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Kutchi & Hani Kutchi Script    کچھی انے ہانی کچھی اسکرپٹ[]

Written By Dr. Muhammad Haneef Mughal (Dr. Hani Kutchi)

Pakistani Kutchi Nastaleeq

Bhali Karey Aaya: Welcome بھلی کرے آیا[]

Kutchi belongs to the Northwestern group of the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family. There are different estimates of the number of speakers of Kutchi. Ethnologue theme er of speakers at 21.3 million, whereas Wikipedia puts the number at some 42 million. Of these 35 million live in the Sindh province of Pakistan, and 5 million in the states of Gujarat, Rajasthan, and Maharashtra in India. The rest represent a diaspora in Unitthe ed Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Canada, with smaller numbers in other countries.

The earliest written reference to Kutchi dates back to the 2nd century AD. The language is thought to have evolved from an ancient Prakrit brought to Sindh by early settlers from Northeast and Northwest India. Sindh was conquered by Dravidian-speaking invaders around 4,000 BC. As a result, Kutchi shows many signs of Dravidian influence. Around 1500 BC, Sindh was conquered by Indo-Aryan invaders who established the Vedic civilization that laid the foundation of Hinduism and the Indian culture of today.

The earliest ever translation of the Qur’an was into Kutchi in the 12th century. In the 14-18th centuries, Kutchi was one of the most popular literary languages in the eastern world due to its rich vocabulary.

Status: حیثیت []

Kutchi is an Ancient & official language of two countries.[]

  • Pakistan
    Kutchi is an official regional language of Pakistan, along with English and Urdu. It is used in all spheres of official and everyday communication by members of different religious sects.===
  • India
    Kutchi is an official language of India in District Kutch, along with English and 22 other languages. It is spoken, often as a second or third language. It is used as a medium of instruction or taught as a subject in↵ schools, especially in the state of Maharashtra.

language. It is used as a medium of instruction or taught as a subject in schools, especially in the state of Maharashtra. ===

Dialects: ٻولی یا اُچار[]

According to Ethnologue, Kutchi has numerous dialects which differ in pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary.

  • Kutchi Dialect in Karachi. (Language Glottal Code: ISO 639-3 · kfr.)
  • Kutchi Dialect in Mumbai.
  • Kutchi Dialect in District Kutch.
  • Kutchi Koli Dialect in Interior Sindh.
  • Kutchi Mahesh Wari Dialect in Karachi & Umar Kott.
  • Kutchi Dialect in Matlee.
  • Kutchi Maeghwar  (Hindu Kutchi)
  • Kutchi Musalmani (Muslim Kutchi)
  • Standard Kutchi spoke by educated people in Karachi.
  • Kutchi Swahili Dialect in African Countries, Also known as from Zanzibar. The Kutchi (Cutchi- Swahili Language Code: ccl) Language of Tanzania.
     

(L1 of some Gujarati Muslims who came from Zanzibar. Asian Swahili is used by other Asians to communicate with non-English speaking Africans and other Asians who share no common language. Used by all. Also, use English )[1]

Gujarati Muslims who came from Zanzibar. Asian Swahili is used by other Asians to communicate with non-English speaking Africans and other Asians who share no common language. Used by all. Also, use English )  Gujarati Muslims who came from Zanzibar. Asian Swahili is used by other Asians to communicate with non-English speaking Africans and other Asians who share no common language. Used by all. Also, use English )

Kutchi is the Huge Population of Karachi for 3000 Years. 3~ 4 of Karachi Islands have Historical Proofs by Kutchi Community in Past & Present.  

Definition of Dialects ( اُچار جی تعریف ( تلفظ[]

According to Ethnologue, Kutchi has numerous dialects which differ in pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary.

There are two main types of Civilian Literature Kutchi dialects in cities as Karachi PAKISTAN & BOMBAY INDIA. Other dialects called Villager Kutchi which ones use especially in Kutchi farmers on County sides. Also, Karachi’s Kutchi & Bombay’s Kutchi are different by dialects to each other’s & even dialects are different from Farmers Kutchi.

  1. As Karachi Civilians Kutchi Dialect:  --  I am going.  …  Aoun Winjjha tou.  … آؤں وِڃا تو
  2. As Bombay Civilians Kutchi Dialect:   --  I am going.    …  Aoun Vinna tou.  … آؤں وِنا تو

Both are the same Meaning and grammar but different is only Pronunciation & dialects.

So these Differences are the Proof of Kutchi language that it is itself is Completed Language and it has owned grammar and script. Whom, they claim that the Kutchi language is a dialect of Sindhi is going to wrong and they have no proof their words till the time.

