Conlang
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Ing
Type
Alignment
Head direction
Tonal No
Declensions No
Conjugations No
Genders
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 0%
Statistics
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words of 1500
Creator Venndying

Ing is English that is heavily inspired by Chinese. But it has as free of a word order as the user wishes, despite it being an isolating language. English, in terms of frequency, uses more monosyllabic words than Chinese and Ing increases that number all while restricting the number of consonants that come at its coda, the end of a word.

Classification and Dialects[]

Phonology[]

Consonants[]

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n q ?
Plosive b p d t g k
Fricative v f z s zj sj h
Affricate dj tj
Approximant w r j
Trill
Flap or tap
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l L
Lateral flap

Vowels[]

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
High ij uw
Near-high i u
High-mid ej ow
Mid e ; o
Low-mid
Near-low a
Low ah

Phonotactics[]

Ing eliminates most consonants at the ends of syllables by using this system:

+w +∅ +j +m +n +q
Mid Tone - w j l r h
High/Rising Tone ' p t k v f z s ʒ ʃ
Low/Falling Tone ` b d g m n ŋ

+w, +'short vowel', +j; +f/v, +s/z, +ʃ/ʒ ⇒ mid or level tone [ - ]

+p, +t , +k; +h, +r, +l ⇒ high or rising tone [ ' ]

+b, +d, +g; +m, +n, +ŋ ⇒ low or falling tone [ ` ]; [=]?

+w; +p; +b ⇒ +w

+short vowel; +t; +d ⇒ +zero coda, ending

+j; +k; +g ⇒ +j

+f/v; +l; +m ⇒ +m

+s/z, +r; +n ⇒ +n

+ʃ/ʒ; +h, +ŋ⇒ +ŋ

(+l and +r are used randomly to avoid homophones and just to add variety.)

The last consonant of a consonant cluster is kept, meaning a few codas do in consonants that aren't resonants (vowel, /w j/, /m n ŋ/, / l r/).
That last consonant may be dropped, if an homophone is not created, or one that is not overly ambiguous.
Resonant cluster codas are permissible, but
Ing prefers that the most frequently used words have a single resonant coda.

An initial consonant cluster with +l+ and +r+ may be kept. These may have a consonant before them that is not normally found with them initially in English. These are to create monosyllabic words for meanings that do not have an acceptable English equivalent.

For any other initial consonant clusters, an alternative is found that follows the single initial or +l+/+r+ cluster phonotactic pattern.


Writing System[]

Letter
Sound
Letter
Sound
Letter
Sound

Grammar[]

The head has the strongest stress, the modifier has a moderate stress and the noncontent words have the weakest. (In writing: Strong stress has the tone before the vowel, moderate stress has it before the initial consonant and weak stress either receives no tone or has the tone marker after the vowel.)

To allow the maximum of word order freedom with the least amount of grammar:

The only case is Direct Object.

- vi - The modifier (adjective or adverb) is optionally marked when it is before its head (noun or verb), but
- v - must be marked when it follows its head. It has a different, but related, morpheme.

The verb phrase should carry a modal verb if the user wishes to mark it as different from the movable nouns.

Nouns[]

Verbs[]

Syntax[]

Lexicon[]

Ing prefers the most frequent words to not have a consonant coda or cluster, so it has either dropped them or found a replacement word.

Writing
- Place the tone before the vowel to mark the extra stress that a Head receives
- Place it before the initial consonant, instead, to mark the stress of the Modifier.
- Place it between resonants (doubling the vowel if a /w j/, /m n ŋ/, / l r/ does not follow the single vowel) to modify the word through the addition of tone. Mid/Level - more or less neutral; High/Rising - more positive, stronger, etc., than the words usual interpretation; Low/Falling - more negative, weaker, etc., than its usual interpretation.
This makes all resonants into syllables in their own right. Even fricatives (/v f z s ʒ ʃ/) can be made into syllables. - Placing a tone mark after the last of the coda, Extending the modification by tone, is also an option.

Writing - Those initial consonants without a following vowel written represents the schwa.

v - modifier on the opposite side of its head of where it is usually placed.
vi - modifier on the usual side of its head.

