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Gozhaaq Azure[]

Gozhaaq Azure [gɔ.ˈd͡ʒaːk' ˈa.zu.ɾe] is a fictional language, spoken by the fictional Azura Folk. This tribe is inspired by the Gerudo Folk, a folk of the Legend of Zelda series. I will not go into detail in terms of culture, since the purpose of the page is simply to have a summary of the conlang.

Introduction to Gozhaaq Azure[]

Gozhaaq Azure is a highly agglutinative (head final) language, having only suffixes. In additon, it is has a rich derivational morphology, allowing to derive nouns, adjectives and verbs from a root. But before we go into morphology, I will talk briefly about Phonology, so that you can read the Glossings.

Phonology[]

Consonants[]

Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosiv p b t d k g
Nasal m n
trill r
Tap flap (ɾ)
fricative f v s z ʃ * ç* h
lateral l
approximant (j)
Lat.appr ʎ
Affr. d͡ʒ

* = Allophones

Note: ([j]) is a possible variant of /ʎ/ and ([ɾ]) is a possible variant of /r/. There are no strict rules which form to use in which enviroment. The speaker can decide which one to use.

Vowels[]

The existing vowels are /i/, /ɔ/ , /a/, /u/ and /ɛ/

Script[]

Almost all IPA symbols correspond exactly to the script in Gozhaaq Azure, of course with some Exceptions:

  • d͡ʒ => <zh>
  • ʎ and j => <y>
  • r and ɾ => <r>
  • k => <q>
  • ɔ => <o>
  • ɛ => <e>

Note: There is a special handwriting script and an ancient script, but those will not be a topic on this page.

General Phonology Rules[]

As you have seen in the table, there are two allophones, which are generated by following rules:

  • h -> ç / _ i
  • d͡ʒ -> ʃ / n_[+kons,-voiced]
    • there is actually only one word where this rule can be applied: Nzhita (under) => [nʃta]. Very weird word, it's preserved from ancient Gozhaaq Azure.

Syllable Structure[]

Allowed Structure:

  • CV
  • CVV
  • CV/n/
  • (NC*V)
    • * only voiced consonants, mostly <g> and <zh>

Morphology[]

As you have seen, the phonology of Gozhaaq Azure is rather simple and not that interesting. Morphology on the other hand is more interesting:

The root[]

a root in Gozhaaq Azure is firstly a lexicon entry which can be used as a simple noun (This is used in plain conversation). Some examples:

  • "Va" meaning water
  • "ya" meaning arrow
  • "hala" meaning sky
  • "Ne" meaning continent
  • "qame" meaning gold or money

The ending vowel indicates the gender of a root (with exceptions). There are two genders: Female (mostly ending in "e") and Male (mostly ending in "a")

Noun[]

Noun-Domains[]

Determiners[]

"Va" itself is a root and a noun at the same time. Normally in formal speech determiners have to be used. There are the definite determiners (DEF) and the indefinite Determiners (INDEF). They are, of course, all suffixes. Both types of determiners correspond to the gender of the root, by having "-aq", the masculine DEF (M.DEF or MASC.DEF), "-eq", the feminine DEF (F.DEF or FEM.DEF). Then of course "-an" (F.INDEF) and "-en" (M.INDEF).

you get following meanings by attaching the determiners to the roots (Example: "ne" and "va"):

  • "Va" is MASC, therefore: "Vaaq" meaning "the water"
    • "Vaan" meaning "a water" is also possible, but means something like a drop (of water), a puddle, or a sea
  • "ne" is FEM, therefore: "Neeq" meaning "the continent", or with INDEF, "Neen" meaning "a continent"
Plural Suffix[]

The Plural Suffix "ni" is in the same Domain as the determiners which means that the plural suffix and the determiners cannot coexist. Example ("ne" = continent, "qame" = gold/money):

  • "Neni" meaning "continents"
  • "qameni" meaning a lot of pieces of gold
Case Markers[]

The next domain is the domain of case markers, which comes after the determiner domain. The Case markers are:

  • ga (NOM)
  • gi (ACC)
  • gu (DAT)
  • go (GEN)
  • ge (LNK)
    • ge is productive linker, being also a coordinator

There is a phonological rule due to a syllable structure clash (example "va" = water):

  • Vaaq + NOM = *Vaaq ga (CC not allowed)
    • g -> ∅ / k_ (or even C_)
      • Repair: Vaaq a = the water (NOM)
      • Deletion is a common strategy in Gozhaaq Azure, it is even marked in the script: Vaaq'a
  • Vaan + NOM = Vaan ga (allowed)
Advanced domain: Applicative (Benefactive (BEN) and Instrumental (INST))[]

the Linker "ge" allows to attach "-pa" BEN and "-qo" INST to the stem (Example: Qame):

Qame-eq-e-pa

gold(F)-F.DEF-LNK-BEN

"for the gold"


Qame-eq-e-qo

gold(F)-F.DEF-LNK-INST

"with the gold"

Noun Types[]

We already discussed the phenomenon, where a nouns final vowel indicates it's gender (Type 1 Noun). This is not always the case, there are a lot of nouns which have a lexicalised gender feature (although one could say that this feature is generally lexicalised). Categories can be established by looking at the examples:

(Evidence for the lexicalised gender is the attached Determiner)

  • Zhepe (M) = spear, Zhepe-aq
  • Zhevode (M) = animal, Zhevode-aq
  • Nama (F) = name, Nama-eq
  • Zhovese (M) = kingdom, Zhovese-aq

=> Type 2 Noun: Vowel mismatch

  • Sari (M) = Sword, Sari-aq
  • Zotatu (F) = statue, Zotatu-eq
  • Vi (M) = journey, vi-aq