Speakers: ڳالاڑا []

PAK- INDO: پاکستان انے انڈیا[]

·         Kutchi is spoken primarily in the largest district of India’s western-most state, Gujarat. In addition, several communities of Kutchi speakers are situated directly across the border in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. Significant numbers are also found in Malawi, Kenya, and Tanzania as a result of the Indian diaspora in East Africa. Pockets of speakers are also found in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Canada. Kutchi is spoken by about 885,000 people around the world (Kutchi language, n.d.)... But the figure of Kutchi language is wrong yet because never census of Kutchi speakers in Sindh province yet. More than about 885,000 people are living in Only Karachi City.

·         An estimated 823,058 claim Kutchi as their mother tongue (Government of India Ministry of Home Affairs, 2001).

·         Advocates for the registration of Kutchi as a separate language have demanded that the language be listed separately from Sindhi in the 2011 census of India, but the most recent census data have not yet been made available (Mahesh wari, 2010).

Tanzania & Kenya: تنزانیہ انے کینیا       []

Kutchi-Swahili, or Cutchi-Swahili, is a Swahili-based creole spoken among the Indian population of East Africa. It is the native language of some Gujarati families from Zanzibar that have settled in the larger cities of mainland Tanzania and Kenya and is used as a second language by others of the Indian community. It is derived from the Kutchi language of the Kutch district in Gujarat. The base of the 2002 Census in Tanzania speakers was 45,000. But remember it was 18yYears ago. Maho (2009) assigns different codes to Kutchi-Swahili and Asian Swahili (Kibabu),[3], and Ethnologue also notes that these may not be the same.[1]

Uganda: یوگینڈا []

Kutchi-Swahili, or Cutchi-Swahili, is a Swahili-based creole spoken among the Indian population of East Africa. It is the native language of some Gujarati families from Zanzibar that have settled in the larger cities of mainland Tanzania and Kenya and is used as a second language by others of the Indian community. It is derived from the Kutchi language of the Kutch district in Gujarat. The base of the 2002 Census in Tanzania speakers was 45,000. But remember it was 18 years ago.

Nigeria: نائیجیریا  []

Kutchi-Swahili, or Cutchi-Swahili, ( نا مکمل )

South Africa: ساؤتھ افریقہ  []

Kutchi-Swahili, or Cutchi-Swahili, ( نا مکمل )

Structure: بناوٹ []

===Sound system: آواز جو نظام    ===

The phonological system of Kutchi is similar to that of other Indo-Aryan languages, for instance, Kutchi has a large inventory of phonemes, i.e., sounds that make a difference in word meaning. Most Kutchi syllables end in a vowel or semi-vowel. Very few syllables end in a consonant, and consonant clusters are infrequent.

Vowels:  اُچار جی دُٻ[]

Kutchi has a large inventory of vowels. All vowels have short and long counterparts. The length is represented by a macron in the table below. In addition, all vowels have nasalized counterparts. Nasalization is represented by a tilde in the table below.

Front Central Back
High

i – ī – ĩ

u – ū – ũ

Mid

e – ē – ẽ

o – ō – õ

Low

a – ā – ã

Consonants: حروف جیوں شِکلوں []

Kutchi has a full series of consonants, more than most other Indo-Aryan languages. Consonants in parentheses are infrequent and mostly occur in loanwords.

There is a contrast[]

Between aspirated vs. un-aspirated stops, affricates, and nasals, for instance between p—pʰ, t—tʰ, k—kʰ, b—bʰ, d—dʰ, g—gʰ, tʃ – tʃʰ, /m/—/mʰ/,/ /n/—/nʰ/, /ɳ/—/ɳʰ/. Aspirated consonants are produced with a strong puff of air.

There is a contrast between[]

and apical vs. retroflex consonants, e.g., /t/ – /ʈ/, /d/ – /ɖ/, /n/ – /ɳ/, /r/ – /ɽ/. Apical consonants are produced with the tip of the tongue touching the roof of the mouth, whereas retroflex consonants are produced with the tongue curled so that its underside comes in contact with the roof of the mouth.

Kutchi has an unusually large[]

A number of implosive consonants /ɓ, ɗ, ʄ, ɠ/ produced by pulling air downward with the glottis, rather than pushing it out. These sounds do not occur in other Indo-Aryan languages.

