High Kickish
Head direction
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

General Information[]

Standard High Kickish (natively Qaisik /!ˀʌisikʰ/) is a language spoken by the Cittus (Sītul ya /siːtʰɯl jʌ/), insect-looking sapients from the planet Ess (Gçēr /ᶢǂeːr/) and one of the founding species of the Allied Intelligences, from the country Kickland and associated states (Qaisixhuāl /!ˀʌisiǁʰɯʌːl/), particularly in the above-ground communities. SHK is the standard variety, taught in schools.


Pulmonic consonants[]

alveolar dorsal epiglottal glottal
stop t tʰ k kʰ ʔ
affricate ts2
fricative s2 ħ h
approximant ɹ l1 j ʕ
  1. /l/ is devoiced before a voiceless consonant or at the end of an utterance.
  2. /s/ and /ts/ are retracted to [ʃ] and [tʃ] before /j/.


Due to the Cittus not possessing a uvula, all clicks are pronounced with the back articulation in the pharynx.

retroflex1 lateral palatal
voiced ᶢ! ᶢǁ ᶢǂ
aspirated ǁʰ ǂʰ
glottalized ǁˀ ǂˀ
  1. Sub-apical flapped alveolar.


front back
high ɪ iː ɯ ɯː
low ɛ e̞ː ʌ ɤ̞ː
  • Diphthongs: falling /ʌɪ/, /ɛɪ/, /ɯɪ/, rising /ɯʌ/, /ɯʌː/
  • Triphthong: /ɯʌɪ/



  • C can be any consonant.
  • Vowels cannot be consecutive.
  • V can be any short or long vowel, or any diphthong or triphthong.
  • Word-finally F can be any stop, sibilant, or alveolar approximant.
  • Word-initial clusters are limited to: non-glottal stops, sibilants, or clicks + /ɹ/ or /j/, and /lɹ/.
  • Word-medial clusters are limited to: liquids + non-glottal stops, sibilants, or clicks, /kʰs/, /ɹl/, and any word-initial cluster.
  • Coda /ʔ/ and /ɹ/ don't occur after falling diphthongs or triphthongs.


To determine stress placement in High Kickish, one needs to learn about syllabic weight. A syllable containing a short monophthong and no syllable-final consonants is considered to be light (L), whereas a syllable containing any long vowel, diphthong, triphthong, or syllable-final consonant is considered to be heavy (H). Stressed vowels are of a high pitch on short monophthongs or a high-falling pitch on long monophthongs, diphthongs, and triphthongs. ex. near-minimal pair xhi'e [ˈǁʰɪ́ʔɛ] "spit" vs xī'e [ˈǁˀîːʔɛ] "two-headed worm".


  • -HH, -LHL, penultimate is stressed. ex. tul "Cittus"
  • -HLL, -HHL, antepenultimate is stressed. ex. gqādare "antenna"
  • -LH, ultimate is stressed. ex. ceħe "speaking"
  • -LLL, penultimate is stressed. ex. 'ale "you (sg. fem.)"


Native writing system[]

Kickish Alphabet grid


The native writing system of Kickish is an alphabet.


There are two diacritics in the alphabet.

  • the diacritic marked Vi: the falling diphthong diacritic. It is placed below the consonant following the vowel to be modified.
  • the diacritic marked VV: the vowel lengthener. It is placed below the vowel it modifies.


The punctuation marks in the grid are a full stop, hyphen, and colon/semicolon. There are no equivalents of a quotation mark, exclamation point, question mark, or comma.

Writing direction[]

The Kickish alphabet is written in the same direction as the Latin alphabet, that is: horizontal lines from left to right, starting at the top.