=> Type 3 Noun: No Gender Vowel underlyingly

  • Zho = Ruler, Zho-aq/eq = King/Queen
  • Vo = Human, Person, Vo-aq/eq =Man/Woman
  • Fo = Child, Fo-aq/eq = boy/girl

=> Type 4 Noun: No Gender Feature inherited, mostly human entities

Type 4 Nouns: Special Properties[]

Type 4 Nouns are somehow special, since not having a gender feature inherited (presumably like Type 1). Type 4 Nouns work exactly as other nouns but having special meanings which can be derived due to the already mentioned morphology (Example "Fo" = Child)

  • Fo = child
  • Fo-aq = the boy
  • Fo-eq = the girl
  • Fo-ni = boys and girls/children

But there is more possible, which requieres a re-analysis of the determiners:

  • Fo-a = boy
  • Fo-e = girl
  • Fo-a-ni = boys
  • Fo-e-ni = girls

We established that the determiners have an inherited gender marker, but it seems like we could split up the determiners ("Va" = Water):

Va-a-q

Water(M)-MASC-DEF

But *Vaa is not possible, which leads to 2 theories:

  1. There are 2 Classes of Nouns: Class 1 = {Type1,Type2,Type3} and Class 2 = {Type4} or simply Class [-hum] and Class [+hum], although not all human entities are in the [+hum] class.
    • Class 1 Nouns have their own Determiner, which is -aq,-eq,-an,-en
    • Class 2 Nouns have Gender markers -a,-e and Determiners -q and -n

2. Same Theory like in 1., but here Class 1 has a Gendermarker which needs a determiner and Class 2 Gendermarker does not need a determiner

Theorie 1 Analysis:

Va-a-q

Water.1(M)-M-DEF

"The Water"

Alternative: Since Class two Nouns don't have Gender features inherited, the brackets with the gendermarker in it in class 1 nouns indicate that this noun indeed is a Class 1 Noun.


Va-a-q

Water(M)-M-DEF

"The Water"


Theory 2:

2 Classes of Gender Markers:

Va-a-q

Water(M)-M.1-DEF

"the water"

Fo-a-q

child-M.2-DEF

"the boy"


I prefer to use theory 1.

Pronouns[]

Gozhaaq Azure is a Pro-Drop Language but Pronouns can still be used, e.g. for emphasis:

Pronouns
Gozhaaq Azure Englisch
Yo I
tu/ti* you
La/Le he/she
samo** we
Useede you (pl)
Eyose they
  • *tu is sometimes considered more formal than ti, other than that, no difference.
  • **very rare

Possession[]

To achieve a possessive meaning, Gozhaaq Azure uses a genitive Construction (example: Qaza = house)

Yo go Qaza

GEN House(M)

"My House"


Fo-a-q-o Qaza

Child-M-DEF-GEN house(M)

"The Boy's house"


Interestingly, following constructions are also possible:

Yo go Qaza-a-q/n

I GEN House(M)-M-DEF/INDEF

"A/The House of mine"


Fo-a-q-o Qaza-a-q/n

Child-M-DEF-GEN house(M)-DEF/INDEF

"A/The House of the boy"

Adjective[]

Adjective Domains[]

Adjectives are derived with the suffix "-bi", which is attached to the stem (Example "i" = good, ~the goodness)

i-e-q = the good

i-bi = good

With this information, we can now say:

i-bi Fo-e-q

good-ADJ Child-F-DEF

"the good girl"

This works only when the ADJ is in the position as modificator, it works differently as a predicate:

Predicate Domain[]

Adjectives have their own Tense markers:

  • -ta for present Tense
  • -ata for past tense
  • -reta for future tense

Example:

Fo-a-q-a i-bi-ta

Child-M-DEF-NOM good-ADJ-PRES

"the boy is good"


Just for the record, here some adjectives (with the ADJ Suffix)

  • atarabi - new
  • bologabi - big
  • semobi - small
  • difubi - difficult
  • ezabi - easy
  • omobi - heavy
  • hazhabi - fast


Fo-e-q-a semo-bi-ata

Child-F-DEF-NOM small-ADJ-PST

"the girl was small"

There are more Suffixes that are possible in this domain but they need an Auxilliary Verb to be grammatical. Since I didn't introduce you to verbs, this section will be descripted later.

Adjective Manipulator[]

There are few Manipulator of adjectives which for example intensify the adjective:

-rida = Excessive (EX)

-mera = Intensifier (INTENS)

-pera = negative intensifier (NEG.INTENS)

There is another but rare suffix, which is "-perida = negative excessive (NEG.EX). This suffix was frequently used in an earlier version of gozhaaq Azure. Additionally, the suffix "-rida" was expressed as "-Merida". This leads to the conclusion, that "me-" looks like a postive affix and "pe-" like a negative one.

Morphology of Manipulators[]

Manipulators are in the domain after the tense morphology. Since tense morphology of adjectives is not active in attributive position, Manipulators can easily attach directly after the "bi" suffix:


Qorasee-bi-rida qaza-a-q.

Beautiful-ADJ-EX house(M)-M-DEF

the too beautiful house.


In predicate position, we have two possibilities to realise the tense morphology: with the tense morphology of the adjective, or with the verb "to be - sevin".


Qorasee-bi-ata-mera.

Beautiful-ADJ-PST.ADJ-INTENS

It was very beautiful.

Or:

Qorasee-bi-mera se-v-a.

Beautiful-ADJ-INTENS be-VBLZ-3SG.PST

It was very beautiful.


Both methods are equally possible, the speaker decides for himself which method to use.

Adverbial Constructions[]

To form adverbs, one needs the Suffix /-bae/ on the root of the verb:

Vo-a-q-a hazha-bae hazha-v-a.