Kutchi Phonology[]

Consonants:[]

Bilabial

Labio-dental

Alveo
dental

Retroflex

Post- alveolar/palatal

Velar

Glottal

Stops

unaspirated voiceless

t

ʈ

aspirated voiceless

ʈʰ

unaspirated voiced

ɖ

aspirated voiced

ɖʰ

implosive voiced

ɓ

ɗ

ʄ

ɠ

Fricatives

voiceless

(ʃ)

(x)

voiced

(z)

(ɣ)

Affricates

unaspirated voiceless

aspirated voiceless

tʃʰ

Nasals

m (mʰ)

n (nʰ)

ɳ (ɳʰ)

ɲ

(ŋ)

Laterals

l (lʰ)

Flap or trill

ɽ (ɽʰ)

Approximant

ʋ


  • /ʃ/ = sh in shop
  • /tʃ/ = ch in chop
  • /x/, /ɣ/ have no equivalents in English
  • /ɲ/ = first n in canyon
  • /ŋ/ = ng in song
  • /mʰ/, /nʰ/, /ɳʰ/ have no equivalents in English
  • /ʋ/ is realized as /w/ or /v/.
  • /j/ = y in yet

Stress: کِھچروں یا زور []

Stress does not distinguish the meaning of otherwise identical Kutchi words. It typically falls on the heaviest syllable of the word. Consonant + vowel (CV) syllables are heavier than syllables consisting of a single vowel (V) and Consonant + Vowel + Vowel + Vowel (CVV) syllables are heavier than Consonant + vowel (CV) syllables.

Grammar: ٻولی اصول[]

Kutchi has its own Grammar & Dialects retained many features of ancient Prakrit and share major grammatical features with other Indo-Aryan languages, such as the use of postpositions which follow the noun, rather than prepositions that precede it. Grammar is belonging to Ancient SANSKRIT.

Nouns Adjectives and pronouns: اسم ، صفت انے ضمیر[]

Kutchi nouns feature a complex system of noun stem modifications as well as post-positions.

  • Gender (masculine and feminine) determines the noun’s declension.
  • There are two numbers: singular and plural.
  • There are eight cases: nominative, accusative, dative, genitive, ablative, locative, instrumental, and vocative. Cases are marked by changes in the noun stem and by postpositions.
  • Adjectives are declined exactly like nouns and agree with them in gender, number, and case.
  • Pronouns are inflected for number and case.

Verbs: عمل جو طریقو []

Kutchi verbs consist of three basic components (adverbial participle, basic verb, and auxiliary verb) which appear in various combinations, depending on tense, aspect, and mood. Verbs agree with their subjects in person, gender, and number. Pronoun subjects are often omitted if the context is clear. Verbs display the following categories:

  • three tenses: present, past, and future;
  • two aspects: imperfective and perfective;
  • two voices: active and passive;
  • four moods: indicative, imperative, subjunctive, and counterfactual

Word order: اکھر جی سرکھائی []

The normal word in Kutchi is Subject-Object-Verb. However, these components can be rearranged to mark emphasis or focus. Adjectives and relative clauses precede the nouns they modify. Indirect objects precede direct objects. Negative/interrogative elements precede the verb. Adverbs typically follow the subject and precede the object(s) of the verb.

Vocabulary: ذخیرو []

Most Kutchi words are derived from Sanskrit, but the language also has a large number of Persian and Arabic loanwords due to centuries of Muslim influence. In more recent times, Kutchi has come into close contact with Urdu, the dominant language of Pakistan. As a result, Kutchi has borrowed many Urdu words. But the Vocabulary of the Kutchi language is very long as the same meaning owns its words.

Below are The Kutchi numerals 0-10, & 20 … 100~1000 in Romanization, Dialect & Hani Kutchi Script as.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Jeero

Hikrro

Bbou

Tray

Chāār

Pañj

Tche

Sut

UTth

Nou(n)

Ddhou

جیرو

ہکڑو

ٻو

ترے

چار

پنج

چھ

ست

اٹھ

نو

ڎو

20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 500 1000

Weeh

Tree

Chāli

Piñja

SuTth

Sintār

ñcy

Nav-vay

So

Pañj So

Hazāār

ویھ

تِری

چالیھ

پِنجا

سَٹھ

سِنتر

اینسی

نوّے

سو

پنج سو

ہزار

Writing: لکھائی []

Kutchi is written in three different scripts: a modified Arabic script used in both Pakistan and India, and the Devanagari script used by a number of Kutchi speakers in India.