The Kickish alphabet has some semblance of order. Vowels are first, then pulmonic consonants, then clicks.

i, e, a, u, ', g, r, t, ħ, d, l, y, ye, ya, k, h, s, c, j, q, qh, gq, x, xh, gx, ç, çh, gç


letter a ā c ç çh d e ē g gq
phoneme /ʌ/ /ʌː/ /ts/ /ǂˀ/ /ǂʰ/ /t/ /e/ /eː/ /k/ /ᶢǂ/ /ᶢ!/
letter gx h ħ i ī j k l q qh r
phoneme /ᶢǁ/ /h/ /ħ/ /i/ /iː/ /ʕ/ /kʰ/ /l/ /!ˀ/ /!ʰ/ /r/
letter s t u ū x xh y '
phoneme /s/ /tʰ/ /ɯ/ /ɯː/ /ǁˀ/ /ǁʰ/ /j/ /ʔ/

Parts of speech[]

  • Nouns: people, objects, and ideas, ex. ārga "body"
  • Articles: signifies definiteness, ex. ye "the (fem)"
  • Pronouns: stands in for repeated or known nouns, ex. disus "you two (fem)"
  • Verbs: actions, ex. gu "give"
  • Auxiliary verbs: verbs which add grammatical information, ex. uaic "should"
  • Adverbial prefixes: prefixed equivalents of adjectives and adverbs, ex. xhi- "loudly"
  • Postpositions: relations between nouns and other words, ex. a "of"
  • Polar particles: truth value indicators and interjections, ex. sīk "no"
  • Conjunctions: conjoins various words in various ways, ex. ut "and"


Gender and Number[]

Genders are three:

  1. Feminine: used for female Cittus and some inanimate objects. Shows singular, dual, and plural number.
  2. Masculine: used for male Cittus and some inanimate objects. Shows singular and plural number.
  3. Juvenile: used for juvenile Cittus who have not yet differentiated into male and female, and some inanimate objects. Shows singular and plural number.

Here is the regular declension, though some nouns break this pattern.

singular dual plural
Feminine -0/e -es/us -el
Masculine -i -il
Juvenile -a/ā/u -al/ul


Pronouns are a very recently closed subclass of nouns, inflecting for all of the same categories as nouns and even matching some nouns in form (e. g. the word for little one, srā is the ordinary 3s.juv pronoun). They are however also marked suppletively for three levels of formality.

singular dual plural
1 rūs rūle
2.f 'ale disus disel
2.m 'ali disil
2.juv 'ala disal
3.f ħe ħus ħel
3.m cai cail
3.juv srā srāl


There is no indefinite article. The definite article inflects for gender and is placed after a noun. The article is not used with proper nouns.

Feminine ye
Masculine y
Juvenile ya
  • The masculine definite article y attaches to the noun as a /j/, and in speech lengthens the typical masculine ending -i. If the y is bordered by consonants on both sides for any reason, it merges with the feminine article, ye. ex. 'ergi y "the twin", 'ergil ye gqi "with the twins"
  • The definite article contracts to y- before a postposition beginning in a vowel. ex. tatāri y-ū "from the soul"


Verbs have three conjugation classes and are a closed class of about 120. They conjugate according to four tenses (present, future, simple past, discontinuous past), two evidentialities (direct, indirect), two voices (active, passive), and deference to the listener(s).

Conjugation classes[]

Verbs may be one of three conjugation classes:

  1. u verbs: the largest class.
  2. ħ verbs: the verb stems can only end in a vowel.
  3. i verbs: the smallest class with the most irregular verbs.

Nonfinite forms[]

The citation form of verbs is the passive participle or gerund, which are identical (-ūd, -ħīd, -īd). There is also a supine used with auxiliary verbs and to mean "in order to verb" (-utā, -ħetā, -etā), and an active participle (-uis, -ħeis, -ais).

Finite forms[]

u ħ i
dir ndir dir ndir dir ndir
present -u -uas -ħe -ħas 0 -as
continuous past -uci -ħeci -(i)ci
discontinuous past -u' -ura -ħe' -ħera -i' -(i)ra
future -uris -ħeris -(i)ris

Affix ordering[]

(adverbial)- stem -(deference)- -(voice)- -person


The deferential suffix is an important part of the honorific system of Kickish. It expresses respectful submission to the judgement or will of the listener(s), and is used in each of the registers of formality. Depending on region in Qaisixhuāl, the deferential suffix could be -eir, -ēr, or -ēy, among others. When traveling Qaisixhuāl, it is imperative that one uses the correct suffix for the region. The suffixes also differ depending on the relative age/genders of the speaker and listener. Some verbs also have suppletive formal forms.

same gender different gender
younger -āy- -ēg-
older -ēr- -ūj-


The passive construction consists of taking the citation form of a verb and adding the universal passive endings (shown below).

dir ndir
present -i -as
continuous past -ici
discontinuous past -i' -ra
future -ris
  • ex. Rūle qharīdas. "I feel like we are being watched."


