Conlang
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==Grammar==
 
==Grammar==
   
  +
=== Introduction ===
  +
There are several terms that will be used to describe language patterns at least partly exclusive to Ģaxemo. Root words are generally CVC, and the middle vowel almost always has a corresponding "natural vowel" (abbreviated "NV" or "N") that is frequently used in conjugation and word derivation (CNV stands for "Corresponding Natural Vowel"):
  +
{| class="article-table"
  +
|+
  +
!Vowel
  +
!CNV
  +
|-
  +
|a
  +
|i
  +
|-
  +
|e
  +
|o
  +
|-
  +
|i
  +
|i
  +
|-
  +
|o
  +
|a
  +
|-
  +
|u
  +
|e
  +
|}
  +
Lenition is also unique in Ģaxemo. When lenition is mentioned, it is actually referring to this char (CLC stands for "Corresponding Lenitive Consonant"):
  +
{| class="article-table"
  +
|+
  +
!Stop
  +
!CLC
  +
|-
  +
|p
  +
  +
|-
  +
|b
  +
  +
|-
  +
|t
  +
|s
  +
|-
  +
|d
  +
|z
  +
|-
  +
|k
  +
|c
  +
|-
  +
|g
  +
|j
  +
|-
  +
|q
  +
|c
  +
|}
  +
Forition is also unique. When fortition is mentioned, it is really referring to this chart (CFC stands for "Corresponding Fortitive Consonant"):
  +
{| class="article-table"
  +
|+
  +
!Consonant
  +
!CFC
  +
!Consonant
  +
!CFC
  +
!Consonant
  +
!CFC
  +
!Consonant
  +
!CFC
  +
!Consonant
  +
!CFC
  +
!Consonant
  +
!CFC
  +
|-
  +
|p
  +
|f
  +
|j
  +
  +
|q
  +
|h
  +
  +
|c
  +
  +
|g
  +
|w
  +
|b
  +
|-
  +
|b
  +
|v
  +
|tɬ
  +
  +
|f
  +
|p
  +
  +
|j
  +
|h
  +
|q
  +
|l
  +
|d
  +
|-
  +
|t
  +
|s
  +
|dɮ
  +
  +
|v
  +
|b
  +
  +
|tɬ
  +
|m
  +
|v
  +
|y
  +
|j
  +
|-
  +
|d
  +
|z
  +
|k
  +
|x
  +
|s
  +
|t
  +
  +
|dɮ
  +
|n
  +
|z
  +
|r
  +
|r
  +
|-
  +
|c
  +
  +
|g
  +
  +
|z
  +
|d
  +
|x
  +
|k
  +
  +
|r
  +
|
  +
|
  +
|}
  +
<br />
 
===Conjugation and Declension===
 
===Conjugation and Declension===
 
There are 3 genders, typically determined by the first consonant (usually the first phoneme) of a root. Usually, if the first consonant is a stop, the root is masculine, if it is a fricative, the root is feminine, and if it is anything else, the root is neuter (in this case /ɬ/ and /ɮ/ are actually categorized as stops). If the first phoneme in a root is a vowel, the root is usually neuter, but many times it is irregular.
 
There are 3 genders, typically determined by the first consonant (usually the first phoneme) of a root. Usually, if the first consonant is a stop, the root is masculine, if it is a fricative, the root is feminine, and if it is anything else, the root is neuter (in this case /ɬ/ and /ɮ/ are actually categorized as stops). If the first phoneme in a root is a vowel, the root is usually neuter, but many times it is irregular.
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| colspan="3" | - ə
 
| colspan="3" | - ə
 
|}
 
|}
Instrumental case is only used colloquially.<br />
+
Instrumental case is only used colloquially.
  +
  +
<br />
 
There is a sort of "construct state", which utilizes accusative and genitive case. Ex.:
 
There is a sort of "construct state", which utilizes accusative and genitive case. Ex.:
   
Line 436: Line 569:
 
