Plural froëtjen

If the final vowel in a noun is a historically long vowel, the plural takes the short vowel reflex, as below:

boum "tree" (masculine)

Singular

boum

Plural

bûmmen

Diminutive

boumje
Diminutive Plural bûmjen

rêd "road" (feminine)

Singular

rêd

Plural

redden

Diminutive

rêdet
Diminutive Plural redjen

Oftentimes, as in many languages, the diminutive will have a distinct meaning rather than just a small or cute version of the base noun. Examples of this are as follows:

Base Noun

Diminutive Noun

hûnd "dog" hûndje "puppy"
boum "tree" boumje "sapling"
djêr "animal" djêrtje "pet"
river "river" riveret "stream, creek"

Verbs[]

Verbs in Occidental Frisian have been vastly simplified since its earliest forms. Verbs conjugate for three persons, two tenses (past and non-past), and two moods (indicative and imperative).

Inflection of t'ygh "to hunt" (weak)

Infinitive t'ygh / ta ygh1
Gerund yghin m
Present Past

1st person singular (igh)

ygh yghd
2nd person singular (thau) yght

3rd person singular (hy/hu/it)

ygth
Plural (wy/j'y/hiu) yghen
Imperative ygh
Participles yghant geijghant

1 Formal written language only

Inflection of t'cour "to run" (weak)
Infinitive t'cour / ta cour1
Gerund courin
Present Past

1st person singular (igh)

cour courd
2nd person singular (thau) courst

3rd person singular (hy/hu/it)

courth
Plural (wy/j'y/hiu) couren
Imperative cour
Participles cour gecourant

Despite the fact that the larger paradigm has largely simplified, strong verbs are still robust within the Occidental Frisian speech and some French loanwords are not immune from those paradigms.

Inflection of t'drink "to drink" (strong)

Infinitive t'drink / ta drink1
Gerund drinkin m
Present Past

1st person singular (igh)

drink drank
2nd person singular (thau) drinkst /

drinkest1

3rd person singular (hy/hu/it)

drinkth / drinketh1
Plural (wy/j'y/hiu) drinken
Imperative drink
Participles drinkant gedrunct

Here is an example with a French loanword:

Inflection of t'vom "to vomit" (strong)

Infinitive t'vom / ta vom
Gerund vomin m
Present Past

1st person singular (igh)

vom vem
2nd person singular (thau) vomst / vomest

3rd person singular (hy/hu/it)

vomth / vometh
Plural (wy/j'y/hiu) vomen

Imperative

vom

Participles

vomant gevemt

Adjectives[]

Adjective declension is fairly simple and similar in development to nouns. There are two genders in Occidental Frisian, masculine and feminine and they are declined as follows:

Inflection for thin "thin" (weak)

Masculine Feminine

Singular

thin thine
Plural thine
Inflection for mijn "my" (strong)

Masculine

Feminine

Singular mijn mine
Plural mine

Syntax[]

Lexicon[]

Occidental Frisian

Pronunciation

Definition

Gender/Strength

Etymology

the /ðə/ the not declined þī/þā (OF)
thet /ðɛt/ that not declined þet (OF)
hir /çir/ here weak hīr (OF)
ther /ðɛɚ/ there weak þēr (OF)
hou /hu/ who not declined hwā (OF)
wat /wat/ what not declined hwet (OF)
wer /wɛɚ/ where not declined hwēr (OF)
woun /wun/ when not declined hwān (OF)
/hø/ how not declined hō (OF)
net /nɛt/ not not declined net (OF)
mani /mani/ many not declined manich (OF)
all /ɑɫ/ all weak all (OF)
sum /zym/ some; few weak sum (OF)
ur /ør/ other; second weak ōþer (OF)
ên/en /eɪ̯n/; /ɛn/ one/a/an strong/weak ēn (OF)
tuên /tweɪ̯n/ two strong twēne (OF)
thry /ðrɛi̯/ three strong þrē (OF)
fjer /fjɚ/ four weak fiūwer (OF)
fijv /fɛi̯v/ five strong fīf (OF)
grout /grut/ big; great strong grāt (OF)
long /loŋ/ long weak long (OF)
wijd /wɛi̯d/ wide strong wīd (OF)
bred /brɛd/ broad weak brēd (OF)
thick /ðɪk/ thick weak þikke (OF)
suêr /zweɪ̯r/ heavy; serious strong swēr (OF)

Example text[]

Gûd nês: mijn bagazj gou t'Paris fûll, sou igh skall enligh mijn secstigh-lijver rêghseck tu thijn haus t'fer.

"Good news: my baggage is going all the way to Paris, so I'll only bring my sixty-pound backback to your house."

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