Ifpañul is a language that was spoken in Nueva Tierra until the mid-300th century AW just before it diverged into several dialects and eventually languages, much in the same way Vulgar Latin did into to the Romance Languages. It is believed that the ultimate speakers of this language may have been the people of the 'sierras' of Peru and Ecuador, where heavy contact with Quechua and Aymara left a mark on it.


(See: Ifpañul people)

It is believed that Ifpañul originated in a small group of villages that was located somewhere on the eastern side of the Bay of Shallow, northern coasts of Nueva Tierra and gradually expanded south. Further south, they set villages and towns next to the Florence River and had even reached the Central Lakes when they experienced an accelerating population growth, mostly attributed to their religion by modern historians. By around the year 100 AW, based on written accounts, a small village discovered agricultural techniques which would have brought about an agricultural revolution and alleviated the pressure for finding more food, but the new developments did not have time to spread around due to a massive tsunami reffered to as The Wave washed away a great number of villages, causing a mass southbound migration along with inter-village wars.

Yet, around 250 years after, another agricultural breakthrough happened and spread around the continent, and for the next centuries, the population exploded and mass movements of people tool place, primarily south. By this time, the language started diverging (quicker than in normal contexts as there was little effort on preserving the language) with the most conservative dialects away from the epicenter. Contact with the Esupanyá language and Epeó brought change to the peripherial territories' language and by the year 500, after the spread of the Red Plague killed thousands, the language became several related languages.



What makes a striking difference with it's ancestor, Ifpañul only has three vowels, but they have long and short counterparts:

Front Central Back
Close [i],[i:] [u],[u:]
Open [a],[a:]

Words distinguished by vowel length are for example khába (layer) and khabá (capable). The only places where orthographically long vowels are not represented is word finally before an 'l', such as in 'animal', the last 'a' is actually pronounced longer than the first, or in words ending in 'r', such as 'thinir' (to have), where final vowel is long. Words with final 'z' also have a final long vowel.

Diphthongs are the combination of the three but there are a few rules. Short 'u' or 'i' before or after a long vowel is treated as a 'w' and 'y' respectively. However, words with a intervocal /w/, use the letter w to represent the sound: il áwa water).


Another interesting development is the contrast between aspirated and non-aspirated voiceless consonants word-initially. Generally, the orthography of Ifpañul is purely phonetic, so a table with the explanation of each graph and digraph can be seen below:

Letter(s) IPA In word... ...meaning
b [b] ba map
p [p] púga mouth
ph [pʰ] phá bread
d [ð] phádri father
t [t] táu finger
th [tʰ] thújtu stupid
g [ɣ] thrágu work
k [k] k great
kh [kʰ] khumú common
s [s] sul sun
sh [ʃ] impurtajsha importance
z [z] tháza cup
zh [ʒ] tizhírtu desert
l l lú light
r [ɾ] marígu seafood
initial r or rr [ɾ] tshírra earth
j [χ] jáú soap
y [j] yúya rain
m [m] mári mother
n [n] núzhi night
f f fúgu light
v v ivíktu effect

Trigraphs like 'tsh', or 'tzh' therefore must sound like /tʃ/ and /dʒ/ respectively.



Pronouns are divided into different cases, in a simplified form of Spanish, but with some interesting developments, such as the singular forms of some pronouns ending in 't' due to an analogy between udít (polite you) and udí (polite plural you)


These pronouns work when they are the subject of a sentence.

Ifpañul English equivalent
thú you
íl he
íat she
ízu it *
udít you (polite)
nuzutru we
nuzutra we (female) **
íu they
ía they (female) **
udí you (plural)

  • ízu is actually a demonstrative that conjugates for distance (see:Demonstratives)
  • These pronouns are female when the group in reference is exclusively female, if it is mixed, the unmarked masculine form is used.



The closest meaning in English can be found in the kind of pronoun used in the phrase ‘to me’. They are only conjugated in the first and second singular persons, and in the rest, the nominative form along with the preposition ‘’a’’ is used.

