Iraniya (Persian: اِیرَنِیَ (romanized: iraneya)), also known as Iraniyan, is a zonal auxlang designed to be the lingua franca of all people who speak Iranian languages e.g. Persian, Tajik, Pashto etc.

Influenced by many Iranian languages such as Persian and Tajik, it is slightly simplified and incorporates Iranian vocabulary from disparate origins and calques.


Iraniya
iranija اِیرَانِییَا ира̄ния
Type Synthetic
Alignment Nominative-accusative
Head direction Head-initial
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders 3
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 96%
Statistics
Nouns 100%
Verbs 100%
Adjectives 100%
Syntax 100%
Words 170 of 1500
Creator Kürbisch

Phonology[edit | edit source]

Consonants[edit | edit source]

These are the consonants that are used for transcribing the sounds of Iraniya (using IPA notation).

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
central lateral
Nasal m ŋ
Plosive p b t̪ d̪ k ɡ (q) (ʔ)
Fricative f v s z ʃ ʒ x ~ χ ɣ ~ ʁ h
Affricate ts tʃ dʒ
Approximant l j
Trill (r)
Flap or tap ɾ

Notes[edit | edit source]

  • In the standard 'northern' dialect of Iraniya, /q/ and /ɣ/ later have merged into /ɣ/, leaving only the separate phoneme. Loanwords from Arabic later introduced /q/ and /ɣ/ as separate phonemes.
  • /ɾ/ has a word-initial trill allophone [r], otherwise, they are contrasted between vowels which a trill [r] is pronounced a result in gemination of the /ɾ/ (by means of, [ɾː]).
  • /ʔ/ is only used in loanwords from Arabic and can be replaced with the null phoneme /∅/.

Vowels[edit | edit source]

Vowels may vary between dialect. This vowel chart below shows those of the northern 'standard' variety.

Monophthongs[edit | edit source]

Front Central Near-back Back
High ɨ
Near-high ɵː ʊː
High-mid e o
Near-low æ ɑː
Notes[edit | edit source]
  • In some northern areas, /ɵː/ may be pronounced as a near-front vowel [ʏː].
  • /e/ is phonetically somewhat raised [e̞].

Diphthongs[edit | edit source]

Ending point
Front Near-back
High-mid eɪ oɪ

Phonotactics[edit | edit source]

Syllable structure[edit | edit source]

Syllables are mainly structured as (C)(S)V(S)(C(C)).

A typical Iraniya syllable is composed of an optional onset, consisting of only one consonant, a mandatory vowel nucleus preceded and succeeded by an optional semivowel, and an optional coda, containing 1 or 2 consonants. The following constraints apply:

  • Onset
    • Consonant (C): Can be any consonant (Onset is only composed of 1 consonant, clusters are only found in loanwords; typically from English or Sanskrit; sometimes an epenthetic /æ/ is inserted between 2 consonants.).
  • Nucleus
    • Semivowel (S)
    • Vowel (V)
    • Semivowel (S)
  • Coda
    • Consonant (C): Can be any consonant.
    • Consonant (C): Can be any consonant (mostly /d, k, s, z, t, ʃ/).

Geminate consonants are also phonemic as well. They are characterized by such sandhi and in some words, such as bacce.

Phonological processes[edit | edit source]

Allophones[edit | edit source]

  • /b/ becomes [β] intervocalically.
  • Some speakers may nasalize vowels before /n/.

Elision[edit | edit source]

  • /n/ is omitted after /h/.
  • /h/ is omitted before fricatives.

Sandhi[edit | edit source]

Phonological changes occur at morpheme boundaries (sandhi) for specific grammatical morphemes.

  • /pb/, /td/, and /kɡ/ become geminated [pː], [t̪ː] and [kː] respectively.
  • The cluster /dl/ becomes a geminated [lː].

Prosody[edit | edit source]

Stress[edit | edit source]

Stress usually falls from the first to the second syllables. Stress tends to:

  • be always on the first syllable
  • avoid /ɨ/'s
  • avoid being on the negative affix nǝ-.
  • obtain their original stress on loanwords e.g. Obama /oˈbɑːmɑː/.
Pitch[edit | edit source]

Iraniya has a 'pitch' accent (called a sahad). The sahad of Iraniya can be described as a rising tone e.g. /ǽ/. Sahad tends to be:

  • on the last-stem syllable of most words
  • on the first syllable on interjections, conjunctions and vocatives
  • never on:
    • personal suffixes of verbs
    • clitics
    • one-syllable words
    • loanwords
  • always on:
    • negative suffix nə-
    • non negative verb suffixes, or prefix noun on compound verbs.
Intonation[edit | edit source]

Iraniya, like English, also has intonation. The four types of intonation can be described as:

  • normal sentence (no intonation)
  • interrogative sentence (/↗︎/ on first word, fourth word)
  • imperative sentence (/↗︎/ on first word, third word, /↘︎/ on second word)
  • information sentence (/↘︎/ on second word, /↗︎/ on fourth word)


Orthography[edit | edit source]

Iraniya has no standardized writing system, though the Arabic alphabet is the most used, but still not verified by the government. Linguists usually use the Aytuği romanization, while Tajiks usually prefer the Cyrillic alphabet for transliterating Iraniya words into Tajik.

