Hlacimusos (pronounce: [xlɔː.cɪ.ˈmu.sos], from hlacis from Proto-Celtic wlati-, area, and from Mus, the Meuse River) is a Celtic language that illustrates how Limburgish would have looked like if the Celts would still be in Limburg.


Place of articulation → Labial Coronal Dorsal Glottal
Bi­la­bial La­bio­dental Den­tal Al­veo­lar Post­al­veo­lar Pa­la­tal Ve­lar Uvu­lar
Manner of articulation ↓
Nasal    m        n    ɲ    ŋ      
Plosive p b   t d c ɟ k ɡ   ʔ  
Fricative ɸ   f   θ ð s z ʃ ʒ   x ɣ χ   h  
Approximant                j    ɰ  
Trill        r      
Lateral Fricative ɬ          
Lateral Approx­imant    l          
  • [l] could be velarized or pharyngealized to [ɫ]
  • [t] and [d] could also occur as [tˠ] and [dˠ]
  Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i  y         u
Near-close   ɪ     ʊ  
Close-mid eː  øː         o oː
Mid     ə    
Open-mid ɛ  œː       ʌ  ɔː
Near-open æ æː        
Open a         ɑ  
  • Some diphtongues exist: [ɑɪ̯ ɑʊ̯ æɪ̯ æʊ̯ iʊ̯ oɪ̯ oʊ̯ uɪ̯] /ai au ei eu iu oi ou ui/


Hlacimusos uses the latin alfabet with some adapted characters.

Character IPA Example IPA Translation
a ɔː aciled ɔːˈcɪleːð fish
aa a alisaa ɔːˈlɪsa oak
ä ɛ älon ɛˈɫon hook
æ ɑ ægu ɑˈgu to fight
b ɰ1 barkos ɰɔːrˈkos spear
c c hlacis xlɔːˈcɪs area
d- d dünon dæːˈnon city
-d- ɟ kordas korˈɟɔːs family
-d ð2 druhid druˈxɪð druid
e ekhos eːˈkχos horse
f ɸ3 facиr ɸɔːˈcir father
g g glexos gleːˈxos battle
h x, ɣ, χ hilc xɪlc wild
i ɪ ifir ɪˈɸɪr soon
ï y dünï dæːˈny into a city
и i иqu iˈɬu to swell
j- ʒ juhaŋk ʒuˈxɔːŋk young
-y- j alesayus ɔːlɪˈsɔːjus of two oaks
-ÿ ʃ gaÿ gɔːʃ funny
k k kluga kluˈgɔː stone
l l lahin lɔːˈxɪn happy
m m macu mɔːˈcu to carry
n n nigu nɪˈgu to wash
ñ ɲ kañcon kɔːɲˈcon hundred
ŋ ŋ iŋgus ɪŋˈgus paper
o o oku oˈku to sharpen
oo oobhes oːˈɰχeːs virus
ö æ önaa æˈna fear
oe ʌ oeno ʌˈno one
öe ʊ heröen xeːˈrʊn to two men
oui œː ouiqu œːˈɬu to listen
p p parkon pɔːrˈkon park
q ɬ baqon bɔːˈɬon building
r r rin rɪn thick
s s saad sað easy
t t tiges tɪˈgeːs house
u u ud out of
ü æː ür æːr green
ɯ øː herɯ heːˈrøː to a man
z z zer zeːr zero
  1. Rarely pronounced as [b]
  2. Sometimes pronounced as [θ]
  3. Sometimes pronounced as [f]

Basical Grammar[]


Nouns can have three genders (maculine, feminine, neuter), three numbers (singular, dual, plural) and six cases (nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, vocative, locative). Nouns fall into nine declensions, depending on the stem. There are o-stems, aa-stems, i-stems, u-stems, dental stems, velar stems, nasal stems, r-stems and s-stems.