Ifpañul English equivalent
(a) mí (to) me
(a) thí (to) you


These are where English would use 'with me' as in 'She went with me', or 'with him' in a sentence such as 'She brought him with her'. The latter in Ifpañul is: 'Si le thráju khujsíu', but 'le' as dealt with later, is the accusative for 'him'.

Ifpañul English equivalent
khujmíu with me
khujtíu with you
khujsíu with him/her/it/you (polite)/they/you all
khú nuzútru/a with us


Used as in 'He hit me.' or 'Give us'. In contrast to Spanish, the pronouns for each gender all collapsed into a simgle form, li.

Ifpañul English equivalent
thí you
li him/her/they/you (polite/plural)
nu us


To cut it short, it is the same as the Accusative except that the pronoun li, used for the third person is replaced by si.

Reflexive and Clitics[]

Equivalent to the notion in English of 'myself' as in 'I washed my face', except that the idea is more along the lines of 'I washed to myselfface'.

Ifpañul English equivalent
thí you
si himself/herself/themselves/yourself (polite/plural)
nu ourselves

  • The nominative forms for the reflexive ‘si’ would be íl mímu, íat míma, íu , etc.; for example: phára íl = para íl mímu (for himself).

These go attached to the imperative verb, or to verbs that are aimed at someone or something, as in to give him - tárli (See:Verbs), and represent the dative (-ti, -mi, -si, -li, -nu):

  • Tá = He/she/it/you give(s)
  • nu = Give us.

Suffixes -lu and -la serve as the direct object, as in give it to me:

  • Tánulu = Give it to us.

The forms -ti, -mi- si, - li, -nu, -la and -lu mean the same as those seen in previous cases.

Great freedom goes with these clitics as to where they can go:

  • Udí thambí ijkrírámi (You will also write to me)
  • Púymi a láar il phílu (I am going to wash (my) hair)
  • Púy a láarmi il phílu (I am going to wash my hair)



Through sound changes in the language, most nouns don’t inflect for number but a group still is inflected in it’s plural form in five somewhat predictable manners:

The ‘li’ form[]

Words ending in 'l' form their plurals adding an 'i'.

Singular Plural Meaning
animal animali animal
árbul árbuli tree
khujtrul khujtruli control
miniral minirali mineral
midal midali metal
níil níili level
phabil phabili paper
sul suli sun

However one has to notice that adjectives ending in ‘l’ also have the same inflectional paradigm.

The 'ni' form[]

This one is less predictable because even though most nouns with stress on the final were inflected this way, some others did not and so one had to have these learnt. During Late Ifpañul this became a more frequent inflectional paradigm among nouns with stress on the final syllable.

A great deal of these are the ‘tion’ nouns which in Spanish were ‘ción’.

Singular Plural Meaning
ajshú ajshuni action
aguzazhú aguzazhuni accusation
khugí khugini cushion
phajtalú phajtaluni pants
radú raduni rat

This form is used also in some adjectives:

  • júi - young
  • júini - young (plural)

(note how the stress was not on the last syllable, or vowel)

The ‘ri’ form[]

These are predictable as the noun in the singular form always ends in ‘r’:

Singular Plural Meaning
thiníur thiníuri fork
phúir púiri power
phlazir phlaziri pleasure
siñur siñuri (gentle)man
sir siri being

The ‘t/y’ form[]

This inflection is more complex and stems from nouns that used to alternate between ‘d’ and ‘des’ in their singular and plural forms respectively. The vowel that comes right before the ‘t’ in the singular is stressed in the plural form.

Singular Plural Meaning
shuat shuay city
uguriat uguriay darkness
phruailiat phruailiay chance
rit riy net

Relatively few nouns and no adjectives inflect this way.

The ‘z’ form[]

This form is unpredictable and affects only a few nouns. It works regularly by adding a ‘z’ at the end of the plural form:

Singular Plural Meaning
pu puz voice
thu thuz cough
raí raíz root
phá phaz peace
narí naríz nose
lábi lábiz pencil
tzhu tzhuz god

This only affects a few adjectives, which are seen in the Adjectives section.


Due to levelling, the vast majority of nouns that end with ‘a’ as a vowel are analyzed as feminine and go with the feminine article. The rest are all masculine. Only a few nouns are exceptions to the rule.

