Conlang
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Garla
Jókt er Garlá
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Accusative
Head direction
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


General Information[]

Garla (natively Jókt er Garlá /hoktɚga˞la/ or Garláídhjókt /ga˞laiɣokt/) is a member of the Ngalryn language family, a subfamily of the large Edalith language macrofamily on the Planet Patrona.

Phonology[]

Consonants[]

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative ɸ β s1 ɮ ʃ2 x ɣ h
Approximant ɹ l j w
  1. /s/ is optionally and informally voiced between vowels.
  2. /ʃ/ is an affricate in some rural dialects.

Vowels[]

Front Central Back
High i i˞ ɪ ʊ u u˞
Mid e e˞ ə ɚ o o˞
Low a a˞ ɔ
  1. /ɔ/ tends to merge with /a/ in colloquial speech.

Stress[]

Stress is always on the second syllable unless it would be placed on an /ə/, in which case it’s on the third, unless there’s no third, in which case it’s on the first. Proclitics are counted when determining stress.

Writing System[]

Garla is written with an adapted Alemarese alphabet. Here it is transliterated into the Latin alphabet. A notable feature of Garlan orthography are the many sounds with several representations.

Phoneme Grapheme(s)
/m/ m, mb, mp
/n/ n, nt, nd, ns, nr
/ɲ/ ny, nx
/ŋ/ ng, nk
/ŋw/ nv
/p/ p
/b/ b, bp
/t/ t
/d/ d, dt
/k/ k
/g/ g, gk
/ɸ/ ph/f
/β/ bh, mh
/s/ s
/ɮ/ lh, lhs, lhx
/ʃ/ x
/x/ kh
/ɣ/ nh, dh/ð, dhj/ðj, gh, rh
/h/ j, th/þ, sh, xh
/r/ r
/l/ l
/j/ y
/w/ v
/i/ í
/i˞/ ír
/ɪ/ i
/ʊ/ u
/u/ ú
/u˞/ úr
/e/ é
/e˞/ ér
/ə/ e
/ɚ/ er
/o/ ó
/o˞/ ór
/a/ a, á
/a˞/ ár
/ɔ/ o
0 jh

Consonant mutation[]

Lenition Nasalization Eclipsis
m mh - -
n nh - -
p ph mp bp
b bh mb -
t th/þ nt dt
d dh/ð nd -
k kh nk gk
g gh ng -
s sh ns lhs
x xh nx lhx
j jh - dhj/ðj
r rh nr -
l lh - -
y - ny -
v - nv -
vowel j' n' g'

Pronouns[]

NOM ACC POSS
sg pl sg pl sg pl
1 naphi sari náph sar náph
2 odher odhe odhu odhe odh
3 prox xer xeré xer xeré xer
obv ter teré ter teré ter
  • The possessive pronouns use the adjective declension.
  • tádhi is used for the 2nd person archaically.

Nominals[]

Nouns and adjectives decline according to number and case with suffixes, and according to definiteness with a proclitic.

Declension table[]

There are four classes of nominals.

I II III ADJ
inan an
NOM.SG -t -er -er - -it
ACC.SG - -u -i
PL/COMB -e -i
  • The nominative plural, accusative plural, and combination forms are always the same.
  • Nouns and adjectives undergo lenition in the accusative case.

Definiteness[]

Indefiniteness is indicated with a proclitic ki and nasalization of the noun, ex. rojé /rɔhe/ "the cloud" > ki nrojé /kɪnɔhe/ "a cloud".

Compounding[]

In a compound word in Garla, the first element is declined in its compound form, and the second element undergoes eclipsis, ex. pordhédhjért /po˞ɣeɣe˞t/ "tarp-house, tent".

Verbs[]

Conjugation table[]

Verbs conjugate for voice, tense, animacy, number, and case. Verbs agree with their subjects and use the adjectival declension. Verbs in finite clauses undergo lenition.

C A E I O U
act npast -er -ér -ér -ír -er -er
past -s -as -is -is -os -us
pass npast -ang -áng -éng -yang -vang -vang
past -at -át -ét -yat -vat -vat

Auxiliaries[]

Finite clauses always have an auxiliary verb, which agrees with the subject's number.

sg pl
IND ín índe
INT per perde

Example[]

"do, make" "search, look for" "exist, happen"
act npast puer xíér ímer
past pers xíras ímos
pass npast perang xíráng ínvang
past perat xírát ínvat

Syntax[]

Word order[]

Subj-Aux-Verb-Obj

  • Naphi índe xhírasé xer. "We searched for them."

Vocabulary[]

Numbers[]

# #+8 #*8 #*64
1 kin kinón ón kíd
2 din dinón dinyin dinkhíd
3 er erón erxin erkhíd
4 mer merón merxin merkhíd
5 ders dersón derxin derkhíd
6 piks piksón pikxin pikkhíd
7 drí driyón dríxin dríkhíd
8 ón dinyin kíd ónkíd
  • Numbers take the adjective declension.
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