|me
 
|me
 
|}
 
|}
  +
  +
=== Word Derivation ===
  +
There are two ways in which words are derived: using commonly used stems and templates, known as "Ikasaasi Fató" (lit. "verb derivation" because many words derived this way stem from a verb), and coining new words, known as "Ikasaasi Rosó" (lit. "noun derivation" as most commonly used nouns are derived this way.
  +
  +
The most common Ikasaasi Fató stems and examples:
  +
{| class="article-table"
  +
|+Ikasaasi Fató (with stress markers)
  +
!Base Verb / Noun
  +
|fer
  +
|-
  +
!
  +
|"to find / excavate"
  +
|-
  +
!Related Noun
  +
|fêr
  +
|-
  +
!
  +
|"fossil"
  +
|-
  +
!Tool
  +
|férrana
  +
|-
  +
!
  +
|"chisel"
  +
|-
  +
!Larger Concept
  +
|óferaa'
  +
|-
  +
!
  +
|"excavation"
  +
|-
  +
!Larger Object
  +
|appári
  +
|-
  +
!
  +
|"archeological site"
  +
|-
  +
!Adjective
  +
|íperaas
  +
|-
  +
!
  +
|"covered in dirt"
  +
|}
  +
A base root (usually CVC and a verb) can have its inner vowel changed, most often with the "x̂" tone diacritic, or with a basic Ablaut (this form is the most irregular). The "tool" is derived with gemination of the last root consonant and the suffix "-ana". The larger concept contains the root within is the template "N-root-aa'", with the natural vowel of the inner vowel of the root taking initial stress. The "larger object" adds an "a-" prefix and an "-i" suffix as well as changes the root's inner vowel to "a" and the first root consonant undergoes fortition. In the adjective, the fortition remains, but with the prefix "i-" taking stress and the suffix "-aas".
  +
  +
In Ikasaasi Rosó, words are simply coined, and it happened that distinct "generations" of word derivation occurred. At different times in the language's history, words were simply derived in different ways, leaving a mess of words derived in different ways from different periods of time across history. The 4th generation extends to present day.
  +
  +
1st generation words: mainly compound words (ex. "taçasu", an assimilation of "taççə ane sub")
  +
  +
2nd generation words: combining borrowed words from different languages (ex. "mäsato", a combination of English "machine" and European "auto")
  +
  +
3nd generation words: borrowed words plus the suffix "-ó" (there is no stress diacritic if another appears earlier in the word), which is actually pronounced /õ~ɔ̃~ɑ̃~ɒ̃/ (ex. "kopuró", borrowed from English "computer")
  +
  +
4th generation words: borrowed words (ex. "porimu", borrowed from English "primer")
  +
  +
Some words were coined in between these distinct generations, namely "réligifatto" (meaning "religion"), which both contains a combination of the borrowed words "religion" and "faith / fate" (a characteristic of 2nd gen. words) and the suffix "-o" (a characteristic of 3nd gen. words).
   
   
  +
All Ikasaasi Rosó words may undergo the following phonological changes:
Compound words are incredibly common, though are often phonologically morphed due to pronunciation. The same can be applied to borrowed words. There are a number of rules that are applied to the morphing of these words phonologically:
 
   
# In older words, stress is generally penultimate, however in newer words (especially borrowed words) stress is generally initial.
+
# In older words, stress is generally penultimate, however in newer words stress is generally initial.
 
# #1 can be overridden by vowels with suprasegmentals, including diphthongs.
 
# #1 can be overridden by vowels with suprasegmentals, including diphthongs.
# #1 and #2 can be overridden if the compound words contains only root; the root is stressed.
+
# #1 and #2 may be overridden if the compound words contains only one derivable root, and the root takes stress.
 
# A coda closed syllable containing /u/ is shortened to an open syllable and /u/ becomes /ɨ/.
 
# A coda closed syllable containing /u/ is shortened to an open syllable and /u/ becomes /ɨ/.
 
# Strings of consonants (and sometimes vowels) that have similar places of articulation often assimilate, especially when unstressed.
 
# Strings of consonants (and sometimes vowels) that have similar places of articulation often assimilate, especially when unstressed.
# Vowel length and consonant gemination usually disappears.
+
# Vowel length and consonant gemination usually disappears, as can diphthongs, assimilating to the second vowel.
 
#Syllable-initial vowels generally disappear, especially when unstressed.
# #6 can apply to diphthongs, though diphthongs can assimilate to the second vowel.
 
# The older the word, the more extreme the phonological changes.
 
# Words that are old enough will be spelled to some degree phonetically and have done away with conservative spelling newer words exercise.
 
#Syllable-initial vowels generally disappear.
 
 
#As many consonant clusters are formed as possible around the stressed syllable. In older words, these clusters assimilate.
 
#As many consonant clusters are formed as possible around the stressed syllable. In older words, these clusters assimilate.
  +
#In #8, many clusters like "tx" or "tr" often drop the initial stop.
 
#The older the word, the more extreme the phonological changes.
 
#Words that are old enough will be spelled to some degree phonetically and have done away with most conservative spelling.
   
 
<br />
 
<br />

Revision as of 22:33, 2 April 2021

Imqorášə
Type
Alignment
Head direction
Tonal No
Declensions No
Conjugations No
Genders
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 0%
Statistics
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words of 1500
Creator [[User:|]]


Classification and Dialects

Ģaxemo (pronounced /ɣəˈχɛmɪ/, coll. Ģam) is a language isolate spoken in an autonomous zone in the Caucuses. It borrows from Germanic, Romance, and Semitic languages.