Singular Plural Meaning in English
il áwa la áwa* the water
il áila la áila the bird of prey
la khulur la khuluri the colour
la khalur la khaluri the heat
il árui la árui the adobe

' tends to assimilate to L'áwa, and so do all nouns which use la or lu and begin with a vowel. However it is not written, but is understood in speech.


Inheriting a derivational morphology, Ifpañul can make with ease diminutives and augmentatives of nouns. These suffixes most of the time take the vowel length from a previous syllable and move it to their first syllable.


Diminutives are formed by adding the suffix (js/s)ídu/a, and depending on the noun, becomes -ídu/a, sídu/a, or -jsídu/a:

The -ídu/a form: (nouns that end in vowel in Singular and Plural)

  • Páñu (bath) -----> Pañídu (little bath)
  • Pházu (step, pace) -----> Phazídu (little footsteps)

The -sídu/a form: (nouns that end in r, t and l)

  • Thiníur (fork) -----> Thiníúrsídu (little fork)
  • Shuat(city) -----> Shuatsída (little city, town)
  • Animal -----> Animalsídu (little animal, baby animal)

The -jsídu/a form: (nouns that take the -ni plural form)

  • Jamú (ham) ---> Jamujsídu
  • Radú (rat) ------> Radujsída (the 'a' implies the rat is female)

Words ending in z in the plural do the following:

Lábi (pencil)

Lábiz (pencils)

Labizídu (little pencil, pencils)


In a similar fashion, augmentatives make the noun bigger.

Augmentatives are formed by adding the suffix (js/s)údi/a, and depending on the noun, becomes -'údi/a, -súdi/a, or -'jsúdi/a'. The difference between final 'i' and 'a' comes down to if the last vowel of the noun was an 'a' or not.

The -ídu/a form: (nouns that end in vowel in Singular and Plural)

  • Páñu (bath) -----> Pañ (huge bath)
  • Pházu (step, pace) -----> Phazúdi (big footsteps)

The -sídu/a form: (nouns that end in r, t and l)

  • Thiníur (fork) -----> Thiníúrsídu (big fork)
  • Shuat(city) -----> Shuatsída (large city)
  • Animal -----> Animalsúdi (bigass animal)

The -jsídu/a form: (nouns that take the -ni plural form)

  • Jamú (ham) ---> Jamujsúdi
  • Radú (rat) ------> Radujsúda (the 'a' implies the rat is female)

Words ending in z in the plural do the following:

Lábi (pencil)

Lábiz (pencils)

Lábizúdi (massive pencil, pencils)



These inflect for number and gender much in the same way the articles would do in German, with the exception that they do not change for case, as in Spanish, as in the plural they merge:

Gender Definite Indefinite
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Masculine il lu ú únu
Feminine la úna
Neuter lu


Some articles are shortened in a few cases, such as ‘til’ comes from ‘ti il’ (of the). A table with the common ones:

From Contracted Meaning Gender/Number
ti il til of the masculine
ti la tla of the feminine
ti lu tlu of the plural
ti u tiú of a masculine
ti una tiúna of a feminine
ti unu tiúnu (rare) of a plural
a il al to the masculine
a ú to one masculine


There are 3 kinds of demonstrative, whose use depends on the distance between the speaker and the described thing/person. The demonstrative equates to the English terms "this" and "that", although the word used must agree for number and gender.

DEMOSTRATIVOS Khúrta (short) Míya (middle) Larga (long)
Masculine singular ídi ízi agil
Masculine plural ídu ízu agíu
Feminine singular/plural ída íza agía
Neuter ídu ízu agíu

Neuter demonstratives have the meaning of "this (or that) thing, concept or idea": Ízu idá ogí (That is okay). Sometimes, neuter demonstratives can convey a pejorative connotation: Khída ízu ti aí (Take that out of there).


Show possesion. There are two distinctions, just like there is in English with 'my' and 'mine', where the first is an indefinite and the latter a definite pronoun.