Human-M-DEF-NOM run-ADV run-VBLZ-3SG.PST

the man runs fast.

Note that the adverb comes before the verb.



Verb[]

Verb Domains[]

To get a verb from a root, Gozhaaq Azure, uses a special Suffix "-v", which is a verbalizer. But there is no infinitive structure, so only attaching "-v" is ungrammatical. Therefore, after the verbalizer, comes the TMA Morphology (more often referred as TAM) :

Some Roots, which are commonly derived to verbs

  • Nemu - sleep
  • hazha - run
  • Fora - Question -> to ask
  • Bere - drink
  • te - have (Possession)
  • se - be (the being, creature)

Note: I do not write the gender of the noun, because it is irrelevant in this section.

The verbalizer will be written here in the table as well.

This table also contains the negation suffix ("-na", "-ne", "-no", "-a"), because the negation suffix alters depending on the suffix which preceded the negation:

Of course, Negation is not mandatory, it is used only if you want to negate the sentence.

Person Present Past Future Conditional Conditional Past
1SG vi-na vo-na vire-na viria-no viriza-no
2SG vise-na vase-na visera-na viriase-na virize-na
3SG vi-na va-na viro-na viria-no viriza-no
1PL vamo-ne vasamo-ne vari-ne viriamo-ne virizamo-ne
2/3PL van-a vasan-a varan-a virian-a virizan-a

This table can be analysed in terms of syncretism, but I won't do a analysis of this here.

Example (hazha = run): Remember: it's a Pro-Drop Language

Hazha-v-ise

run-VBLZ-2SG.PRES

"you run"

Hazha-v-ise-na

run-VBLZ-2SG.PRES-NEG

"you didn't run"


Hazha-v-irizan

run-VBLZ-2/3PL.COND.PST

"you (pl)/they would have run"

Hazha-v-irizan-a

run-VBLZ-2/3PL.COND.PST-NEG

"you (pl)/they wouldn't have run"

Imperative[]
Tataqa - fight
formal informal
SG tataqa-v-e tataqa-Ø-e
PL Tataqa-v-e-n tataqa-Ø-e-n

The Imperative is in the domain of TMA, but of course blocking TMA if it appears. The Suffix is "-e" and the plural suffix for the IMP is "-n". Additionally, here a table with negation:

Tataqa - fight (NEG)
formal informal
SG tataqa-v-e-no tataqa-Ø-e-no
PL tataqa-v-e-n-a tataqa-Ø-e-n-a

Interestingly, the NEG-Suffix "no" is only used in the TMA-Table in context of mood, plural and person. Here an illustration of syncretism in terms of the NEG-Suffix of the TMA Table:

[+-Sp] = Speaker

[ +-Adr] = Adresse

=> Decomposition of Person feature

[-+PL] = Plural

[+-Cond] = Conditional

/ no / <=> [+Sp] [-Adr] [-PL] [+Cond]

/ ne / <=> [+Sp] [-Adr] [+PL]

/ na / <=> [] (default)

This is a possible analysis of the syncretism of the NEG-Suffix but considering IMP NEG and comparing that to the TMA-Table one gets following observations:

Imagine there would be no /no/ NEG-Suffix (instead /na/) which would lead to a "1-3-2/3PL-Syncretism":

  • viriano (1/3SG Cond) -> viriana
  • viriana (2/3PL Cond)-> viriana

This would be a very powerful "affix-chain" which leads to the fact that a lot more context is needed then in other tenses or moods, like Present or Past, etc. To repair this phenomenon, /no/ is used so that the amount of context for Cond is reduced. So one might think of /no/ as a "repair-allomorph".

Passivation[]

There is the Passive Suffixe "-zho" which is attached after the negation (if there is no negation, then of course it is placed after the TMA-Morphology)

Example: Fora - Question

fora-v-a-(na)-zho

Question-VBLZ-1/3SG.PST-(NEG)-PASS

"He/She/It/I was (not) asked"

Impersonal Passive[]

to express a meaning like "one likes food", a special suffix is needed in the passive construction. You see, since Gozhaaq Azure is Pro-Drop language, the sentence above in the section passivation has no impersonal meaning. Therefore, the special suffix "zhi" is added, which is in the domain after TMA-Suffix and before NEG-Suffix.

Example:

manzha-a-q-i nera-v-i-zhi-zho

food(M)-M-DEF-ACC like-VBLZ-1/3SG.PRES-IMPS-PASS

"one likes food"

The IMPS stands for impersonal. Note that "zhi" acts like a 3 person subject, seen here in the next sentence.

manzha-a-q-i nera-v-a-zhi-zho

food(M)-M-DEF-ACC like-VBLZ-3SG.PST-IMPS-PASS

"one liked food"

AUX-Domain[]

Auxilliaries are also considered as Suffixes, but to attach them to Mainverbs, a special Auxilliary Linker is used. Some Auxilliaries are written here:

  • ere - want
  • ode - can
  • use - must/have to
  • efe - CAUS
    • the Causative Affix is in the same domain as Auxilliaries

Auxlliary Linker = "-te", mostly shortened do "-t" = <t'>

Example:

<Hazhavit'erevasamone>

Hazha-v-i-t-ere-v-asamo-ne

run-VBLZ-1/3SG-AUX.LNK-want-VBLZ-1PL.PST-NEG

"We didn't want to run"

Note that there is the first Person/third Person marker in the main verb, which doesn't contain any semantic information, since the AUX contains the TMA information for the Subject. Therefore the mentioned semantically empty marker is considered as a default marker, which purpose is to be a bridge from the verbalizer domain to the Linker domain, which is the same domain as the Passivation Domain. This is not en elegant solution, some agglunative languages like quechua nominalize the mainverb and add an AUX to have an AUX construction. There is no reason why this couldn't work for Gozhaaq Azure, therefore here an alternative contruction:

<Hazhat'erevasamone>

Hazha-t-ere-v-asamo-ne

run-AUX.LNK-want-VBLZ-1PL.PST-NEG

"We didn't want to run"

Since run is already nominalized (because a root is a Noun already) there is no need for nominalization. Hence this alternative construction would be more plausable, I accept both ways (but prefer the second)

Comparative/Superlative[]

Now that we haved talked about verbs, we can now finally talk about the COMP/SUP, where COMP is in the Domain of Predicate Tense markers of adjectives. The Suffix for the comparative is "-ra", and the superlative, which is attached to the comparative is "-zha". Examples:

qorasee-bi-ra

beautiful-ADJ-COMP

"more beautiful"


qorasee-bi-ra-zha

beautiful-ADJ-COMP-SUP

"most beautiful"


Since the comparative is in the Domain of Tense markers, the tense markers are now blocked, so that a Auxilliary Verb ("se-" - to be) is needed. To form a sentence in the comparative, a comparing object is needed, by added the comparing suffix/particle "yora" after the comparing object, you need a LNK to attach it to the COMP-Object. Example:

<Palaaq'e yora, Qazaaq'a qoraseebira sevi.>

Pala-a-q-e-yora, Qaza-a-q-a qorasee-bi-ra se-v-i

Palace(M)-M-DEF-LNK-COMP house(M)-M-DEF-NOM beautiful-ADJ-COMP be-VBLZ-1/3SG.PRES

"In comparison to the palace, the house is more beautiful


It is debatable, whether "yora" is a suffix or a particle. It's likely a suffix, since all other morphology, like INST or BEN is blocked.

Animated Substantive Construction[]

Since we know that all forms are derived from the root, which is noun, it doesn't necessarly mean that this root is already an animated noun. Take for example the root "tataqa" which means "fight" as in "the fight". But how do you derive an animated noun like fighter?

To do that, there is a complex derivation. I will derive the already mentioned example "tataqa":

The affix for animated nouns is "-i", it is in the domain before the gender marker. Therefore, firstly this affix is attached to the root:

tataqa -> tataqa-i

Secondly, the gender marker has to be attached, so that the speaker know the gender:

tataqa-i -> tataqa-i-a/e

Here we get a clash: In the Underlying form, there are 3 vowels in the row, which is not allowed in Gozhaaq Azure. In this language, such phenomenons are fixed by using deletion or vowel chaning into a glide vowel. Since a glide vowel is considered to be consonant, the clash is fixed. In this construction, the chaning method is used:

tataqaia -> tataqaya

tataqaie -> tataqaye

now this type of nouns are behaving like nouns of Type 1. Therefore, to attach determiners, the gender marker is obligatory:

tataqaya -> tataqayaaq = the male fighter

tataqaye -> tataqayeen = a female fighter

This analysis gives evidence to the cyclic derivation of the language, because phonology is typically the last domain in the derivation steps, but here you have phonological repairing inside of some morphological operations.

Here is the output when a Plural suffix is used

  • tataqayani = male fighters
  • tataqayeni = female fighters
  • tataqaini = fighters

As you can see, in the third example, phonology did not have to repair the clash because there was no clash from the beginning.

Glossing this kind of thing is very hard, but this would be an appropriate approach:

tataqa-y-a-a-q

fight-ANI.SUBS-M-M-DEF

"the male fighter"

unfortunately, this glossing would imply that a gender marker can attach itself to the same gender marker, which could make it recursive. However, the analysis from before shows the word has gone through a reanalysis. Due to the underlying structure, this gloss is still the best way of glossing the beforementioned phenomenon.


Syntax[]

Gozhaaq Azure is an SOV Language.

Sentence Structure[]

Intransitive Sentences[]

For intransitive sentences, the order is SV. Example:

Vori-a-q-a nemu-v-i

warrior-M-DEF-NOM sleep-VBLZ-1/3SG.PRES

"the warrior sleeps"

Note that the nominative marker is still used, although this argument being the only avaible in the sentence (this is not the case for informal speech)

Transitive sentences[]

For tranisitve sentences, the order is, as already mentioned, SOV

Vo-a-q-a Vo-e-q-i nera-v-i

Human-M-DEF-NOM Human-F-DEF-ACC like-VBLZ-1/3SG.PRES

"the man likes the woman"

Ditransitive sentences[]

The order for ditrans. sentences is the following: S,DO,IO,V

Vo-a-n ga Qoniga-a-q-i Fo-e-q-u da-v-i

Human-M-INDEF NOM book(M)-M-DEF-ACC child-F-DEF-DAT give-VBLZ-1/3SG.PRES

the man gives the book to the girl

Free word order[]

Since every argument is marked by case in formal speech, free word order is possible. As you will see in the informal section, there is still an underlying positon of these arguments, since it is possible to not mark the arguments with case. Having no inflectional marking, the word order (as in english) is giving the arguments their syntactic role.

Non-realised arguments[]

It is possible in Gozhaaq Azure to not realise an argument of a verb, even it's actually necessary. Example: trans. Verb need 2 arguments, but both don't have to be realised. The reason for that is that they are actually realised, but have no phonological form.

Non-realised Subjects[]

As a Prodrop Language, it is obvious that this is possible. Example:

Nemu-v-i

sleep-VBLZ-1/3SG.PRES

"I sleep | She/He/It sleeps"

Qoniga-a-q-i ba-v-i

book(M)-M-DEF-ACC buy-VBLZ-1/3SG.PRES

"i buy the book | He/She/It buys the book"

Non-realised Objects[]

But you can also not realise an Object, as seen here in the trans. sentence:

Ba-v-i

buy-VBLZ-1/3SG.PRES

"I buy something" (I will leave out other possible meanings, becuase they are irrelevant)

The not realised object is therefore an unspecified object, meaning "something", "someone", etc.

