|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
Classification and DialectsEdit
Hükzhiohish is a sinitic language, spoken in the fictional island of Hükzhioh. It is a mixed language, with origins from Siyi yue, Canton yue, Teo-Swa minnan, Tsuan-Tsiang minnan, Houguan mindong, Oujiang wu, Taihu wu, Hongchao huai.
Inventory and PhonotacticsEdit
|Nasal||m (ˀm)||n (ˀn)||ȵ (ˀȵ)||ŋ (ˀŋ)|
|Plosive||pʰ p ᵐb~b|| tʰ t
| kʰ kʰʷ
|Fricative||ɸ β||f v||s z||(ʒ)||ʂ ʐ~ɻ||ɕ ʑ||ɣ~ɦ x~h|
|Affricate||t͡sʰ t͡s d͡z||ʈ͡ʂʰ ʈ͡ʂ||t͡ɕʰ t͡ɕ d͡ʑ|
|Lateral app.||l (ˀl)|
- (sounds in this brackets are not phonemic)
- Words starting with /m, /n/, /ȵ/, /ŋ/, /l/ would change to /ˀm/, /ˀn/, /ˀȵ/, /ˀŋ/, /ˀl/ in Dark tones (Rising tones considered dark tone).
- Some word combination have chances of undergoing consonant lenitation. Pattern as follow.
- After /ɪ~i~ɨ/,/ʊ~u/,/ʔ/ coda,
- Initial /p/,/pʰ/ would be changed to /β/.
- Initial /t/,/tʰ/,/s/ would be changed to /l/.
- Initial /k/,/kʰ/,/h/ would be changed to /<zero consonant>/.
- Intial /t͡s/,/t͡sʰ/ would be changed to /ʒ/.
- After /ŋ/,/n/,/m/ coda,
- Initial /p/,/pʰ/ would be changed to /m/.
- Initial /t/,/tʰ/,/s/.l/ would be changed to /n/.
- Initial /k/,/kʰ/,/h/,/<zero consonant>/ would be changed to /ŋ/.
- Intial /t͡s/,/t͡sʰ/ would be changed to /ʒ/.
- However, consonant lenitation only happens at words from Houguan mindong origin.
- /y/, /ɪ~i~ɨ/, /w/ would have a dummy /ɥ/, /j/, /w/ if it is a zero consonant.
- Long and short variety for /y/,/ʊ~u/ and their nasalized equivalents do exists, but are they in complementary distribution and are considered the same phoneme.
|Second Vowel||Front||Central||Back||Er hua||Apical||Nasal||Vowel|
|y||ɪ~i~ɨ||ʊ~u||ʅ ʅ̃ ʯ ʯ̃||ŋ||e|
- /ɫ/ is only used in /əɫ~ɤɫ/.
- Apical Er-hua patterns as follow,
- For coda,
- /ɪ~i~ɨ/ and /n/ are deleted (add /ʅ/ (non-rounded vowel) or /ʯ/(rounded vowel) after).
- /ŋ/ is deleted and the syllable becomes nasalized (add /ʅ̃/(non-rounded vowel) or /ʯ̃/(rounded vowel) after with the nucleus nasalized).
- /ʊ~u/ would have /ʯ/ added after.
- /ʔ/ would have /ʅ/ (non-rounded vowel) or /ʯ/(rounded vowel) added before.
- For Nucleus,
- /e/ would become /ɤʅ~əʅ/. /æː~ɛː/ would become /ɐʅ/.
- /ʊ~u/ would have /ʯ/ added after it.
- /ɪ~i~ɨ/,/y/ becomes median with /ɤʅ~əʅ/ added after.
- /ʅ~ɿ/ would be changed to /ɤʅ~əʅ/.
- For median,
- /ɪ~i~ɨ/ is deleted.
- Nasal Er-hua patterns as follow
- All other codas are replaced by /ŋ/.
- All nucleus without coda will add a coda /ŋ/
- Vowel Er-hua patterns as follow
- Add /e/ after the word.
|Tones||Dark Flat||Light Flat||Rising||Dark Departing||Light Departing||Upper Dark checked||Lower Dark Checked||Upper Light Checked||Lower Light Checked|
|55 ˥˥||13 ˩˧||44 ˦˦||213 ˨˩˧||22 ˨˨||5 ˥||3 ˧||21 ˨˩||32 ˧˨|
|Neutral tones||1 ꜌||5 ꜈||2 ꜋||4 ꜉||5 ꜈|
- The tone for neutral tones depends on the previous word's tone.