Regular verbs[]

Gūd [ˈkɯːt]: to give, gutā, guis

Present Continuous past Discontinuous past Future
Direct gu guci gu'
Indirect guas gura guris

Ceħīd [tsɛˈħiːt]: to speak, ceħetā, ceħeis

Present Continuous past Discontinuous past Future
Direct ceħe ceħeci ceħe'
Indirect ceħas ceħera ceħeris

Hēlīd [ˈhe̞ːliːt]: to arm, bring weapons, hēletā, hēlais

Present Continuous past Discontinuous past Future
Direct hēl hēlci hēli'
Indirect hēlas hēlra hēlris

Irregular verbs[]

Ī [ˈiː]: be. 'To be' has no non-finite forms. If any are needed, its suppletive deferential form, Īħīd, is used.

Present Continuous past Discontinuous past Future
Direct ī ici i'
Indirect yas ira iris

Ūd [ˈɯːt]: to do, utā, uis

Present Continuous past Discontinuous past Future
Direct ū uci u'
Indirect uas ura uris

Syasīd [ʃjʌˈsiːt]: to go, syasetā, syasais

Present Continuous past Discontinuous past Future
Direct syi syaci sya'
Indirect syas syara syaris

Uaicīd [ˈɯʌɪtsiːt]: should

Present Continuous past Discontinuous past Future
Direct uaic uaici ua'
Indirect uaicas uaicra uaicris

come, give, take

Present Continuous past Discontinuous past Future

Adverbial prefixes[]

Adjectives and adverbs do not exist as separate words in Kickish. Instead, they can be translated as nouns, nominal phrases, or as a closed but rather large set of Adverbial prefixes. Each adverbial prefix has two forms: a default form and a modified form used if the default form would break the phonotactic rules. ex. tel(i)- "first", isu(')- "last", raj(a)- "proper", xū(')- "middle", xhi(')- "loudly"


Kickish gloss English
a gen of
'ur ade at
e ine in
rei superess on
rig subess under
xu intr between
çhai bene for
si-çhai antibene to harm
'ēr instr using
gqi com with
si-gqi abe without
xha equ like
ji form as
ē lat to
qhui perl through
ū abl from
pretemp before
se' posttemp after

Polar particles[]

Polarity is the truth value of a statement. In Kickish it is represented with the four polar particles. If modifying a part of speech they are always placed before and separated with a hyphen. If the following word begins in a vowel, then it will gain an unwritten initial glottal stop (except if following sik). They can also function as a standalone utterance.

# polarity proclitic independent translations
0 affirmative 0 ā yes
1 intensive duai truly yes
2 unknown duhē maybe
3 negative si(k) sīk no
4 interrogative ra rac what


Case is not marked, so word order is relatively strict. SVO is the norm.

Noun phrase[]

noun (article) (postposition)
  • ex. Gçēr ū Sītul ya
  • ABL Cittus-pl DEF-juv
  • the Cittus of Cittus-V

Verb phrase[]

postpositional phrases verb(-nonfinite suffix) (helping verb) object
  • ex. ceħeis xhilalūdi
  • speak-act.part loud-birth-pass-dir.cont.pst
  • ... was born speaking loudly


There are three primary registers of speech.

  1. formal: used in professional situations.
  2. ordinary: the unmarked register, safe to use within the family.
  3. slang: used to signify familiarity to the listener, whether that be respect as friends or as sarcastic rudeness.


Because of differences in anatomy and physiology, many categories of words are very different from their Earthly counterparts.


and (ut), or (yu)


The Cittus typically crawl on all six limbs, but they do use their first two pairs of limbs for manipulation. On each foot they have three clawed fingers, and the first pair each additionally have a clawed thumb. Their counting base is twelve, achieved by counting the fingers of their manipulative limbs, not counting the thumbs.