k`a - can -
m-e - may -
m'i - might -

m- - I, me ; -m - my -
w` - we, us, exclusive ; `w - our, exclusive -
w' - we, us, inclusive ; 'w - our, inclusive -
j' - you ; 'j - your -
h- - he, him, she, her, it ; -h - her, his, its -
z- - they, them ; -z - their -
'zin - this -
h-in - here -
'za - that -
h-an - there -
'wa - question word -
-?om - all -
`fem - many -
-ahr - other -
wo`n - one -
`tuq - two -
z-in - three -
-vor - four -
f'im - five -
'hen - six -
z'em - seven -
'je- eight -
n'im - nine -
`ten - ten -
'bi - big -
'li - small, little -
'wi - wide -
-nar - narrow -
'fa - fat, thick -
`zin - thin -
-tam - tall -
'ker - short, curt -
'hem - heavy -
`li - light weight -
h`um - human -
m`am - woman. `mam - womanly -
s`in - man. 'sin - manly -
z'un - spouse. -zun - spousal -
m'im - wife. -mim - wifely -
p`en - husband. 'pen - husbandly -
m`em - mother, mom. 'mem - motherly -
p'ep - father, pop. 'pep - fatherly -
k`i - child. 'ki - child-like -
tj`o - another's kid. 'tjo - childish -
g'ir - girl -
b-o - boy -
s`iw - sibling -
s'in - sister -
b-an - brother -
d-ir - animal -
f'iq - fish -
f`oq - amphibian -
r`uj- reptile -
b`ir - bird -
m`eq - mammal -
h,un - dog, hound -
k'a - cat -
l'on - louse -
sj`aq - snake -
w,er - worm
p,al - plant -
s,i - seed -
zj'ow - spore -
b`em - tree -
w`u - forest, woods -
w'er - root -
tj,uq - trunk, stem -
p'im - wood, pith -
r,in - bark, rind -
b,eq - stick -
l'im - leaf, blade -
b,ul - flower -
f'ur - fruit -
g'ar - grass -
r'ow - rope -
t-i - to tie -
zj`en - menstruation -
h'om - egg -
sj`er - sperm -
z`im - semen -
w`um - womb -
m'aq - breast(s) -
m'il - milk -
f-em - skin (of a person) -
sj-al - scale -
sj-em - shell -
m'e - meat (as in flesh) -
l`u - blood ¹ -
k`ah - cartilage -
n-el - nail -
f-en - feather -
f'um - down (fluff) -
h-en - hair -
h`ah - body hair -
h`or - horn -
t'um - tooth(teeth) -
b`on - bone -
sj'el - skeleton -
r`iw - rib(s) - thorax
p'em - pelvis -
h'iw - hip(s) -
l`in - lean (opp. of fat) -
f,e - fat (noun) -
h`e - head -
f'en - face -
?-o - eye(s) -
t-ir - tear(s) ¹ -
s-i - see -
z'i - sight -
?-ir - ear(s) -
k'an - ear wax ¹ -
h-ir - hear -
h`a - the audible/thing heard -
n'on - nose -
m'uj - mucus ¹ -
zj-em - smell -
h`o - odor -
t`uq - tongue -
t'en - taste -
zj'i - saliva ¹ -
t`aw - the taste/thing tasted -
m'ul - mouth -
t'ug - touch -
zj'e - sweat ¹ -
t'aq - the tangible/thing touched -
?`in - in - 3d
t'ow - on - 2d
l`e - at - location , present, etc.
?-an - and
w'im - with (accompanying) -
w-ej - away -
g-i - compass point(s) -
r'i - right (direction) - g-i+ (North) ; life+ (dominant parts) ; etc
l'em - left (direction) - g-i+ (South) ; life+ (nondominant parts) ; etc
f'a - front (direction) - gi+ (West) ; life+ (death) ; etc
b'a - back (direction) - gi+ (East) ; life+ (youth) ; etc.
d'iq - digit(s) -
t-o - toe(s) -
f`iq - finger(s) -
l`ew - leg-arm - t-o `lew = leg ; `fiq l`ew = arm
(?`ar - arm) -
w`iq - wing -
j-oj - joint -
n`ul - knuckle -
q'al - ankle(-wrist) -
(ri`n - wrist) -
n-i - knee(-elbow) -
(l`ew - elbow) -
k`aw - crotch(-axilla) -
(k'al - axilla, armpit joint) -
sj-ol - shoulder(s) -
zj`en - spine, backbone -
n`ew - neck -
z`ir - thyroid -
w'en - waist -
h'iw - hip(s) -
b`uw - belly -
?`or - organ(s) -
g'un - guts -
zj`om - stomach -
l`uq - lung(s) -
h'er - heart -
l'im - lymphatic (system) -
z`im - thymus -
zj`in - spleen -
g`al - gallbladder -
l'im - liver -
p`aq - pancreas -
r`en - renal, kidney(s) -
b`al - (urine) bladder -
dj'en - to ingest - to eat, drink, to be injected
d`iq - to drink - beverage ; poison ; toxin
?'i - to eat - food ; poison ; toxin
zj'o - to get shot/an injection - IV solution ; etc.
s'uj - to suck -
b'i - to bite -
zj'iw - to spit -