The suffix -d roughly meand the. When a noun ends on a consonant -id is added. dünon ([a] city) > dünonid (the city), herï (towards [a] man) -> herïd (towards to man)


  • heros "man" (masculine)
number nominative vocative accusative genitive dative locative
singular heros heri heron here herɯ herï
dual herou herou herou herüs heröen herou
plural heroe here herüs heron herö heroui
  • dünon "city" (neuter)
number nominative vocative accusative genitive dative locative
singular dünon dünon dünon düne dünɯ dünï
dual dünou dünou dünou dünuus dünöen dünou
plural dünaa dünaa dünaa dünon dünö dünoui


  • alesaa "oak" (feminine)
number nominative vocative accusative genitive dative locative
singular alesaa alesa alesaan alesaas alesæ alesæ
dual alesai alesai alesai alesayus alesän alesän
plural alesaas alesaas alesaas alesaanon alesä alesä


Many verbs show Germanic influences. There are two verb classes, one with a u-stem and a very rare one with an a-stem. There are three simple active indicative tenses: present, past and future. The conditional, subjunctive and passive are made using constructions. There's a special verb that handles the past particle, amu. The u-stem class is as follows, the example given is macu (to carry):

  Singular Dual Plural
First person macu maicu macum
Second person maicust maic maici
Third person maiced maicon macait
  Singular Dual Plural
First person macoid macouid maceid
Second person macaist macuid maciu
Third person maceda maiceda mainouidic
  Singular Dual Plural
First person macuda macudiu macudui
Second person macuidid macuidiud macuiduid
Third person maicunik maicuned maicunä
  Singular Plural Let's carry
Imperative madic! maidic! macuim
  Present Past Infinitive
Particles macuidid maiciud a macoui

When a verb root has an i or и in it, a u is placed directly behind it, instead of an i, for example: aimu oikiud slakerid moi (I have sharpened (oku) my sword) and aimu niugiud laknidimid moi (I have washed (nigu) my shirt).

Conditional is made using the auxiliary verb fiud (to get) and the past particle. The subjunctive is made using a form of lacu (to let) and the infinitive. The passive is made by inserting the particle ui between the verb and the subject, like macoid heronid ghainiudnid ([I] carry man.the wounded > I carry the wounded man) > maiced ui herosid ghainiudnosid (tra mi) ([he] carries pass.part. man.the wounded (by me) > the wounded man is carried (by me))

Some verbs have different conjugational forms depending on whether they appear in absolute initial position in the sentence (Hlacimusos has a Verb Subject Object or VSO word order) or whether they are preceded by a preverbal particle. Forms that appear in sentence-initial position are called absolute, those that appear after a particle are called conjunct. The verb that illustrates this is beru (to wear); the preverbal particle is (not).

  Singular Dual Plural
  Absolute Conjunct Absolute Conjunct Absolute Conjunct
First person beru nи bouir beröe nи beiröe bermɯ nи beram
Second person berst nи ber beri nи ber beirdi nи beired
Third person beired nи beir beroin nи beroun berait nи berat

There are, of course, also a few irregular verbs, like fiud (to get), biu (to be), habæn (to have, a loanword from Germanic that could be avoided using the less irregular diu), diu (to have), galu-nidu (to be able to) and gnaid (to know, could be avoided using hidu). There are also some strong verbs like hilu (to see, hail - heil - huiliud), kastu (to hate, kuist - kiust - kuistiud), dahu (to give, duiht - diuht - duihtiud), dиhu (to suck, deiht - deht - deihtiud) and skuta (to cut, skait - skiut - skuitiud). The most important irregular verb, biu, is shown below:

  Absolute Conjunct
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
First person biu tain fuilum biuh buid fuilium
Second person biud taid fuili bi bi biured
Third person es bidoin bidait ius bidoin bidat
  Absolute Conjunct
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
First person iusoid suidoid fidoid soid doid doid
Second person iusiud siudiud fidiud siud diud diud
Third person iuseda siuduid fiduid suid duid duid
  Absolute Conjunct
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
First person sihu sihöe sihmɯ souih siuhoë siham
Second person sihst sihu siuhdi sih sih siuhed
Third person siuhed sihoin sihait siuh sihoun sihat
  Absolute Conjunct
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
First person sihoid sihouid siheid siuhoid siuhouid siuheid
Second person sihaist sihuid sihiu siuhaist siuhuid siuhiu
Third person siheda siuheda siunouidih siuhui siuhuidiu siuhuidiun
  Absolute Conjunct
Singular Plural Let's be Singular Plural Let's be
Imperative sidih! siudih! sihuim bed! biud! sidiud!
  Present Past Infinitive
Particles bhenad beid a hius