Head direction
Tonal No
Declensions No
Conjugations No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
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Tense Aspect
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Words of 1500
Creator [[User:|]]

Classification and Dialects

Ģaxemo (pronounced /ɣəˈχɛmɤ/, coll. Ģam) is a language isolate spoken in an autonomous zone in the Caucuses. It borrows from Germanic, Romance, and Semitic languages.



Bilabial Alveolar Postalveolar Velar Uvular
Nasal m n (ŋ)
Plosive p b t d (tʃ dʒ) k g q
Fricative ϕ β s z ʃ (ʒ) x ɣ χ
Approximant w l j ʀ
Lateral fric. ɬ [ɮ]
Lateral aff. tɬ [dɮ]


Front Central Back
High i u
Mid ɛ (ə) o
Low æː a ɑ̆~ɒ̆~ɔ̆

Phonemes in parenthesis were brought into the language through loanwords but are now integral. Phonemes in brackets are today rarely distinguished.

Vowel Suprasegmentals and Diphthongs

æː æɪ æə
ɛ ɛː ɛɪ ɛə
o əɪ əː

All occurrences of /ɪ/ can be realized as /ɛ/ or /i/, and all occurrences of /ə/ can be realized as /u/, /o/, /a/, /ɑ/, /ɒ/, or /ɔ/.

There are 2 tones (ex. on /a/): normal (/a/) and rising-falling (/a᷈/). The latter only occurs on /a/, /ɛ/, /i/, /o/, and /u/. All vowels can also be creaky voiced (/a̰/).

Nasalization occurs sometimes and /ɑ̆~ɒ̆~ɔ̆/ is the vowel most prone.


Many phonemes vary depending on their context in a given word:

  1. Coda /k/, /g/, /t̪/, and /d̪/ have no audible release.
  2. Coda /q/ becomes a glottal stop with no audible release (/ʔ˺/).
  3. Word-final long vowels have an implied /q/ following (ex.: /kaːʔ˺/).
  4. /ʀ/ is rarely pronounced as a trill (except when it is word-initial or directly precedes /a/), but is rather approximated, as /ɑ/ or /ɯ/, or when following a rounded vowel, as /w/ or a uvular approximant. Syllables with /ʀ/ often become diphthongs (ex. /imqoʀˈaʃə/ often becomes /imˈqɔaʃə/).
  5. Coda /l/ becomes /w/.
  6. Unstressed /a/, /ɛ/, and /i/ become /ə/ (/i/ is sometimes /ɪ/), unstressed /u/ becomes /ɨ/, unstressed /o/ becomes /ɤ/.

Allowable syllable structures: CV, VC, CVC. A geminated consonant is considered as two consonants.


Letter c j f v š ž h r č or ĉ ĵ y e
Sound ϕ β ʃ ʒ χ ʀ j ɛ
Letter æ ɑ
Sound æː ɑ̆~ɒ̆~ɔ̆

All other characters are exactly their corresponding IPA value. All Latin characters were used, otherwise simple replacements were used, especially to maintain a one-character-one-phoneme rule and a no-diacritic rule for vowels, except when it would be simpler and clearer to use the IPA.


Conjugation and Declension

There are 3 genders, typically determined by the first consonant (usually the first phoneme) of a root. Usually, if the first consonant is a stop, the root is masculine, if it is a fricative, the root is feminine, and if it is anything else, the root is neuter (in this case /ɬ/ and /ɮ/ are actually categorized as stops). If the first phoneme in a root is a vowel, the root is usually neuter, but many times it is irregular.

Verbal Mood
Masc Fem Neut
Indicative tak kek pus sak sek xur nak mek ru
Conditional insakí kekó empusé issaká osseké exxurú nik mok rewé
Potential ímsak ómsek émpus ássak éssek úxxur ínakna ómekne éruwne
Imperative ak ek us saká seké xurú na me ru

Colloquially, conditional mood is used for simple past tense and potential mood is used for simple future tense.

Verbal Tense
Masc Fem Neut
Present tak sak nak
Past tak...ɸiə sak...ɸal nak...maq
Future sak...sar nak...βa

The auxiliaries always appear at the very end of a clause.

Verbal Nouns
Masc Fem Neut
sakí sakád nakál

Case Markings
Masc Fem Neut
Nom - a - e - o
Acc X
Dat - e - a
Gen - o - i - e
Loc - u - o - i
Lat - e -u
Abl - i - o - e
Instr - ə

Instrumental case is only used colloquially.
There is a sort of "construct state", which utilizes accusative and genitive case. Ex.:

"life-GEN book-ACC"

"book of life"

This form applies even to possessives and many adjectives. There are only a few "true adjectives" in Imqorášə that are not just nouns in the "construct state". Ex.:

"me-GEN book-ACC"

"my book"

"ridiculousness-GEN book-ACC"

"ridiculous book"

The definite article varies depending on the gender and case of the word it is modifying. The article always precedes the noun it is modifying.

Masc Fem Neut
Nom ba ve mo
Dat be va ma
Gen bo vi me
Loc bu vo mi
Lat be vu mu
Abl bi vo me

Compound words are incredibly common, though are often phonologically morphed due to pronunciation. The same can be applied to borrowed words. There are a number of rules that are applied to the morphing of these words phonologically:

  1. In older words, stress is generally penultimate, however in newer words (especially borrowed words) stress is generally initial.
  2. #1 can be overridden by vowels with suprasegmentals, including diphthongs.
  3. #1 and #2 can be overridden if the compound words contains only root; the root is stressed.
  4. A coda closed syllable containing /u/ is shortened to an open syllable and /u/ becomes /ɨ/.
  5. Strings of consonants (and sometimes vowels) that have similar places of articulation often assimilate, especially when unstressed.
  6. Vowel length and consonant gemination usually disappears.
  7. #6 can apply to diphthongs, though diphthongs can assimilate to the second vowel.
  8. The older the word, the more extreme the phonological changes.
  9. Words that are old enough will be spelled to some degree phonetically and have done away with conservative spelling newer words exercise.
  10. Syllable-initial vowels generally disappear.
  11. As many consonant clusters are formed as possible around the stressed syllable. In older words, these clusters assimilate.



Simple Phrases

Naxáwmə - "Hello (form.)"

Ka-ə̀ná - "Who are you? / What's your name?"

Rosə̀ná ([ɒɔsˈná]) -"How are you?"

Ros addátu - "Things are well (lit. Everything is on the ground / in order)"

Saweng - "Okay (interjection)"