Phonology

Consonants

Bilabial Alveolar Postalveolar Velar Uvular
Nasal m n (ŋ)
Plosive p b t d (tʃ dʒ) k g q
Fricative ϕ β s z ʃ (ʒ) x ɣ χ
Approximant w l j ʀ
Lateral fric. ɬ [ɮ]
Lateral aff. tɬ [dɮ]


Vowels

Front Central Back
High i u
Mid ɛ (ə) o
Low æː a ɑ̆~ɒ̆~ɔ̆

Phonemes in parenthesis were brought into the language through loanwords but are now integral. Phonemes in brackets are today rarely distinguished.


Vowel Suprasegmentals and Diphthongs

Diphthongs
a
ɑ̆~ɒ̆~ɔ̆
æː æɪ æə
ɛ ɛː ɛɪ ɛə
i
o əɪ əː
u

All occurrences of /ɪ/ can be realized as /ɛ/ or /i/, and all occurrences of /ə/ can be realized as /u/, /o/, /a/, /ɑ/, /ɒ/, or /ɔ/.

There are 2 tones (ex. on /a/): normal (/a/) and rising-falling (/a᷈/). The latter only occurs on /a/, /ɛ/, /i/, /o/, and /u/. All vowels can also be creaky voiced (/a̰/).

Nasalization occurs sometimes and /ɑ̆~ɒ̆~ɔ̆/ is the vowel most prone.


Phonotactics

Many phonemes vary depending on their context in a given word:

  1. Coda /k/, /g/, /t̪/, and /d̪/ have no audible release.
  2. Coda /q/ becomes a glottal stop with no audible release (/ʔ˺/).
  3. Word-final long vowels have an implied /q/ following (ex.: /kaːʔ˺/).
  4. /ʀ/ is rarely pronounced as a trill (except when it is word-initial or directly precedes /a/), but is rather approximated, as /ɑ/ or /ɯ/, or when following a rounded vowel, as /w/ or a uvular approximant. Syllables with /ʀ/ often become diphthongs (ex. /imqoʀˈaʃə/ often becomes /imˈqɔaʃə/).
  5. Coda /l/ becomes /w/.
  6. Unstressed /a/, /ɛ/, and /i/ become /ə/, unstressed /u/ becomes /ɨ/, unstressed /o/ becomes /ɤ/ (unstressed /o/ and /i/ can also become /ɪ/).

Allowable syllable structures: CV, VC, CVC. A geminated consonant is considered as two consonants.

Rominazation

Letter c j f v š ž h r č or ĉ ĵ y e
Sound ϕ β ʃ ʒ χ ʀ j ɛ
Letter æ ɑ
Sound æː ɑ̆~ɒ̆~ɔ̆

All other characters are exactly their corresponding IPA value. All Latin characters were used, otherwise simple replacements were used, especially to maintain a one-character-one-phoneme rule and a no-diacritic rule for vowels, except when it would be simpler and clearer to use the IPA.


Grammar

Introduction

There are several terms that will be used to describe language patterns at least partly exclusive to Ģaxemo. Root words are generally CVC, and the middle vowel almost always has a corresponding "natural vowel" (abbreviated "NV" or "N") that is frequently used in conjugation and word derivation (CNV stands for "Corresponding Natural Vowel"):

Vowel CNV
a i
e o
i i
o a
u e

Lenition is also unique in Ģaxemo. When lenition is mentioned, it is actually referring to this char (CLC stands for "Corresponding Lenitive Consonant"):

Stop CLC
p š
b ž
t s
d z
k c
g j
q c

Forition is also unique. When fortition is mentioned, it is really referring to this chart (CFC stands for "Corresponding Fortitive Consonant"):

Consonant CFC Consonant CFC Consonant CFC Consonant CFC Consonant CFC Consonant CFC
p f j ž q h š c ģ g w b
b v ɬ f p ž j h q l d
t s ɮ v b ɬ m v y j
d z k x s t ɮ n z r r
c š g ģ z d x k ŋ r


Conjugation and Declension

There are 3 genders, typically determined by the first consonant (usually the first phoneme) of a root. Usually, if the first consonant is a stop, the root is masculine, if it is a fricative, the root is feminine, and if it is anything else, the root is neuter (in this case /ɬ/ and /ɮ/ are actually categorized as stops). If the first phoneme in a root is a vowel, the root is usually neuter, but many times it is irregular.

Verbal Mood
Masc Fem Neut
Indicative tak kek pus sak sek xur nak mek ru
Conditional insakí kekó empusé issaká osseké exxurú nik mok rewé
Potential ímsak ómsek émpus ássak éssek úxxur ínakna ómekne éruwne
Imperative ak ek us saká seké xurú na me ru

Colloquially, conditional mood is used for simple past tense and potential mood is used for simple future tense.