Numerals are masculine gender when used as nouns, and take the place of the definite article when applied to nouns. Some numbers change form when counting and the numbers 2, 3, and 4 have different forms for different genders.

No. 12+No. No.*12
# standard count standard standard
1 te' te' qhās qhās
2 ku/kui/kua ku(0/i/a) qhās kuās
3 lei/lā l(ei/ā) qhās lelās
4 tarede/taredi/tareda tared tared(e/i/a) qhās tareduās
5 ħaca ħac ħaca qhās ħacalās
6 ħaitu' ħaitu' ħaitu' qhās ħaitulās
7 'ēhes 'ēhes 'ēhes qhās 'ēhesuās
8 jūr jūr jūr qhās jūruās
9 xhai xhai xhai qhās xhailās
10 dare'a dare' dare'a qhās darelās
11 gīca gīc gīca qhās gīcalās
12 qhās qhā qhās cyār
  • Large numbers are the reverse of a typical English number, ex. 2812/3210 jūr kuās.
  • The gross (122) position is separated from any number 12 and below with ut "and", ex. te' ut cyār.
  • Ordinal numbers are expressed with a suffixed -(r)ar. First through fourth are irregular: 'alta, sugrar, selrar, and sadrar.


  • body: j ārga
  • head: f dare
  • gnathal plates: m krehil
  • teeth: j 'īcal
  • eyes: f krīcus
  • antenna: f gqādarus
  • neck: m ja'uai
  • breathing tubes: j ħarsal
  • dermal armor: f xadeksel
  • armor ridges: f lartūl
  • underside: f 'artēħe
  • back: f ħīre
  • appendage: f çheg
  • arm/first appendage: f telçheg
  • middle appendage: f xūçheg
  • leg/last appendage: f isuçheg
  • wrist/ankle: m drēyui
  • finger/toe/claw: j tyusa
  • thumb: j gairiltais a tyusa

Family members[]

  • jādre/i: mother/father
  • jaje/i: mom/dad
  • jādrajādre/i: grandmother/grandfather
  • hēhe/i/a: older sister/brother/juvenile sibling
  • cēce/i/a: younger sister/brother/juvenile sibling
  • 'erge/i/a: twin
  • seigre/i/a: older female/male/juvenile cousin
  • daite/i/a: younger female/male/juvenile cousin
  • tyurle/i: wife/husband
  • 'alrikse/i: mother/father-in-law
  • gqaile/i: older sister/brother-in-law
  • çhirle/i/a: younger sister/brother/juvenile sibling-in-law
  • 'age/i/a: daughter/son/juvenile child
  • 'aga'age/i/a: granddaughter/grandson/juvenile grandchild



The Cittus live around a star which spits out more light in the ultraviolet than our own. They have adapted to see a wider range of color than us, granting them not three dimensional color like us Humans, but four dimensional color. One of the odd consequences of this is that the Cittus can tell the difference between magenta (red+blue), violet (blue+UV), and purple (red+blue+UV) .

Notation: colors are notated as a combination of 1s and 0s representing the presence or absence of a primary color in the order Red-Yellow-Blue-Ultraviolet. For example, 1010 is the combination of red and blue (magenta) and 0101 is the combination of yellow and ultraviolet (ultyellow).

All color words are nouns.

Simple colors[]

"Simple" colors are those formed by pure primary color combinations.

notation Kickish translation Human sight
0000 rēd black black
1000 'akser red red
0100 ūgye yellow yellow
0010 gxais blue blue
0001 kaili ultra black
1100 cīldi orange orange
1010 gxusra magenta magenta
1001 trā' ultred red
0110 yē' green green
0101 çarci ultyellow yellow
0011 sahise violet violet
1110 jādase white white
1101 degase ultorange orange
1011 druida purple purple
0111 halase ultgreen green
1111 teħa full white white

Complex colors[]

"Complex" colors are those that cannot be described in ones and zeros. Some complex colors have dedicated names, while most are combinations of words. Any simple color can be described as teħ(i)- "light" or rēd(i)- "dark", and combinations of colors can be described as more one color than others by adding that specific color before the general color, for example, cīldi "orange" with more 'akser "red" than yellow would be 'aksercīldi "red-orange".