Ifpañul English equivalent
thu your
su his/her/their/your (polite/plural)
nwítru our


Ifpañul English equivalent
míu mine (masculine/plural)
mía mine (feminine)
thúu yours (masculine/plural)
thúa yours (feminine)
his/hers/theirs/yours (polite/plural) (masculine/plural)
súa his/hers/theirs/yours (polite/plural) (feminine possession)
nuítru ours (masculine/plural)
nuítra ours (feminine)

Other determiners[]

  • Indefinite quantity: phúgu (little), múshu (a lot), sufizhíni (enough)...
  • Cardinals: u (one/a, an), tu (two), thrí (three)...
  • Ordinals: phrimíru (first), siújdu (second), thirsíru (third)...
  • Cardinal and ordinal numbers are adjectives of amount (like mucho and poco) and precede nouns (tu animali = two animals, phrimíra phirsúna = first person).
  • Interrogatives: khí (what/who), khuájdu (when), khúmu (how), tújdi (where), phurkí (why), khual (which).

The cardinal number ú is declined according to gender as úna (feminine) and únu (masculine plural) and the interrogatives khual (which) and khi (when referring to 'who' instead of 'what') are declined as khuali (for plural) and khíni (plural) respectively. The rest are indeclinable.


The preferred place for adjectives is after the noun they modify, but a few exceptions have different meaning when coming after it.


Most adjectives do not inflect according to the number of the noun (but some do just like the examples of declension shown in the Nouns section), but most do inflect for the word's gender, which is either feminine or masculine.

For example, 'úmbri' (man/men), which is masculine, and 'mugil' (woman) which is feminine, cause adjectives to inflect differently:

  • Il úmbri píu (the beautiful man/men)
  • La mugil pía (the beautiful woman)

Adjectives that end in 'u' in their masculine form turn it into 'a' before feminine nouns. Other adjectives, such as 'priájti' (smart, brilliant), do not conjugate and the final vowel remains the same.

Comparatives and Superlatives[]

The particle 'ma' before an adjective turns it into a comparative, such as in 'ma lijtu' (smarter). Even though a superlative as in English 'best', compared to 'better' does not exist in Ifpañul, the including of the article before the adjective conveys this meaning, such as in il ma líjtu (the smartest). The trick is determining how definite or specific is the object being spoken of.

Suffixes added on the end of adjectives (replacing the last vowel or consonant) give the adjective different grades of meaning, such as:

  • azu/a - very. Example: puínu (good) - puínazu/a (very good)
  • ízimu/a - very. Ex: múzhu (a lot) - muzhízimu (more than a lot)
  • idu/a - diminutive. Ex: phúgu (a bit, few) - phugídu (a very small amount)

(these can be found above on Derivatives)

Only a few adjectives have more synthetic ways of changing, such as puínu and migúr, which mean 'good' and 'better' respectively. Other examples are málu and phiúr (bad and worse). Coincidentally these are most of the time the same English conjugates irregularly.


Much of the complex verbal inflection was retained in Ifpañul, in comparison to sister languages such as Esupanyá which underwent a great deal of simplification, but some general simplifications occurred, such as final 's' in second person disappearing making the verb conjugates the same in some tenses as for third person. Other important changes include a modalizing of the past tense to convey information such as how certain the speaker is of the information and how reliable it is, and an abundance of constructions using the gerund to indicate perfectiveness.

An example of a verb conjugated is the following:

thinir (to have)

Non-personal forms Gerund Participle
thinjdu thiníu
Tense thú il, íat, udit nuzutru/a íu, ía, udí
Present thíjgu chini thinímu chíni
Past thúi thúídi thúu thúímu thúru
Future thijdrí thijdrá thijdrímu thijdrá
Imperfect thinía thiníamu thinía
Conditional thijdría thijdríamu thijdría
Subjunctive Present thíjga thijgámu thíjga
Subjunctive Past thúzi thúz thúzi thúzimu thúzi
Subjunctive Future thúri thúrimi thúri
Imperative thíjga thijgámu thíjga

Therefore the following for example mean...

  • Thíjgu - I have
  • Thúi - I had
  • Thijdrí - I will have (this tense is rare, mostly replaced by the verb 'ir' and the infinitive)
  • Thijdría - I/you/he/she/it would have
As shown, the norm normally is to omit the pronoun, but like in that last example it is not clear without context WHO the verb applies to, so when ambiguity is found, the pronoun is used to specify.

