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Head direction
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

General information[]

Hohoho was the language spoken in the land of Herrderrserr. It became extinct when the entire village was massacred by honey badgers. Hohoho means greater tool as derived from /ho/ which means tool. This language was worked on for approximately one week.



Bilabial and labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar and retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular and glottal
Plosive p b t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k g q ɢ
Fricative f v θ θʼ s z ʃ ʒ x h
Approximant ʋ ɹ l j
Flap/tap ɾ


Front Central Back
Close oo (u)
Near close o (o̞)
Near open e (ɜ)
Open a (æ)


IPA Transcription
θ th
θʼ th'
ɹ rr
ɾ r
ʋ w
ʃ sh
ʒ zh
ʈ tt
ɖ dd
ɟ dz
ɢ gh
æ ae
ɜ e


The syllable structure in Hohoho is CV(S), with C being any consonant and V being any vowel. S is any consonant except for /θʼ/ and /ɾ/. No consonant clusters are possible. Final consonants geminate when the next syllable has the same initial consonant. The first syllable of every word is stressed.


Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


The nouns decline with suffixes for case, gender, number and definiteness in that order. Noun phrases are formed with prepositional phrases after and determiners preceding. Nouns that have word modifying cases are treated as determiners.


The case markers are initial consonants in the suffix. Some markers are required for certain postpositions.

Initial Case Usage
th ergative subject of a transitive verb
rr accusative direct object of a transitive verb
k absolutive subject of an intransitive verb
p instructive means; how?
b instrumental means; using which thing?
l genitive noun modifying another noun
s temporal specifying a time
x locative specifying a location
h orientative specifying an orientation
d motion specyfing a motion
z distributive-temporal specifying frequency
dz partitive specifying amounts
zh formal specifying a quality
w dative shows recipient
q semblative shows similarity
gh identical shows something is identical
g comitative in the company of something
f causal cause; because of?
v benefactive for the benefit of; intended for
tt aversive avoiding or fear
j neutral dictionary form

There are four genders marked by different vowels in the suffix and three optional sub-genders indicated by final consonants.

Vowel/Final Gender Usage
u human animate people
ae inhuman animate animals
o tangible inanimate plants; objects; places
e intangible inanimate abstractions; actions
p masculine man; horse
t feminine woman; mare
unmarked neuter it; that


Number is marked by suffixes that begin with /j/ but vary in the vowel. The number suffix may also be added to quantifiers.

  1. Collective - unmarked
  2. Singulative - /je/
  3. Dual - /ju/
  4. Trial - /jae/
  5. Paucal (twelve or less) - /jo/
  6. Plural - /joth/

Definiteness is expressed by adding the prefix /ho/ to the word in question.


There are many determiners that can be derived from the basic determiners listed here. Determiners can also be used as pronouns.

Determiner Meaning
hoc proximal demonstrative
hulu mesioproximal demonstrative
ghuk mesiodistal demonstrative
ghefo distal demonstrative
werr all quantifier
qodd no quantifier
ttudot some quantifier
cutut many quantifier
baepu few quantifier
botde a lot quantifier
ducve odd numbered quantifier
popu even numbered quantifier
pe half quantifier
tto quarter quantifier
pucbu personal interrogative
bok impersonal interrogative
bupe location interrogative
kote source interrogative
bae goal interrogative
ddu time interrogative
dze manner interrogative
bopo reason interrogative

The personal and impersonal interrogatives can be modified to inquire of possession by changing the vowels to /e/


Hohoho uses a quaternary number system based on the number of legs of a honey badger. Most numbers larger than twenty are achieved by using the multiplicative word /de/ before the multiplier. The larger number is usually the multiplicand. The word for honey badger is /saettu/, which is often abbreviated to /sae/ without declination when speaking of numbers. The honey badger at the end of the cardinal numbers is usually truncated when used in higher numbers. Numbers can be used as determiners or nouns.

Number Meaning
tto sae one; quarter honey badger
pe sae two; half honey badger
ttojae sae three; triple quarter honey badger
saettu; sae four; honey badger
sae tto five; four one
sae pe six; four two
sae ttojae seven; four three
pe sae sae eight; two fours
pe sae sae tto nine; two fours one
pe sae sae pe ten; two fours two
pe sae sae ttojae eleven; two fours three
ttojae sae sae twelve; three fours
ttojae sae sae tto thirteen; three fours one
ttojae sae sae pe fourteen; three fours two
ttojae sae sae ttojae fifteen; three fours three
saettu sae sixteen; four fours
saettu sae tto seventeen; four fours one
saettu sae pe eighteen; four fours two
saettu sae ttojae nineteen; four fours three
sae tto sae twenty; five fours
sae tto sae de pe sae sae pe two hundred; twenty times ten


Prepositions are attached after a noun to form a prepositional phrase and then attached after the modified word. The modified word has a case corresponding to the type of preposition, but the modifier has a neutral case. Some motion prepositions can be used as temporal ones.

Preposition Meaning Category
pudd at time temporal
tup on day temporal
baeshto near locative
buko next to locative
qutu inside locative
pette outside locative
pepup between locative
dupop in contact with locative
tuc below locative
ghepu above locative
ttoto on top of locative
petup on the underside of locative
to to the left of locative
pudz to the right of locative
betep in front of locative
betbu behind locative
tub toward orientative
bodd backward orientative
gopup sideward orientative
pupdu upward orientative
tetbutt downward orientative
ddute away from motion
qeb beginning from motion
debpe out of motion
putbu into motion
cudd to motion
budzaet to the adjacency of motion
tebed under motion
dobe onto motion
cubo into motion
bedo as far as motion
dubcu along motion
topebe through motion
ttet by way of motion
tutdzo across motion
bettett at times distributive-temporal
ttufubeb at days distributive-temporal
kaet per partitive
toddut of the partitive
tupu as a shape formal
dzuce being like a quality formal


Adjectives in Hohoho are treated like determiners, but with the added ability to attach to verbs, filling the role of an adverb. The adjective order of Hohoho is this:

  1. Head
  2. Polarity
  3. Qualifier
  4. Quantifier
  5. Demonstrative/Interrogative
  6. Evidentiality/Mirativity/Probability/Necessity

An important adjective is the negative polarity adjective /cobe/.