Of course this is also possible for ditranstive sentences:

da-v-i

give-VBLZ-1/3SG.PRES

"i give something to someone"


This opens a theory, that Gozhaaq Azure might be a strict agglunative language, where every sentence is actually one word.

SUBJ-∅OBJ-Root-VBLZ-(Person+TMA+...)

But due to the possible free word order the theory has to be rejected.

Questions[]

To phrase a question in Gozhaaq Azure, one can use either rising intonation at the end of a sentence as known in many indo-european languages or, more formally, use the particle "qa" at the end of a sentence. The Word order stays the same.

Polarity Questions:

Qameeq'a farevise qa.

Money own/have.you Q

Do you have the money?

For Content Questions there are several interrogative pronouns:

Interrogative Pronouns
Gozhaaq Azure English
quda where
quvai why
quzho what
quye who
quho how
qudaran when


To form phrases like "whose House is that?" one can use a genetive construction with "quye":

Qazaaq'o quye sevi qa.

~House from who it is?

Coordination[]

Gozhaaq Azure possesses a very productive Linker "ge", which was already introduced in the Case Section. Generally, a Coordinator connects to phrases of the same type, like PP & PP or VP & VP or even CP & CP. the place of the Coordinator usually differs typologically. In this language, it is the same as in english: The Coordinator is between those phrases:

DP[]

Vori-a-q-e Qame-e-q

Warrior-M-DEF-LNK Money(F)-F-DEF

"The warrior and the money."

VP[]

In VP's, there are two coordinators: the productive Linker "ge" and the AUX Linker "te". Both work in the same way, but there is a difference:

The AUX.LNK blocks any TMA of the mainverb, since the AUX does get the TMA. the normal LNK doesn't block TMA of the main verb, its optional:

Hazhiri-v-i ge Nemu-v-i

run-VBLZ-1/3SG.PRES LNK sleep-VBLZ-1/3SG.PRES

"I run and sleep."


Hazhiri-v-i-ge Nemu-v-amo

run-VBLZ-1/3SG.PRES-LNK sleep-VBLZ-1PL.PRES

"We run and sleep"

In this example above, the first verb has the Default marker, which has due to the LNK no real TMA (Tense, Mood, Aspect. Sometimes written as TAM) information, the real TMA information is the last verb. This leads to point that in some cases, Pronouns are obligatory to avoid weird constructions:

(*La ga) Hazhirivi ge (*yo ga) nemuvi.

Here might be a problem: Although I said that TMA is optional, it is actually obligatory, at least for the 1/3SG.PRES form. This form is something of default marker, which has only the purpose to be a bridge between the LNK and VBLZ. But I'm willing to accept this alternative, although I like to use the construction above more.

Hazhiri-ge Nemu-v-i

run-LNK sleep-VBLZ-1/3SG.PRES

"I run and sleep."

I think this will stay debatable, whether the LNK is in the domain of the VBLZ, or after it. The meaning stays the same.

Different Subjects[]

If I want to say something like, "We run and they sleep", this is of course possible, since the LNK Marker doesn't block TMA. This actually leads to the conclusion that the default marker should be there, otherwise I give the LNK permission to attach to the Root. And if that's possible, then this form should be seen in the DP Section:

*Vori-e-a-q Qame-e-q

Warrior-LNK-M-DEF Money(F)-F-DEF

"The warrior and the money."

This violates the phonology, therefore can this be seen as an argument for the default marker (First violation being 3 distinct vowels and second being consonant cluster clash).

Here now an example of a different subject construction:

Hazhiri-v-amo ge Nemu-v-an

run-VBLZ-1PL.PRES LNK sleep-VBLZ-3PL.PRES

"We run and they sleep."

Sequential Affix[]

There is an affix which gives the information of a sequence within the coordination, for example:

I run and then I sleep.

To construct that, the affix "sa" is attached before the LNK:

Hazhiri-v-i-sa-ge Nemu-v-i

run-VBLZ-1/3SG.PRES-SEQ-LNK sleep-VBLZ-1/3SG.PRES

I run and then I sleep.

AP[]

It does work with AP's as well.

Predicate Construction[]

Vori-a-q-a zhala-bi ge urezhi-bi-ta

Warrior-M-DEF-NOM smart-ADJ LNK happy-ADJ-PRES

"The Warrior is smart and happy"

This of course works with the sequence-affix:

Vori-a-q-a zhala-bi sa-ge urezhi-bi-ta

Warrior-M-DEF-NOM smart-ADJ SEQ-LNK happy-ADJ-PRES

"The warrior is smart and then happy"

Modifiying Construction[]

Zhalabi ge urezhibi Voriaq

"The smart and happy warrior"

Prepositions[]

Prepositions
English Gozhaaq Azure
inside naqa
outside soto
on top, over, up, on obe
under Nzhita
middle, central anzhare
right Deseeta
left Siniseeta

Note: This section is important for the body part section you will read later on. You will notice some parallels after reading the body part section. One other side note: The reason for "under", "nzhita" is its original form in ancient Gozhaaq Azure, "Unshta". through some processes, it became this way.