Usages of Non-Personal Form[]

The Participle form, as will seen following, also plays an important role onveying other kinds of information.

The Gerund Form[]

The Participle form (see table above) is used along a motion verb to convey the equivalent of the English or Spanish participle. A few examples are:

  • Il pínu khumíjdu (literally: He came eating/Vino comiendo) (meaning: He came having eaten already)
  • La kháma thigí thijdíjdu (lit: I left the bed making/Dejé la cama tendiendo) - I left the bed made.

'To Give' and the Gerund[]

A construction used where the Gerund is used is a periphrasis that is constructed around the verb to give (tar), which is used as an auxiliary verb that is inflected for person, tense and mood, but is followed by a gerund that carries the semantic load. Originating from a way of softening commands or making them benefactive, it has become the mandatory way of using the verb in the Imperative mood. It is similar to English verbs that need a second word to specify the meaning, such as in give up, give granted, shut up and shut down. Examples of this construction are:

Mi tá phazájdu il líbru (Pass me the book (please).)

Mi tá khuíajdu a la wáwa ((Could you) take care of my baby.)

Mi tiú khuzinájdu thúrta. (Cook cake for me).

Present Tense Indicative[]

  • Simple Present- uses one verb rather than an auxiliary and denotes that the action continues: 'thíjgu' (I have), 'khúmi' (you eat), 'pulámu' (we fly). It can be used to serve different functions, as:
    • Punctual Present, referring to actions that happen as the speaker says them: Íl tibára (He shoots).
    • Historical Present, giving a narrative quality to events of the past, bringing them to the present: Juá Juzí la Tshírra til Núrti tigúbri il 1492. (Juá Juzí discovers the Northern Land in 1492).
    • The future-in-present, for actions that take place a later moment, and the speaker is certain of them happening: La simána prúksima tráju. (Next week I work)
    • Imperative Present, expressing an order: Thú ti mi khása thi aúra. (Order: Now you leave my house).

And the common tenses seen in English and Spanish, such as the habitual present (I work here).

The Past Tense and Veracity[]

The reason why the tenses are not exactly divided into the moods Indicative, Subjunctive, Conditional and Imperative is because the Past Tense in general is used to indicate veracity, that is, the speaker takes in account certain he/she is of the information, if it has been experienced directly and if the source of information is reliable then. The past tense carrying this meaning are the following:

Certain past[]

Originating from the Simple Perfect Past (see verb example above), equating to English 'I ate' or Spanish 'comí' verbally, it indicates that the information is correct, reliable and the speaker has experienced it personally, therefore is certain of it:

Thigí la yái (I left the keys, and I am certain because I clearly remember doing so).

'I Think So' Past[]

Implies that the speaker is not responsible for the reliability of the statement, and has not verified or experienced it personally:

Íu á'philíausi. (They have fought each other, but I was not there personally to see them do it).

Bold, italics and underline show correspondences between each part in Ifpañul and English. Underlined 'a' represents the auxiliary verb 'áir' (to have). (See:Auxiliary Verbs)

Zero Responsibility Past[]

This last construction demonstrates no certainty, and the speaker does not make him/herself responsible for the information:

Álgu áía'khumíu mi phajtil. (Someone had 'eaten my cake... but I can't be sure, I might be totally wrong about it).

Bold, italics and underlining show correspondences between each part in Ifpañul and English. Underlined áía represents the copula 'to have' verb (áir) (See: Copula)

Future Tense Indicative[]

Quite similar to that in Spanish, the Future Tense in Spanish, it can be constructed in several ways:

  • Simple Future:

khumirí (I will eat), thijdrímu (We will have)

  • Compound Future:

puya khumir (I am going to eat), pámua thinír (we are going to have) The Compound Future Tense uses an auxiliary verb which originates from the Spanish 'ir'+'a' construction. (See below: Copula: To Have)

Conditional Mood[]

Expreses a hypothetical action that would arise from a condition, such as in:

I would have gone, if you had told me.

I would eat, if I were hungry.