  1. Modified Arabic script as Sindhi.
    Since Kutchi has many more consonants and vowels than Arabic, extra letters have been created through the use of diacritic dots that modify the basic letter shapes as in Sindhi. The orthography consists of Sindhi Alphabets, 52 consonant, and 10 vowel symbols, plus a number of diacritics marks. But The Hani Kutchi Script has 55 consonant and 10 vowel symbols. The Hani Kutchi script is written from right to left, and short vowels are omitted, except at the beginning of words.
  2. Devanagari script
    In 1948, the Indian government implemented the Devanagari script for writing Kutchi, but it did not gain mass acceptance. As a result, the language is written in both the modified Arabic and Devanagari script in India.
  3. Roman alphabet
    Kutchi can also be written with the Roman alphabet which is increasingly used in electronic communications. Also a lot of Kutchi using Roman Kutchi from all over the World. Especially on Internet Social sites.
  4. Latest Kutchi Script as “HANI KUTCHI SCRIPT” Invention. ہانی کچھی اسکرپٹ
    In 2016, As a Pakistanis Doctor (Dr. Muhammad Haneef Mughal Kutchi) Speaker as Dr. Hani Kutchi ڈاکٹر محمد حنیف مغل – ڈاکٹر ہانی کچھی ) has been invented the Pakistani Kutchi Script for writing Kutchi, but it also gains mass acceptance. As a result, the language is written in both the modified Arabic and Devanagari scripts in Pakistan & India. Also, The Latest Kutchi script calls HANI KUTCHI SCRIPT as PAKISTANI KUTCHI NASTALEEQ. پاکستانی کچھی نستعلیق 
  5. HANI KUTCHI KEYBOARD. ہانی کچھی کیبورڈ – کچھی حرفی تختو
    In 2020, Dr. Muhammad Haneef Mughal as Dr. Hani Kutchi ڈاکٹر ہانی کچھی, as Inventor of Hani Kutchi Script and even Inventor of Hani Kutchi Keyboard. It was the First Pakistani Kutchi Keyboard which one launch on 14th August 2020 on the 72nd Independence Day of PAKISTAN as a gift to the Kutchi Nation Especially of Pakistanis Kutchi. In the Thousands of Year, Kutchi Script didn't get any proper Grammar at all. But Now the Kutchi Ancient Language is rising again in the Big City of Pakistan and hope it will help all Kutchi People in the World as it Own latest Script as Hani Kutchi Script. The Keyboard of Hani Kutchi Script is the Base of Perso Arabic with Unicode’s based.

Kutchi is Wonder Language کچھی عجیب زبان: []

In 2016 Dr. Hani has been researched that Kutchi is an Ancient and Wonder international language as its history from RUNN KUTCH to East-West African countries.

International Website links for References of Kutchi Language:

http://olac.ldc.upenn.edu/language/kfr#language_descriptions

http://olac.ldc.upenn.edu/language/kfr#lexical_resources

http://olac.ldc.upenn.edu/item/oai:ethnologue.com:kfr

http://olac.ldc.upenn.edu/item/oai:sil.org:40192

Hani Kutchi Script Invention ہانی کچھی اسکرپٹ: []

In 2016 Hani Kutchi Script used on the internet at social sites as Pakistani Kutchi Nastaleeq by Dr. Hani Kutchi & Kutchi speakers of Karachi as into the national city of Pakistan.

Structure of Kutchi : کچھی زبان جی بناوٹ[]

Kutchi is categorized as an SOV (Subject-Object-Verb فاعل ، مفعول ، فعل - ) language like other Indo-Aryan languages. Similar to these languages, word order is not rigid but rather flexible. The subject, object, and verb are freely moved around within a sentence, fulfilling various pragmatic purposes, such as establishing a point of focus, naming a topic, or revealing new information. 

SOV : فاعل، مفعول، فعل

Subject

فاعل

عمل کرے وارو

Amal karey varo

Object

مفعول

عمل جی جڳہ

Amal  ji juggha

Verb

فعل

عمل جو طریقو

Amal jo Tareeqo

.ڈاکٹر ہانی کچھی بھرامنڑ :کچھی زبان جے جملیں میں پہلے عمل کرے وارو ہنکا پوئے عمل جی جڳہ انے ہنکا پوئے عمل جو طریقو وے تو

Vowels[]

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
High
Near-high
High-mid
Mid
Low-mid
Near-low
Low

[]

Writing System: (کچھی اکھر ہجّے (کچھی حروفی ابجد[]

Letter
Sound
Letter
Sound
Letter
Sound

Grammar Definition in Kutchi اُصول ٻولی جی تعریف []

Nouns: نالا - اسم[]

Verbs: فعل - عمل جو طریقو[]

Syntax: نحو[]

Lexicon: لغت[]

Example text : مثالی جملہ[]

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