gqukā'aral gqukā'açhē
ralci çhēci
'ūteral 'ūteçhē
  • Also considered cardinal directions are up (ħīri) and down ('artēħi), which can combine with the other directions to form some very specific directions, ex. 'artēħigqukā'açhē "down and to the northeast"


Divisions of time[]

  • The year (28 riksel, ~413 earth d): qālehe ye
  • The month (19 or 20 sejail): rikse ye
  • The day (12 'altal, ~18 hrs): sejai y (lit. "the sun")
  • The hour (60 sugrarel): 'alta ya (lit. "the first [division of the day])
  • The minute (60 selrarel): sugrar ye (lit. "the second [division of the day])
  • The second (~1.5 s): selrar ye (lit. "the third [division of the day])


The Kickish solar calendar has 28 months (riksel) of either 19 or 20 days each. The fifth month alternates between 19 and 20 days every other year. A day of Cittus-V lasts merely a little less than 18 hours. The calendar has no weeks. Instead, the first, fifth, and eleventh days of the month are named (Srūse, Krūse, and Lrūse), and the other days count down to the next named day. Days are named according to the following formula: Month a Named day number. For example, the first three days of the year are: Telsēhag a Srūse, Telsēhag a Krūse sā lei, and Telsēhag a Krūse sā kui.

# Name Meaning Days
1 Telsēhag "the first spring" 20
2 Jeiksa "god of the ground and homes" 20
3 Hixuladul "spring festival" 19
4 'Asaira "god of love and friendships" 20
5 Ħacarik "the fifth month" 19/20
6 Ħaitu'irik "the sixth month" 20
7 Isusēhag "the last spring" 19
8 Teluilres "the first summer" 20
9 Elēte'i "god of light and knowledge" 20
10 Cēkrari "god of wild nature" 20
11 Yargutū "god of war" 19
12 Qhāsrik "the dozenth month" 20
13 Syīħetārik "month of pilgrimage" 20
14 Isu'uilres "the last summer" 20
15 Telilerguā "the first autumn" 19
16 Taredeqhāsrik "the dozen-fourth month" 20
17 Higutreil "harvest festival" 20
18 Juigquħud "ancient emperor" 20
19 'Ēheseqhāsrik "the dozen-seventh month" 19
20 Jūrqhāsrik "the dozen-eighth month" 20
21 Isulerguā "the last autumn" 20
22 Teliqhisāg "the first winter" 20
23 Çacuār "god of death and the cold" 19
24 Kuāsrik "the two-dozenth month" 20
25 Te'ekuāsrik "the two-dozen-first month" 20
26 Kukuāsrik "the two-dozen-second month" 20
27 Leikuāsrik "the two-dozen-third month" 19
28 Isuqhisāg "the last winter" 20

Stellar system[]

Body Translation Type Color
Sejai "Sun" F9-type star white
Urduħīd "Seared" sulfurous molten white
Xeyal "Flakes" asteroid clumps gray
Salēr "Waterworld" waterworld blue
Gçēr "World" inhabited terrestrial purple
'Ergus "Twins" twin dwarf planets gray
'Īdratuje "Empress" gas giant beige
Halasēr "Greenworld" ice giant cyan
Sahisēr "Violetworld" ice giant blue
Rēdēr "Darkworld" ice giant black

Example text[]

Lraigesel ye srāl a 'idigqal ut līkerdel e līkerde ut 'akya gqi lalūdas. Srāl gūdas qaicisūd a ħūsel ut hicel ye çhai te' ū hēhel ji rajakasuis uaicas. DEF-f and INE and COM birth-PASS-NDIR.PRES 3p.juv GEN / 3p.juv give-PASS-NDIR.PRES smart-think-GER GEN and DEF-f BENE one ABL FORM proper-act-ACT.PART should-NDIR.PRES /

"All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood." (Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)

Literal translation: "The intelligent ones were born with freedom and equality in their dignities and freedoms. They were given of reasoning's abilities and should be acting properly as older sisters from one for the others."