Construction of a Preposition phrase, PP[]

to form a PP you need the GEN marker and the ACC marker. I will show you how it works by using an example

qaza-a-q-o naqa gi

house(M)-M-DEF-GEN inside ACC

"inside the house"


the preposition requieres an ACC marker, and the noun which is descripted by the preposition requieres the GEN marker. Sometimes, due to phonologial processes, case markers and prepositions are getting "fused":

<Qazaaq'o'be>

Qaza-a-qo-be (gi)

House(M)-M-DEF-on (ACC)

"on the house/ on top of the house"

Fusion[]

The reason for Fusion are the identical vowels of the case marker and the prepositions first vowel. Those interactions can be found with other categories, like verbs (go - iqavin):

<Palaaq'i'qavi>

Pala-a-q-i-qa-v-i

palace(M)-M-DEF-ACC-go-VBLZ-1/3SG.PRES

"I go to the palace"


This strategy is common and is even used in formal speech.


Causative[]

Now finally, we come to the section of the caustive. I did put the causative part not into the verb part due to the complexity of the causative, since whole sentences are needed to understand it fully.

Firstly, I show you causatives in english, which later helps to understand how it works in Gozhaaq Azure.

"He causes me to swim."

In this sentence, "he" is the causer, "me" is the causee and "causes" is the verb, indicating the Causative. All this three parts for a CAUS construction can be found in Gozhaaq Azure, however, the structure is a bit different. Firstly, the causative verb in Gozhaaq Azure is a AUX-Verb, "efevin*"(As a noun: efe(F)). To say, "to cause to swim" would mean "ozhovitefevin".

Next up is the Causer and the Causee, both is marked with the Affix "vae". This Affix is in the Domain after and before the case Domain. Sounds a bit weird, but let me explain: "vae" alone does not work, it needs cases to determine whether the argument is the Causer (ga-vae) or the Causee (gi-vae). That means that the Combination of the NOM and the CAUS-Affix gives the semantic interpretation of the Causer and ACC + CAUS-Affix gives the Interpretation of the Causee. Now an example:

Samo ga-vae ti gi-vae ozho-v-i-t-efe-v-amo

We NOM-CAUS you ACC-CAUS swim-VBLZ-DFLT**-AUX.LNK-cause-VBLZ-1PL.PRES

"we cause you to swim."

This sentence is acceptable, but there is one thing that can be added:

Samo ga-vae ti gi-vae ga ozho-v-i-t-efe-v-amo

We NOM-CAUS you ACC-CAUS NOM swim-VBLZ-DFLT-AUX.LNK-cause-VBLZ-1PL.PRES

"we cause you to swim."

This is a very weird structure, but here is the reason why the causee gets the nominative:

To derive this sentence, you have to look at the "uncausativized" sentence:

ti ga ozhovise.

"you swim"

By causativizing this sentence we get a new argument, the causer, and the Agent becomes the causee, but still can keep his nominative Case, since being the agent. This also works with (di)trans. sentences:

"samo gavae ti givae ga Foaq'i gozhavitefevamo"

"We cause you to speak to the boy"

As you can see, this is a structure which doesn't change the semantic roles and i believe that this something that can be found in nat langs. If you have some language that might have this particular construction you can contact me on discord: Marko Rino.

The causative is even partially recursive:

Zho-a-q-a-vae La gi-vae Vo-e-q-u-vae ga Qonega-a-q-i Fo-a-q-u da-v-i-t-efe-v-i-t-efe-v-i

Ruler-M-DEF-NOM-CAUS he ACC-CAUS human-F-DEF-DAT-CAUS book(M)-M-DEF-ACC child-M-DEF-DAT give-VBLZ-DFLT-AUX.LNK-cause-VBLZ-DFLT-AUX.LNK-cause-VBLZ-3SG.PRES

"the king causes him to cause the woman to give the book to the boy."

apparently, "the causee of the causee" is DAT + CAUS

There is actually a recursive method, but this is to complex for a human brain to comprehend when applying it to the langauge, since no one can remember a chain of many causers, bacause for each new causer, there is one more CAUS marker in the verb.

*efevin, or vin is an non existing infitinitive form, just to have a straight translation for verbs in the infinitive form from other languages

**DFLT = Default, the already mentioned default marker, which is in this case an epenthesis marker, discussion about that in another section

Relative Clause[]

Relative Clauses work almost identical to relative clauses in english, only difference is that the relative pronoun agrees with the NP of the matrix clause:

Voaq'a, qela Yamaaq'i hazhriva, vaqabita.

man, who (to mountain) ran, (is young).

"the man who ran to the mountain is young."


As we can see, there is the relative pronoun qela or qele (for plural also possible, qeli) that functions as a subject in the relative clause.

Evaluative Morphology[]

Diminutive/honorific marker[]

There is the diminutive Affix for nouns, which is "-zhi" adnd the honorific marker is "zho". This affixes are proposedly in the domain between the determiners and the case markers. To realise this affixes, the determiners are obligatory. One interesting about those is this phenomenon:

Zhiudare - City

Zhiudare-e-n = a city => zhiudare-e-n-zhi = a little city

Zhiudare-e-q = The City => zhidare-e-zhi = the little city

Here are two ways to argue the non existance of the determiner marker

Morphology way[]

We can assume that the determiners are not in the same domain, they are rather in two different:

Domains
Root Gender INDEF DIM/HON DEF

This would allow us to explain the phenomenon but there major problems:

  • we can't say now that determiners are requiered for the DIM/HON to attach
  • DIM/HON must have a DEF meaning already bacause the DEF requieres a gender marker to get attached. the INDEF marker would delete the DEF meaning in DIM/HON because in comes before DIM/HON
Phonology way[]

The prefered way, because here we don't have to assume to different domains for the DETs, it stays as it is:

Domains
Root Gender DET DIM/HON CASE

Therefore, the DEF gets attached but gets deleted afterwards:

Zhiudare => Zhiudare-e => Zhiudare-e-q => Zhiudare-e-q-zhi

Deleting <zhi> => Zhiudare-e-q-i => Zhiudareeq'i -> this form is identical to the ACC form, therefore not used

Deleting <q> => Zhiudare-e-"-zhi => Zhiudareezhi (rare but possible: Zhiudaree'zhi)

Informal Speech[]

Primarly, informal speech is marked in the verb, by replacing the verbalizer "-v-" to its informal form "-∅-".