Verbal Tense
Masc Fem Neut
Present tak sak nak
Past tak...ɸiə sak...ɸal nak...maq
Future tak...si sak...sar nak...βa

The auxiliaries always appear at the very end of a clause.

Verbal Nouns
Masc Fem Neut
sakí sakád nakál


Case Markings
Masc Fem Neut
Nom - a - e - o
Acc X
Dat - e - a
Gen - o - i - e
Loc - u - o - i
Lat - e -u
Abl - i - o - e
Instr - ə

Instrumental case is only used colloquially.


There is a sort of "construct state", which utilizes accusative and genitive case. Ex.:

"life-GEN book-ACC"

"book of life"

This form applies even to possessives and many adjectives. There are only a few "true adjectives" in Imqorášə that are not just nouns in the "construct state". Ex.:

"me-GEN book-ACC"

"my book"

"ridiculousness-GEN book-ACC"

"ridiculous book"


The definite article varies depending on the gender and case of the word it is modifying. The article always precedes the noun it is modifying.

Masc Fem Neut
Nom ba ve mo
Acc/Ins
Dat be va ma
Gen bo vi me
Loc bu vo mi
Lat be vu mu
Abl bi vo me

Word Derivation

There are two ways in which words are derived: using commonly used stems and templates, known as "Ikasaasi Fató" (lit. "verb derivation" because many words derived this way stem from a verb), and coining new words, known as "Ikasaasi Rosó" (lit. "noun derivation" as most commonly used nouns are derived this way.

The most common Ikasaasi Fató stems and examples:

Ikasaasi Fató (with stress markers)
Base Verb / Noun fer
"to find / excavate"
Related Noun fêr
"fossil"
Tool férrana
"chisel"
Larger Concept óferaa'
"excavation"
Larger Object appári
"archeological site"
Adjective íperaas
"covered in dirt"

A base root (usually CVC and a verb) can have its inner vowel changed, most often with the "x̂" tone diacritic, or with a basic Ablaut (this form is the most irregular). The "tool" is derived with gemination of the last root consonant and the suffix "-ana". The larger concept contains the root within is the template "N-root-aa'", with the natural vowel of the inner vowel of the root taking initial stress. The "larger object" adds an "a-" prefix and an "-i" suffix as well as changes the root's inner vowel to "a" and the first root consonant undergoes fortition. In the adjective, the fortition remains, but with the prefix "i-" taking stress and the suffix "-aas".

In Ikasaasi Rosó, words are simply coined, and it happened that distinct "generations" of word derivation occurred. At different times in the language's history, words were simply derived in different ways, leaving a mess of words derived in different ways from different periods of time across history. The 4th generation extends to present day.

1st generation words: mainly compound words (ex. "taçasu", an assimilation of "taççə ane sub")

2nd generation words: combining borrowed words from different languages (ex. "mäsato", a combination of English "machine" and European "auto")

3nd generation words: borrowed words plus the suffix "-ó" (there is no stress diacritic if another appears earlier in the word), which is actually pronounced /õ~ɔ̃~ɑ̃~ɒ̃/ (ex. "kopuró", borrowed from English "computer")

4th generation words: borrowed words (ex. "porimu", borrowed from English "primer")

Some words were coined in between these distinct generations, namely "réligifatto" (meaning "religion"), which both contains a combination of the borrowed words "religion" and "faith / fate" (a characteristic of 2nd gen. words) and the suffix "-o" (a characteristic of 3nd gen. words).


All Ikasaasi Rosó words may undergo the following phonological changes:

  1. In older words, stress is generally penultimate, however in newer words stress is generally initial.
  2. #1 can be overridden by vowels with suprasegmentals, including diphthongs.
  3. #1 and #2 may be overridden if the compound words contains only one derivable root, and the root takes stress.
  4. A coda closed syllable containing /u/ is shortened to an open syllable and /u/ becomes /ɨ/.
  5. Strings of consonants (and sometimes vowels) that have similar places of articulation often assimilate, especially when unstressed.
  6. Vowel length and consonant gemination usually disappears, as can diphthongs, assimilating to the second vowel.
  7. Syllable-initial vowels generally disappear, especially when unstressed.
  8. As many consonant clusters are formed as possible around the stressed syllable. In older words, these clusters assimilate.
  9. In #8, many clusters like "tx" or "tr" often drop the initial stop.
  10. The older the word, the more extreme the phonological changes.
  11. Words that are old enough will be spelled to some degree phonetically and have done away with most conservative spelling.


Syntax

Lexicon

Simple Phrases

Naxáwmə - "Hello (form.)"

Ka-ə̀ná - "Who are you? / What's your name?"

Rosə̀ná ([ɒɔsˈná]) -"How are you?"

Ros addátu - "Things are well (lit. Everything is on the ground / in order)"

Saweng - "Okay (interjection)"