| Imqorášə |
|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
Classification and Dialects
Imqorášə (formerly Imqorásjə and colloquially Imqə̀aš or Imqə̀š) is a language isolate spoken in the Caucuses. It is the result of people from Europe, Africa, and America immigrating to the Caucuses to create an independent country (for religious reasons) and their culture and language merging overtime. There are minor dialectal differences between the language spoken in the western and eastern parts.
|Plosive||p b||t d||(tʃ dʒ)||k g||q|
|Fricative||ϕ β||s z||ʃ (ʒ)||x ɣ||χ|
|Lateral fric.||ɬ [ɮ]|
|Lateral aff.||tɬ [dɮ]|
Figures to the right or center of a cell are voiced, except /χ/, which is unvoiced.
All figures are unrounded, except /u/, /o/, and /ɔ/, which are rounded.
All occurrences of /ɪ/ can be realized as /ɜ/ or /i/, and all occurrences of /ə/ can be realized as /u/, /o/, /a/, /ɑ/, /ɒ/, or /ɔ/.
Phonemes in parenthesis were brought into the language through loanwords but are now integral to the language. Phonemes in brackets are today rarely distinguished.
Tone and Creaky Voiced
There are 2 tones (ex. on /a/): normal (/a/) and rising-falling (/a᷈/). The latter only occurs on /a/, /ɜ/, /i/, /o/, and /u.
All vowels can also be creaky voiced (/a̰/).
Phonemes in parentheses were brought into the language through loanwords but eventually became integral to the language. Phonemes in brackets are today rarely distinguished.Phonotactics
Many phonemes vary depending on their context in a given word:
- When /k/ and /g/ are final, they have no audible release (/k˺/ and /g˺/)
- When /g/ is final in an emphasized word (explained later) it is implosive and with no audible release (/ɠ˺/).
- When /n/, /t/, and /d/ are final, they are dental with no audible release (/n̪˺/, /t̪˺/, and /d̪˺/).
- When /q/ appears final, it is a glottal stop with no audible release (/ʔ˺/).
- /ʀ/ is almost always a voiced uvular approximant, except when it appears initial and/or directly precedes /a/ and is then sometimes a trill.
- When /l/ appears final, it is /w/, except when it directly follows /u/ or /o/, and is then often /oɔ/, or when it directly follows /a/, and is then sometimes /aɑ/.
- Post-alveolar fricative consonant clusters are often palatal-alveolar, like in the word "éššeəs" (/ˈɜɕ:ɜəs/).
- Post-alveolar fricative and stop consonant clusters are often retroflex, like in the word "pə́ščar" (/ˈpəʂʈʂaʀ/).
- When /ɑ/ directly precedes a nasal, it is often nasalized /ɑ͂/.
- When /m/ is final, it is labiodental /ɱ/, and sometimes also with no audible release /ɱ˺/.
- When /aː/ is final, a glottal stop with no audible release follows it (/aːʔ˺/).
- When /ɜː/ is final, a palatal lateral approximant with no audible release follows it (/ɜːʎ˺/). The approximant occurs with the sides of the tongue touching the teeth.
- When /iː/ is final, a palatal stop with no audible release follows it (/iːc˺/).
- When /oː/ is final, a velar stop with no audible release follows it (/oːk˺/).
- When /uː/ is final, a bilabial stop with no audible release follows it (/uːp˺/).
Allowable syllable structures: CV, VC, CVC. Geminated consonants are considered as two consecutive consonants.
There are 3 genders, typically determined by the first consonant (usually the first phoneme) of a root. Usually, if the first consonant is a stop, the root is masculine, if it is a fricative, the root is feminine, and if it is anything else, the root is neuter (in this case /ɬ/ and /ɮ/ are actually categorized as stops). If the first phoneme in a root is a vowel, the root is usually neuter, but many times it is irregular.
Vowels often have a "natural vowel" that is often referred to in many conjugations.
The base form of the root is a first person present potential verb.