Hazhi-v-ase

run-VBLZ-2SG.PST

"you ran" (formal)


Hazhi-∅-ase => Hazhiase (Hazhi'ase)

run-VBLZ-2SG.PST

"you ran" (informal)


But the informal form if not that simple, it needs whole tables to see what exactly gets replaced, because unfortunately, not only "-v-" gets replaced:

Conjugation Present formal informal
1SG vi 'i
2SG vise 'se
3SG vi 'i
1PL vamo 'amo
2/3PL van 'an
Conjugation Past formal informal
1SG vo 'o
2SG vase 'ase
3SG va 'a
1PL vasamo 'asamo
2/3PL vasan 'asan
Conjugation Future formal informal
1SG vire 're
2SG visera 'ra
3SG viro 'ro
1PL vari 'ri
2/3PL varan 'ran


There are exceptions ( a few):

2SG.PRES of "sevin" (to be): "se"

2SG.PST of "tevin" (to have): "tase"

etavin - to be (location)
1SG 2SG 3SG 1PL 2/3PL
Present eta'i etase eta'i etamo etan
PST etau/etao etave eta etasamo etasa
FUT etare etara eto etari etaran


In Informal Speech, you can leave the DET's morphology:

Vo-a ga Vo-e gi nera-∅-i

Human-M-DEF NOM Human-F-DEF ACC like-VBLZ-1/3SG.PRES

"Man likes woman"

from context the "definiteness" can be guessed.

Evidence for Default Marker[]

Some sections above there was a discussion about the problem of the default marker in linking constructions. Now with the informal speech, we get Evidence for the default marker. Here some examples:

Hazha-v-i-t-ere-v-asamo-ne

run-VBLZ-1/3SG-AUX.LNK-want-VBLZ-1PL.PST-NEG

"We didn't want to run" (formal)

Now a give you a derivation of this verb:

Hazha => hazha-∅ => hazha-∅-t => hazha-∅-t-ere => hazha-∅-t-ere-∅ => hazha-∅-t-ere-∅-asamo => hazha-∅-t-ere-∅-asamo-ne

"hazhat'ereasamone" (hazha't'ere'asamone)

as you can see, this gives evidence for the defaultmarker, which is actually a epenthesis sound coming from the phonology domain. This also works with the normal LNK btw...


Lexicon[]

Greetings
English Gozhaaq Azure (formal) informal
hello Zhaota zhao
bye Zhaota zhao
goodbye Arivizhoota ari'i
sorry Saveeta savee, save, sa'e
good morning savota savo
good day sazhota sazho
good evening savasata Sa'asa, sasa
good night savaneeta savanee, sanee, sane
yes ha -
no ne no
Some Nouns
English Gozhaaq Azure Gender of Noun
River Tezhine F
path Ta M
island Oda M
Father Paro M
Mother Maro F
flower fiore F
sun zolari M
moon luna M
door Dozhe F
fire faya M
history hinzhitori M
trip vi'a M
Some Verbs
English Gozhaaq Azure
ride uma-
eat manzha-
know zonaa-
come qivi-
die mora-
say yuvi-
write esequre-
hear esequzha-
need ne-
go iqa-
sing qanata-
wear anzha-
Some ADJ
English Gozhaaq Azure
new atarabi
old furoebi
ugly ugabi
sad qanazhibi
happy urezhibi
strong forazeebi
weak yovabi
dark teminobi
normal piyolabi
Conjunctions
English Gozhaaq Azure
or paqo
because paqe
therefore paraqe
so that asiqe
numbers (uses suffix "zhi")
english Gozhaaq Azure
one i-zhi
two ni-zhi
three san-zhi
four zon-zhi
five go-zhi
six ro-zho
seven nan-zhi
eight ha-zhi
nine kozo-zhi
ten zhuu
hundred hayu
thousand see

The formation of numbers works as in japanese:

23: nizhuusanzhi

145: Hayuzonzhuugozhi

hundreds:

niyu, sayu, zoyu, goyu, royu, nayu, etc.

thousands:

nisee, sasee, zosee, gosee, rosee, nasee, etc.

cardina lnumbers (suffix -re)

i-re

one-CARD

"first"

-> ire, nire, sare, zore, gore, rore, nare, etc.

133th: hayusanzhuusare

Months[]

Months are actually a quite interesting topic in Gozhaaq Azure, since it does not have a typical (simple) 12 month difference. Firstly some important vocabulary:

  • Meza (M) - Month
  • Nenzha (M) - year
  • Vozhe (F) - week
  • Verona (M) - summer -> veronabi - (summer)-hot
  • Inzhora (M) - winter -> inzhorabi - (winter)-cool (cold)

Generally, a year with 12 months is assumed, but the meaning for "year" is somehow different. There are specific words which refer to different time periods in a year, which are called summer year and winter year. A summer year consists of 8 months, whereas a winter of 4 months. Now to the names of months: In Gozhaaq Azure, months do not have names and are derived by numbers.

number-month

Example:

Ha-meza

eight-month

"eighth month."

Now to set that into the relation of our system, the summer year are months of march until october, and the winter is from november until february.