From the verb table above:

Tense thú il, íat, udit nuzutru/a íu, ía, udí
Conditional thijdría thijdríamu thijdría
Subjunctive Present thíjga thijgámu thíjga
Subjunctive Past thúzi thúz thúzi thúzimu thúzi
Subjunctive Future thúri thúrimi thúri

For example:

Thijdría = I/you/he/she/it would have

Subjunctive Past[]

The subjunctive follows the conditional in a sentence, verbs conjugate in it when they represet the action that the conditional states that would happen if the condition is met:

  • Iría, (si) tigízimi.

*the 'si' in brackets represents an old particle which was often ommited, which meant 'if'.

I would have gone, had you told me. (or: If you had told me)

Khumiría, (si) thúzi ámbri. (Literally: if I had hunger)

I would eat, if I were hungry.

The subjunctive does not necesarily have to go before the clause in conditional OR at all with a conditional, as in the following examples:

Tigízimi, iría.

If you had told me, I would have gone.

Thúzi ambri, khumiría.

If I were hungry, I would eat.

(Si) sulu thúzi tiniru...

If only I had money...

Subjunctive Present[]

This tense is used when dealing with a hypothetical action and its possibility, normally as a condition, but not in the way the conditional mood works:

Khuájdu thíjga tiníru, khumprarí una kháza.

When I have money, I will buy a house.

However, using the present tense in the last part of the sentence instead of the future tense (as shown above) and present tense instead of subjunctive, it implies inmediacy of action and also gives it a habitual aspect, that is:

When I have money I buy a house (every time I get money I do).

Khuájdu thíjgu tiníru, khúmpru una kháza.

More Considerations about the Subjunctive[]

A peculiarity is the use of the Subjunctive Past in sentences where in Spanish, the Present is used. In sentences where the second clause depends on the first, such as in: I told him not to eat after eight, the second verb is in the subjunctive future, as the action is hypothetical and would take in the future. The sentence in Ifpañul is:

Li tígi khi no khúma tibuí ti la uzhu.


Expresses orders, and inflects for person, unlike English.

¡Thí ídu! (Have this!)

Thijgámu phajtil. (Let's have cake).

See:'To Give and the Gerund Form' for special imperative constructions using the verb 'To Give (tar).


Ir (will)[]

This verb is an exception to how verbs conjugate because the suffix 'a' has melted on it, making it end different from the related verb 'ir' which means 'to go'. It goes before an infinitive verb and with each tense gives the following meaning thar it is the equivalent of 'will' as in 'I will eat' in English.

ir (will)

Person Conjugation
thú pasa
il, íat, udit páa
nuzutru/a pámua
íu, ía, udí pána

áir (to have)[]

This verb works in the same way as the English auxiliary 'have' (but as the verb showing possesion, as shown later on) much of the time, but the past tense was gradually dropped, leaving as vestiges 'úu' and 'úru'.

Non-personal forms Gerund Participle
ájdu áíu
Tense thú il, íat, udit nuzutru/a íu, ía, udí
Present í á á ímu á
Past - ú*** - - úru
Future abrí abrí abrímu abrá
Imperfect aía aíamu aía
Conditional abría abríamu abría
Subjunctive Present áya ayámu áya
Subjunctive Past uízi uiz uízi uízimu uízi
Subjunctive Future uíri írimu uíri

Irregular Verbs[]

(see: Ifpañul Irregular Verbs)


The normal derivation for an adverb is to take an adjective and to add the suffix -míjti in the end to replace the last vowel in some cases. This suffix is the equivalent of the English -ly suffix. In addition, the vowel length pattern changes, giving the penultimate syllable the long vowel.

Other ways of deriving adverbs are by other suffixes, such as -ída/u which have less intensity than -míjti, or by adding the adjectives denoting intensity, such as 'muy' (very) and 'nu thá' (not so).


  • rábíu (fast/quick) --> rabíamíjti (quickly)
  • líjtu (slow) ---> lijtamíjti (slowly)

Here final -u becomes -a and the long 'á' vowel of the first syllable is not long, as the length moves to penultimate syllable's 'í'.

  • rábíu ---> rabiídu/a (quickly)
  • líjtu ---> lijtídu/a (slowly)

The word-final -u (or 'a' in feminine adjectives) is replaced by the suffix, and again the vowel length shifts.

