| Imqorášə |
|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
Classification and Dialects
Imqorášə (formerly Imqorásjə and colloquially Imqə̀aš or Imqə̀š) is a language isolate spoken in the Caucuses. It is the result of people from Europe, Africa, and America immigrating to the Caucuses to create an independent country (for religious reasons) and their culture and language merging overtime. There are minor dialectal differences between the language spoken in the western and eastern parts.
|Plosive||p b||t d||(tʃ dʒ)||k g||q|
|Fricative||ϕ β||s z||ʃ (ʒ)||x ɣ||χ|
|Lateral fric.||ɬ [ɮ]|
|Lateral aff.||tɬ [dɮ]|
Phonemes in parenthesis were brought into the language through loanwords but are now integral to the language. Phonemes in brackets are today rarely distinguished.
All occurrences of /ɪ/ can be realized as /ɜ/ or /i/, and all occurrences of /ə/ can be realized as /u/, /o/, /a/, /ɑ/, /ɒ/, or /ɔ/.
There are 2 tones (ex. on /a/): normal (/a/) and rising-falling (/a᷈/). The latter only occurs on /a/, /ɜ/, /i/, /o/, and /u/. All vowels can also be creaky voiced (/a̰/).
Nasalization occurs sometimes and /ɑ̆~ɒ̆~ɔ̆/ is the vowel most prone.
Many phonemes vary depending on their context in a given word:
- When /k/ and /g/ are word-final, they have no audible release (/k˺/ and /g˺/).
- When /t/ and /d/ are word-final, they are dental with no audible release (/t̪˺/ and /d̪˺/).
- When /q/ appears word-final, it is a glottal stop with no audible release (/ʔ˺/).
- Final long vowels are followed by an implied glottal stop with no audible release follow (ex: /kaːʔ˺/).
- All above phonemes sometimes may be followed by some audible release.
- /ʀ/ is rarely pronounced as a trill (except when it is word-initial or directly precedes /a/), but is rather approximated, as a back vowel /ɑ/, or when following a rounded vowel, as rounded velar /w/ or uvular approximant. Syllables with /ʀ/ often become diphthongs (ex. /imqoʀˈaʃə/ often becomes /imˈqɔaʃə/).
- When /l/ is word-final, it is /w/.
- Postalveolar consonant clusters are often realized more retroflex, ex.: "pə́ščar" (/ˈpəʂʈʂaʀ/).
Allowable syllable structures: CV, VC, CVC. Geminated consonants are considered as two consecutive consonants.
There are 3 genders, typically determined by the first consonant (usually the first phoneme) of a root. Usually, if the first consonant is a stop, the root is masculine, if it is a fricative, the root is feminine, and if it is anything else, the root is neuter (in this case /ɬ/ and /ɮ/ are actually categorized as stops). If the first phoneme in a root is a vowel, the root is usually neuter, but many times it is irregular.
Often in conjugations, /t/ and /d/ assimilate to /s/ and /z/.
Informally, conditional mood is used for simple past tense and potential mood is used for simple future tense.