g'aw - to vomit ¹ -
?-aw - to blow (as wind) -
w-ew - wind (as in breeze) -
m'im - to breath -
h-a - to laugh -
t`al - to talk -
s-e - to say -
s`iq - to sing -
p-el - to play -
k'er - to create (art) -
w`or - to work -
k`an - to count -
n`um - number
k`en - to know (a fact) -
k'em - to know (somebody, something) -
z`iq - to think -
w`ew - to (be a-)wake - to be conscious
s`il - to (be a-)sleep -
l'i - to (be a-)live, life -
r'um - to revive -
k-il - to (be)kill(ed) -
d'em - to (be dead)/ die -
f-ir - to (be afraid)/fear -
h'e - to (be) bias(ed against), hate -
f'o - to fight -
h'i - to hit -
zj't - to split -
zj`aw - sharp (as a knife) -
d-ul - dull (as a knife) -
zj`aw - to stab -
k'u - to cut -
zj'a - to scratch -
?'u - to hunt (transitive)-
g'em - (hunter-)gatherer -
h`er - to herd -
f`ar - to farm -
d`ij - to dig -
zj`im - to swim -
f-il - to fly -
w`al - to walk -
g-o - to go(-come) -
k`om - to come -
f'ol - to remain stationary - swim+ ; fly+ ; walk+ ; dig+ ; etc.
f'o - to be on one's body part - back+ ; front+ ; side+ ; knees+ ; etc.
l-e - to lie (on one's side) -
r`iw - to recline -
s'i - to sit -
zj`an - to stand -
p'im - to pivot -
t`er - to turn (change direction) -
f-al - to fall (as in drop) -
g'im - to give(-get) -
g'e - to get -
h`ol - to hold (in one's hand(s)) -
p'on - to possess (alienable) -
zj'in - to squeeze -
p'uq - to push -
p-ul - to pull -
r`uw - to rub -
w'iw - to wipe -
w'aq - to wash -
z-or - to throw -
s-o - to sew -
k'om - clothes -
r`am - 'armor' - non-fabric body covering (used to protect) foot+ ; hand+
sj-u - shoe(s) -
g'ul - glove(s) -
h'a - hat -
m`ew - mask - for: face+; eyes+ ; ears+ ; nose+ ; mouth+ ; etc/
k-al - collar -
r`ow - dress, robe -
b`ow - clothing part - for: shoulders+ ; thorax+ ; waist+ ; etc
zj'ir - skirt - long+ ; middle+ ; short+ ; etc
zj-el - swell -
l-un - moon -
m`un - satellite - month: natural+ ; fastened+ (calendar) ; relative+ ; etc.
p`ow - probe in space -
r`om - planet - big+ ; middle+ ; small+ ; gas+ ; etc.
j-ir - orbit - year: natural+ ; fastened+ (calender) ; relative+ ; etc.
s`un - sun(star) -
zj-ar - star -
b'an - bask - season: natural+ ; fastened+ (calender) ; relative+ ; etc.
zj`in - spin - day: natural+ ; fastened+ (24 hours) ; relative+ ; etc.
d-e - day(time)/night(time) - sun/shadow position/angle: East+ (sunrise) ; West (sunset) ; 90°+ (noon) ; 189° (midnight) ; etc.
?`aq - angle - '22°' , 45° , '67°' , 90° , etc.
h-or - clockwise - clock: big+ (hour) ; middle+ (minute) ; small+ (second); etc.
g'an - gas -
h-uw - air -
zj-i - sky -
q'a - cloud -
f`ow - fog -
zj'oj - smoke -
f-ul - fuel -
k-in - kindle -
t`in - tinder -
g'is - to ignite -
f-er - fire - -fer: burn
h'i - heat - sense of heat
k-ul - cool - sense of cold
t`ew - tepid -
w'e - wet -
d-ir - dry -
w'a - water - hard+ (ice) ; etc.
?in - ice -
f-ol - to flow -
r'im - river -
l'ew - body of waster/liquid - size: big+ ; mid+ ; small+ ; flow+ (current) ; etc.
r`en - precipitate - tepid+ (rain) ; downy+ (snow) ; hard+ (hail) ; etc.
d'un - dust -
zj`ew - dust(-like) sheddings -
?'aq - ash -
d'ir -dirty -
h-il - mound - big+ (mountain) ; middle+ (human-sized) ; small ; etc.
s-oj - earth (as in soil)) -
zj`on - stone -
s`an - sand -
m`ir - mineral -
s'al - salt -
k-u - color -
f-ul - full -
?`em - empty -
n-u - new -
f'eq - fresh -
r-aw - unripe -
m-i - reminder -
r-iw - ripe -
?-ol - old -
zj-el - stale -
r'o - rot(ten) -
r'iq - right (correct) -
g`uw - good -
b`a = bad -
zj'e - straight -
r`on - round -
t'eq - texture -
zj'um - smooth -
r'um - rough -
?'im - if -
k'un - because -
n`em - name -
n`i - nickname -
t`il - title -
l'er - letter's name - symbol's name

Example text[]

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