Verbs conjugate by voice, mood, tense, number, person and aspect. Not all of the slots in the template have to be filled.

Voice Subject Object Tense/Aspect Stem Mood/Number Preposition Classifier


Passive voice is indicated by the prefix /rro/ in the voice slot, while active voice is unmarked. The potential voice which expresses the ability to do something is indicated by the prefix /rre/ in the voice slot.


The pro-affixes inflect based on person and deixis. They may be attached to the Subject or Object slots.

First Inclusive First Exclusive Second Third
None xo xe xu xae
Proximal wo we wu wae
Mesioproximal zho zhe zhu zhae
Mesiodistal fo fe fu fae
Distal dzo dze dzu dzae


Tense and aspect are expressed through inflection of the affix in the Tense/Aspect slot.

Perfective Momentane Progressive Stative Habitual Inceptive Inchoative Terminative
Past tae th'ae vae ddae qae rae lae cae
Nonpast te th'e ve dde qe re le ce


Mood and number are expressed through inflection of the Mood/Number affix. The number indicates how many times the verb has been performed.

Indicative Subjunctive Conditional Optative Imperative Jussive Tentative Interrogative
Collective shu tebko pepae tepu thute poko botu guto
Singulative shuj tebkoj pepaej tepuj thutej pokoj botuj gutoj
Dual shut tebkot pepaet teput thutet pokot botut gutot
Trial shuw tebkow pepaew tepuw thutew pokow botuw gutow
Paucal shuq tebkoq pepaeq tepuq thuteq pokoq botuq gutoq
Plural shuv tebkov pepaev tepuv thutev pokov botuv gutov

Preposition Classifier[]

The preposition classifier indicates whether the prepositional phrase after the verb affects the subject or object if there are pro-affixes. The affix /go/ indicates subject, while the affix /cep/ indicates object.


There are two copulas in Hohoho which link subject and predicate. The copula /guduko/ is used for a permanent state and /beporr/ for a temporary state.


Pro words are separate units unlike pro-affixes. They are substitutes for their respective words or word phrases. There are three pro-words that are a separate class for their function of referring to the previous clause. Referring to the subject, object, and verb are respectively the words /qebol/, /sheppu/ and /ghuj/.


Pronouns are able to be declined for case, gender and number. They are derived from the pro-affixes, so they have inherent deixis and person.

First Inclusive First Exclusive Second Third
None xote xenu xurro xaezu
Proximal wote wenu wurro waezu
Mesioproximal zhote zhenu zhurro zhaezu
Mesiodistal fote fenu furro faezu
Distal dzote dzenu dzurro dzaezu


There are two pro-adjectives in Hohoho: /kutu/ which means "like so", and /pogho/ which means "in this way".


There are two pro-verbs in Hohoho: /poded/ which means "to do", and /tucbu/ which means "to be".


There is an extensive system of derivations in Hohoho. The declensions and conjugations are removed in the process.

Derivation Method
adjective to noun prefix /jo/ suffix /fe/
adjective to verb prefix /ghu/
adjective to semblative adjective suffix /s/ and then vowel of previous syllable
adjective to comparative adjective reduplicate
adjective to elative adjective reduplicate twice
adjective to superlative adjective suffix /juto/
noun to adjective reduplicate then change duplicate vowels to /u/ or /e/
noun to verb reduplicate then change original vowels to /ae/ or /o/
verb to adjective suffix /th/ and then vowel of previous syllable
verb to abstract noun reduplicate and then suffix /po/
verb to agent noun prefix /wu/ suffix /l/ and then vowel of previous syllable
verb to action noun prefix /jodo/
any word to characteristic adjective suffix /serr/
organization to person in charge of it suffix /ko/
any word to place of word suffix /loke/ or suffix /bow/
any word to without word prefix /co/ suffix /be/
diminutive suffix /sh-sh/ and then vowel of previous syllable
augmentative reduplicate twice then change duplicate vowels to /o/ or /u/
titles and geography place word preceding modified
compounding place word preceding modified



The conjunctions are words that link clauses or words together. Some of them also express mirativity in inflection. They can be placed at the end of clauses or at the beginning. They are also placed after the word they modify.

Conjunction Usage English
buddo presents non contrasting items or ideas (clause and word) and
buddop presents surprising, ironic, or sarcastic non contrasting items or ideas (clause and word) and apparently
dopep presents a contrast or exception (clause) but; yet
debeb presents a surprising, ironic, or sarcastic contrast or exception (clause) but apparently
budtode presents a consequence (clause) so
budtosh presents a surprising, ironic, or sarcastic consequence (clause) so apparently
topttop presents an alternative idea (clause and word) or
popodztu presents a choice between one or the other (clause) either or
pettu presents rationale (clause) for
cuttep presents a solution (clause) so should
tupttae presents a problem (clause) but the problem is
tu listing (word) and
pecu action and purpose (word) to
thepo presents equal properties (word and clause) just as so
dded time to time (word) from to
kaed location to location (word) from to

Sentence Structure[]

The canon word order of Hohoho is SOV. Relative clauses must precede the modified word or clause and end with the relativizer /jukew/.


Hohoho/Word List

Example text[]

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.