  • muy rábíu (very fast)
  • nu thá líjtu (not so slow)
  • nu thá lijtamíjti (not so slowly)

Adverbs classified according to their semantic meaning:

  1. Time adverbs:

aúra (now), aír (yesterday), úy (today), mañána (tommorow), ájti (before, previously), thúáía (not yet), ádaúra (yet), khuájdu (when), thijpuí (after, later), míjtra (while, meanwhile), nújca (never), shímpri (always), tárdi (late), ya (now)

  1. Place adverbs:

agí (here), (see:Place Determiners), fuíra (outside, out), águ (below, down), tilájti (in front), arríur (around), atrá (behind, back), ijsíma (on top, over), ijfríjti (in front of), fríjti (front)

  1. Manner of action averbs:

azí (this way), azá (that way), pí (good, well), mal (bad, badly), kházi (almost), phur phúgu (almost), khúmu (as in I do it the way I do), rabíamíjti (quickly), aburáamíjti (in a hurry)

  1. Negation adverbs:

nu (no), nújka (never), thampúgu (neither), jamá (never)

  1. Affirmation adverbs:

sí (yes), khláru/a (of course, obviously), iksájtu/a (exactly), iksajtamíjti (exactly), shirtamíjti (certainly), júdu/a (just, around), ya (like Eng. uhuh, or yeah)

  1. Quantity adverbs:

álgu (something), ná (nothing), abína (barely), padájti (quite a lot), kházi (almost), timazháu (too much), musházu (a lot)

  1. Subjunctive adverbs:

khizá (hopefuly), agázu (isn't it... ?), phrúáli (likely), thalbí (maybe), ogalá (I wish/hope that...)

Conjunctions & Prepositions[]



  • khu khi/azí khi: so, so.. ..after all,

So you were here after all

Khu khi idába aí.

  • luíu: after, then

Then, we went there

Luíu, fuímu aí.


  • u: or

This one or that one?

Ídi u ízi?

  • aímá: and

This particular one changes depending on the article that goes after it:

(examples using an old word of and are in bold)

aímá aímá and
aímá + il aím'il and the (masc)
y + la ilá and the (fem and/or plur)
y + lu ilú and the (masc plur)
aímá + u aímú and a (masc)
aímá + únu aímúnu and a (masc plur)**
aímá + úna aímúna and a (masc fem and/or plur)**

    • More like the idea and some
  • sinú: but

John didn't do it, (but) Bob did.

John nu ízulu, sinú Bob (no verb).

  • phíru: but

It wasn't anything but ugly.

Nu fuí ná phíru fíu.


  • phíru: but

I would go but I can't.

Iría phíru nu phúíu.

  • áujki: even though
  • a pizar: however
  • ikzíktu: except
  • mínu: without, unless


  • uzía: in other words (also: migur tízhu)



Generally means to or at but is also used meaning towards, it has uses:

  • It introduces indirect objects:
    • Imbíli la khárta a Ana. = "I sent Ana the letter", "I sent the letter to Ana." Note that li, the indirect pronoun is not ommited.
  • It introduces a direct object that refers to a person, or sometimes to a non-person that is seen as person-like, such as a pet or an organization:
    • Píu María. = "I see María."
    • Khíri phírti thi. = "They want to see you."

It should also be noted that:

  • Preposition a contracts to form al when followed by the determinate masculine article l. (See above section on Articles). This rule can be broken if the article is part of a title
    • Puy al mirkáu = "I am going to the market."'
  • While Spanish used the equivalent of this to introduce an infinitive, Ifpañul uses a special to go verb, see above (copula).


Literally meaning with.


Literally meaning with.


Literally meaning with.


Literally meaning with.


Literally meaning with.