- Tone sandhi: 213 ˨˩˧ + 213 ˨˩˧ → 13 ˩˧ + 213 ˨˩˧
Tense, Mood, Aspect Edit
The language almost entirely lacks inflection and so words typically have only one grammatical form. Tense, mood and aspect are indicated by verbs, adverbs or phrase that indicate them.
Quite a number of words in Hükzhiohish have different pronunciation depending on their writing voices, each voice might even have different pronunciations for colloquial, literary and kunyomi readings.
The eight voices are
Word order Edit
Hükzhiohish is a Topic-Prominent Language, so words order tends to be determined by the topic. The topic is always placed before the subject. Sentences are in mainly in Subject-Verb-Object order. Sometimes sentence could be changed to Subject-Object-Verb order.
- S-V-O mostly, S-O-V sometimes
But the language allows the object to be promoted to the topic of the sentence, resulting in an apparently passively Object(Topic)-Subject-Verb word order. There is also sentences with so-called "double subjects", but actually a topic plus a subjects. In these structure, only when the subject and object can't be analysed, we have to add function words after Object or Subject, otherwise it is omitted.
The object of a verb could also be placed after the function word, and the verb placed after the object, forming in an apparenty Subject–Object–Verb sentence.
Subject is determined by the topic, and there is no dummy pronoun. A sentence does not necessarily have subject or object. It may be Implied or omitted.
When there is two objects, normally indirect object goes first. However, if the sentence has indirect object marker verbs(give), the more emphasized one goes first, and the direct object could be placed before the marker verbs in this situation.
- S-V-Oi-Od/S-Oi-Od-V, S-Give-Oi-Od/S-Give-Od-Oi, S-Od-Give-Oi
Measure words is found in Hükzhiohish after quantity and in most situation before nucleus. Measure words could also be used without quantity. Only when the nucleus is the direct object placed before the marker verbs with measure words with quantity, it would be placed after the nucleus.
- (Qty)-Meas-S/O, Od-Qty-Meas-V-Oi
The boundaries of Modal verbs and verbs are really blurry in Hükzhiohish and modal verbs/adverbs are placed before verbs.
Both prepositions and postpositions are found in Hükzhiohish. Both modifiers before and after nucleus are founded.
You can connect verbs (or verb phrases) by simply placing them one after another. No connecting word is needed whatsoever.
In most situation negative Word cones before verbs.
However, if there is a complement after the verb, then there is 3 ways to from a negative sentence.
- V-Neg-C, put negative word between verb and complement
- Neg-V-得(C), put negative word before verb and 得, which is a complement.
- V-O-Neg-C, put the complement after object and negative word between complement and object.
There are 9 different ways to construct a question in Hükzhiohish,
- (S)-V-(O)-Prt, put Question Auxiliary Word at the end of the sentence
- (S)-V-(O)-Neg, put Negation Word at the end of the sentence
- (S)-V-(O)-Neg-V, duplicate the Verb and put it at the end of sentence, while putting the Negation Word before the second verb
- (S)-V-Neg-V-(O), duplicate the Verb and put it after the the Verb, while putting the Negation Word before the second verb. The second verb could also be omitted.
- (S)-Adv-V-(O), put Question Adverb before the Verb
- (S)-M-Neg-V-(O), put Modal Verb/Adverb before Negation Word and Negation Word before the Verb
- Qrn-(S)-M/Neg-Drn-V-(O), put Modal Verb/Adverb after Demonstrative Pronoun, and the phrase after the Verb, and put the Question pronoun at the beginning of sentence
- (S)-Qrn-M/Neg-Drn-V-(O), put Modal Verb/Adverb after Demonstrative Pronoun, and the phrase after the Verb, and put the Question pronoun after the Subject
- Hybrid of 4 and other ways
Complex sentence Edit
- Coordinate Sentences, clauses are combined with equal importance, and tell different things or different aspects of one thing
- Inherited Sentences, clauses are added by the time order of certain activities
- Selective Sentences, two or more clauses indicate alternatives or selections
- Progressive Sentences, the later clause has a deeper meaning than the previous one
- Transitional Sentences, the later clause has an opposite meaning to the previous one
- Assumption Sentences, the previous clause makes an assumption and the later makes a conclusion
- Conditional Sentence, the previous clause sets a condition and the later makes a conclusion
- Reason-result Sentences, the previous clause tells a reason and the later comes to a result
- Aim Sentences, one clause states a fact or an action and the other one tells the aim
- Lead-subsequent sentences, the previous clause states a overall and the later states the details