| Imqorášə |
|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
Classification and Dialects
Ģaremo (coll. Ģat) is a language isolate spoken in an autonomous zone in the Caucuses. It borrows from Germanic, Romance, and Semitic languages.
|Plosive||p b||t d||(tʃ dʒ)||k g||q|
|Fricative||ϕ β||s z||ʃ (ʒ)||x ɣ||χ|
|Lateral fric.||ɬ [ɮ]|
|Lateral aff.||tɬ [dɮ]|
Phonemes in parenthesis were brought into the language through loanwords but are now integral to the language. Phonemes in brackets are today rarely distinguished.
Vowel Suprasegmentals and Diphthongs
All occurrences of /ɪ/ can be realized as /ɛ/ or /i/, and all occurrences of /ə/ can be realized as /u/, /o/, /a/, /ɑ/, /ɒ/, or /ɔ/.
There are 2 tones (ex. on /a/): normal (/a/) and rising-falling (/a᷈/). The latter only occurs on /a/, /ɛ/, /i/, /o/, and /u/. All vowels can also be creaky voiced (/a̰/).
Nasalization occurs sometimes and /ɑ̆~ɒ̆~ɔ̆/ is the vowel most prone.
Many phonemes vary depending on their context in a given word:
- When /k/ and /g/ are word-final, they have no audible release (/k˺/ and /g˺/).
- When /t/ and /d/ are word-final, they are dental with no audible release (/t̪˺/ and /d̪˺/).
- When /q/ appears word-final, it is a glottal stop with no audible release (/ʔ˺/).
- Final long vowels are followed by an implied glottal stop with no audible release follow (ex: /kaːʔ˺/).
- All above phonemes sometimes may be followed by some audible release.
- /ʀ/ is rarely pronounced as a trill (except when it is word-initial or directly precedes /a/), but is rather approximated, as a back vowel /ɑ/, or when following a rounded vowel, as rounded velar /w/ or uvular approximant. Syllables with /ʀ/ often become diphthongs (ex. /imqoʀˈaʃə/ often becomes /imˈqɔaʃə/).
- Coda /l/ becomes /w/.
- Unstressed /a/, /ɛ/, and /i/ are often /ə/ (/i/ is sometimes /ɪ/ unstressed).
- Unstressed /u/ is often /ɨ/.
- Unstressed /o/ is often /ɤ/.
Allowable syllable structures: CV, VC, CVC. Geminated consonants are considered as two consecutive consonants.
|Letter||c||j||j||f||š||ž||h||r||č or ĉ||ĵ||y||e|
All other characters are exactly their corresponding IPA value. All Latin characters were used, otherwise simple replacements were used, especially to maintain a one-character-one-phoneme rule and a no-diacritic rule for vowels, except when it would be simpler and clearer to use the IPA.
Conjugation and Declension
There are 3 genders, typically determined by the first consonant (usually the first phoneme) of a root. Usually, if the first consonant is a stop, the root is masculine, if it is a fricative, the root is feminine, and if it is anything else, the root is neuter (in this case /ɬ/ and /ɮ/ are actually categorized as stops). If the first phoneme in a root is a vowel, the root is usually neuter, but many times it is irregular.
Colloquially, conditional mood is used for simple past tense and potential mood is used for simple future tense.
The auxiliaries always appear at the very end of a clause.
|Nom||- a||- e||- o|
|Dat||- e||- a|
|Gen||- o||- i||- e|
|Loc||- u||- o||- i|
|Abl||- i||- o||- e|
Instrumental case is only used colloquially.
There is a sort of "construct state", which utilizes accusative and genitive case. Ex.:
"book of life"
This form applies even to possessives and many adjectives. There are only a few "true adjectives" in Imqorášə that are not just nouns in the "construct state". Ex.:
The definite article varies depending on the gender and case of the word it is modifying. The article always precedes the noun it is modifying.
Compound words are incredibly common, though are often phonologically morphed due to pronunciation. The same can be applied to borrowed words. There are a number of rules that are applied to the morphing of these words phonologically:
- In older words, stress is generally penultimate, however in newer words (especially borrowed words) stress is generally initial.
- #1 can be overridden by vowels with suprasegmentals, including diphthongs.
- #1 and #2 can be overridden if the compound words contains only root; the root is stressed.
- A coda closed syllable containing /u/ is shortened to an open syllable and /u/ becomes /ɨ/.
- Strings of consonants (and sometimes vowels) that have similar places of articulation often assimilate, especially when unstressed.
- Vowel length and consonant gemination usually disappears.
- #6 can apply to diphthongs, though diphthongs can assimilate to the second vowel.
- The older the word, the more extreme the phonological changes.
- Words that are old enough will be spelled to some degree phonetically and have done away with conservative spelling newer words exercise.
Naxáwmə - "Hello (form.)"
Ka-ə̀ná - "Who are you? / What's your name?"
Rosə̀ná ([ɒɔsˈná]) -"How are you?"
Ros addátu - "Things are well (lit. Everything is on the ground / in order)"
Saweng - "Okay (interjection)"