Numbers from 11 to 15 are completely irregular, while others are also, but follow systematic processes that give them anomalous compoundings. For instance, the number 32, thrijtayú is a compound of the numbers thrijta (30) and (2) with the conjunctive y (and) in the middle. But due to phonological processes, used to be pronounced and in between two vowels, thrijta+y+du became thrijtayú, instead of the expected thrijtaytú which would be formed without changes. Other changes include voicing of devoiced consonants (see 16 and 17), and lengthening of the previous vowel when a voiced consonant is elided. The numbers are:

Number Ifpañul Notes on irregularities
0 síru
1 únu
2 tu
3 thri
4 khuátru
5 síjku
7 shídi
8 úzhu
9 nuí
10 tzhí
11 újsi Irregular numbers,

traced back to Spanish

and Latin

12 túzi
13 thrízi
14 khadúrsi
15 khíjsi
16 tzhi sí --> zí (voicing)
17 tzhiz'zhíd'i shídi --> zhídi (voicing)
18 tzhiziúzhu
19 tzhizinuí
20 píjti
21 pijtiúnu length of vowel moves
22 pijtiú original dú-->()ú (d elided)
30 thríjta
40 khuaríjta
50 sijkuíjta
60 síjta
70 sidíjta
80 uzhíjta
90 nuvíjta
100 shi
220 tuzhijtúíjti original bíjti-->()íjti (b elided) +previous 'u' lengthened
1000 mil
10,000 timil
1,000,000 ú miú


The first 10 ordinals derive directly from Spanish but the rest it seems are product of analogy. For example, while Classical Spanish 20th was vigésimo, the construction from which Ifpañul appears to derive is veinte+décimo = veintécimo. Similarly, the cardinals for the 11-19 numbers appear to be formed taking the cardinals for 1-9 and combining them with décimo (tenth). For example, 15: quinto+décimo = quindécimo, or by taking the ordinal, as in 13, tres+décimo instead of tercer+décimo.

Ordinals are inflected for gender, so ones modifying masculine nouns end in 'u', while feminine ones end in 'a'.

1st phrimíru
2nd síújdu
3rd thirsíru
4th khuártu
5th khíjti
6th síktu
7th síktimu
8th uktáu
9th núínu
10th tzhízimu
11th primízimu
12th tuzízimu (from 'tú' (2)
13th thrízimu (from thrí, (3)
14th khuardízimu
15th khijdízimu
16th sikdízimu
17th sipdízimu
18th ukdízimu
19th núídízimu
20th pijtízimu
30th thrijtízimu
40th kuarijtízimu
50th sijkuijtízimu
60th sijtízimu
70th sidijtízimu
80th uzhijtízimu
90th núijtízimu
100th sijtudízimu (using a cardinal and -ízimu, so to not confuse with '60th'.
1000th milízimu
1,000,000th miunízimu

Great dialectal variation is thought to have existed, because in daughter languages many of these constructions are replaced by further analogy.

Sample Texts[]

The North Wind and the Sun[]


The North Wind and the Sun were disputing which was the stronger, when a traveler came along wrapped in a warm cloak.

They agreed that the one who first succeeded in making the traveler take his cloak off should be considered stronger than the other.

Then the North Wind blew as hard as he could, but the more he blew the more closely did the traveler fold his cloak around him; and at last the North Wind gave up the attempt.

Then the Sun shined out warmly, and immediately the traveler took off his cloak.

And so the North Wind was obliged to confess that the Sun was the stronger of the two.


Il Píjtu til Núrti khu il Sul digudía súbri khual íra il má fuírti, khuájdu u piagíru pínu abríáu khu úna májta khalíjtída.

Phajtáru khi il khi phrimíru phúíra azir khi il piagíru khídisi su májta tíiría sir yamáu il má fuírti khi il útru.

Tújsi il Píjtu til Núrti suplú khu tájta fuírsa khúmu púía, phíru (khuájtu) má suplá má sirka il piagíru puníasi la májta; áda khi il Píjtu til Núrti rijdiúsi.

Tújsi il Sul priú agalúaramíjti, altúgi il piagíru khidúsi su májta.

Yazí il Píjtu til Núrti piúsi ublíáu a khujfizar khi il Sul íra il má fuírti ti lu tú

Universal Declaration of Human Rights[]


All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.

They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.


Thúu lu siri umánu názi líbri áimá iwáli n'unur ij'tirízhu.

Idá tudáu khu il phijsamíjtu ij'khujshíjsa aímá tíiríasi phurtár n'ibíridu ti irmajdat ázha únu il útru.