<Inzhonenzhaaq'o Imezaaq>

inzho-nenzha-a-q-o i-meza-a-q

winter-year(M)-M-DEF-GEN one-month(M)-M-DEF

"the first month of the winter year"=> november


<Veronenzhaaq'o Namezaaq>

"the seventh month of the summer year" => september


Note that the summer/winter stem gets shortened by the last syllable. As you can see, it's a rather complex system, since the concept of months and years is not that important in the Azura culture.

Word Invention[]

So far i analysed this language like I would analyse a natural language. In this section we will talk about the creation of words and how I create them. Basically, I use the lexicon entries of other languages, mainly english, japanese, german, russian, spanish and italian. Of course, there are words which can not be derived from other languages. Here some Examples:

  • mangiare (italian) -> manzha-
  • atarashii (japanese) -> atarabi
  • morir (spanish) -> mora-
  • cantar (spanish) -> qanata-
  • yowai (japanese) -> yovabi
  • temno (russian) -> teminobi

There is no clear system of deriving words into Gozhaaq Azure, I simply decide the phonogical form by testing variants and then choose the most "beautiful" one.

Body Parts[]

Body Parts are very systematically in Gozhaaq Azure:

Body parts consists all of affixes:

Root: do(M) - body, se(M) - arm, la(M) - Hand, etc.

there are Prefixes o-, a-, and u- which determine the region of the body. There three regions:

o- for head

a- for the main body

u- for legs


Next thing is "right" - "de" and "left" - "si" which is used to locate the right body part. Here the domains:

Domains of Bodypart affixes
Region Right/Left root Noun Morphology
Body parts
English Gozhaaq Azure Gender
Hair O-peli-ni -
Right Eye O-de-me M
Left Eye O-si-me M
Eyes O-me-ni -
Right Ear O-de-zhe M
Left Ear O-si-zhe M
Ears O-zhe-ni -
Mouth O-mogi M
Tooth O-zaha M
Head (upper Body) O M
Nose O-nazha M
middle body A-do M
left arm A-si-se M
right arm A-de-se M
arms A-sea-ni -
right hand A-de-la M
left hand A-si-la M
hands Laa-ni -
stomach A-zha F
(under part of body) U-qodo M
right leg U-de-∅ M
left leg U-si-∅ M
legs U-∅-ni -
right foot u-de-zu M
left foot u-si-zu M
feet Zua-ni -

As you can see, the system is very broken since it is preserved from AGA (Ancient Gozhaaq Azure), of course with some changes, which made it more difficult. One interesting thing is that "leg" doesn't have a phonological form. This is not necessary since in AGA it was obligatory to name a body part with the region prefix and right/left prefix. This was preserved until today, so that "leg" has still no phonological form.

Family Relations[]

The family relation system of Gozhaaq Azure as very similar to the common european family system. Additionally, as the body part section before, it is highly derivational. To derive words like "father", "mother" or "son", the following words are used:

  • Bo(a/e) - old human
  • Vo(a/e) - human
  • Fo(a/e) - child

The previous introduced prefixes "o-", "a-" and "u-" are more efficient and are used to express family relations. The system works as follows: The prefix "o-" is indicating upper body region. In the context of family, it expresses the "higher" or "older" generation, therefore, grandfather and grandmother:

  • Oboa - Grandfather
  • Oboe - Grandmother

Following the pattern, "a-" expresses the "mid generation" and "u-" the "under" i.e. the "younger" generation:

  • Avoa - Father
  • Avoe - Mother
  • avoni - parents
  • Ufoa - Son
  • Ufoe - Daughter

In casual speech, the /o/ phonem is often omitted: oboa -> oba , ufoe -> ufe. Note that this forms do not have a formal form, therefore are not used with determiners. To express great-grandfather for example, one needs to understand the system: o->a->u or u->a->o (repeat). The system repeats itself when a higher generation has to expressed:

  • Uboa - Great-Grandfather
  • Ofoe - granddaughter
  • Aboe - great-great-grandmother
  • Afoa - great-grandson

These are the common used expressions. This is also why it is complex; often used systems and words are likely to be preserved. There is a more efficient way to express further relations when the common system is not enough: the Linker "ge" is used:

  • ugegefoa - great-great-great-grandson

To express ideas like uncle, cousin etc., the prefixes "si" and "de" are used. This is a bit more abstract, but let me explain: The prefix "de" is used to express of male, "si" for female, to indicate the affilation of the person in terms of the family tree

  • Adevoa - Father from right (male) -> uncle (brother of father)
  • Osiboa - Grandfather from left (female) -> brother of grandmother

In casual speech, from brother is used "deva" and sister "deve".

Sample Text[]

Vorieq'a Tezhineeq'o tonare gi'qava. Urezhibiata. Le go Voaq'a [Logan] zhate namava, qela forazeebi Qaradaan ga teva. Vorieq'a Logan gi lefava, yaqe Azura Vorieni go Foloaq'i perelazhava.

the female warrior was going along side the river. She was happy. Her Man's name was Logan, who had a strong body. The female warrior had to leave Logan, since she belonged to the Azura Warrior people.

Explanation of Sample Text 1:[]

<gi'qava> = is a combination of gi (ACC) and iqava (go). To learn more about that, I adivise you to go back to the section "Fusion". to introduce a name in Gozhaaq Azure, a construction is necessary: firstly the name, which is marked by brackets. After the name, there is a particle which has the forms "te" or "zhate" (te -> zhate / n _). Finally the verb, "namavin".

second sample text:

Halaaq'o'be, izhi Eraaq'a seva. Qoraseebi Lunaaq'o naqa gi La ga zherova, qe Halaraaq'a radivazho. Segeeq'e Poeq'i La ga davi.

High above the sky, there was once the light. it shattered in the moon and the sky bow was born. This brings blessing and peace.

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