Aytuği romanization[edit | edit source]

The Aytuği romanization is a version of the Latin alphabet based on the 1990s versions of the Latin Udi alphabet and the Uniform Turkic Alphabet.

Latin alphabet for Iraniya (lətina)
Letter Aa Əə Bb Cc Çç Dd Ee Ff Gg Ƣƣ Hh Ii
Sound ɑː æ b e f ɡ ɣ ~ q h
Letter Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Ññ Oo Pp Rr Ss Şş Tt
Sound j k l m ŋ o p r s ʃ
Letter Uu Ūū Vv Xx Zz Ƶƶ Цц Ьь ei oi ou
Sound ʊː ɵː v x z ʒ ts ɨ

Arabic alphabet[edit | edit source]

The Arabic alphabet is mostly used by Arabs, the Libyans and the Algerians. Some linguists may use that.

Arabic alphabet for Iraniya (ərəbi/اَرَبِی)
Letter ا ب پ ت ث ج چ ح خ د ذ ر
Sound Ø/ʔ b p s h x z r
Letter ز ژ س ش ص ض ڞ ط ظ ع غ ف
Sound z ʒ s ʃ s z ts t z Ø/ʔ/æ ɣ ~ q f
Letter ق ک گ ل م ن ه و ی اَ اِ اُ
Sound ɣ ~ q k ɡ l m h v j æ e o

Letter

اَا اِی اُو اُۍ اِو اَی اُی اَو
Sound ɑː ʊː ɨ ɵː
Notes[edit | edit source]
  • ح is also known as حِ حُتِّی (he-hotti), and ه is also known as هِ جِمِی (he-jemi).
  • The vowel and diphthong diacritics here are shown with the letter ا (alif).

Cyrillic alphabet[edit | edit source]

The Cyrillic alphabet is mostly used in Russia, southern Mongolia and northern Bulgaria.

Cyrillic alphabet for Iraniya (sirilik/сирилик)
Letter Аа А̄а̄ Бб Вв Гг Ғғ Дд Ее Ёё Жж Зз Ии
Sound æ ɑː b v ɡ ɣ ~ q je jo ʒ z
Letter Йй Кк Ққ Лл Мм Нн Ңң Оо Пп Рр Сс Тт
Sound j k q l m n ŋ o p r s
Letter Уу Ӯӯ Фф Хх Ҳҳ Цц Чч Шш Щщ Щщ Ъъ Ыы
Sound ʊː ɵː f x h ts ʃ ʃt ʔ ɨ

Letter

Ээ Юю Яя ай ау ой
Sound e jʊː

Notes[edit | edit source]

  • Щ is only used in loanwords from Russian.

Grammar[edit | edit source]

Nouns[edit | edit source]

Gender[edit | edit source]

Iraniya has 3 genders; masculine, feminine and neuter. Neuter is unmarked. If a noun is preceded by the suffix -o, it is masculine. If a noun is preceded by the suffix -i, it is feminine.

Cases[edit | edit source]

There are 2 cases in Iraniya: nominative and accusative. The nominative is unmarked, but when it's followed by the particle ra or suffix -a, it is accusative. The oblique cases are marked by postpositions.

  • Nominative: şuh morda xord 'the dog ate the man'
  • Accusative: mord şuha bizud 'the man pats the dog'

An additional case, possessive is formed with ezāfe.

  • Possessive using ezāfe: kiteb-e Sam 'Sam's book'

Number[edit | edit source]

All nouns can be made plural with the suffix -he.

  • kiteb (book)
  • kitebhe (books)

Irregular plurals are also used e.g.

  • nov (kind)
  • onvo (kinds)

Pronouns[edit | edit source]

Subject pronouns[edit | edit source]

Pronouns share 3 persons (1st, 2nd, 3rd), and 2 numbers (plural, singular). This table below shows the list of pronouns, with their correspondences.

s p
1p ma mo
2p tu şum
3p ū/vaj/es onho

Iraniya is a pro-drop language, meaning that pronouns are often dropped off.

  • (Ma) xub am. - I am good.

Object pronouns[edit | edit source]

The most common object pronouns of Iraniya are:

s p
1p ma ra mo ra
2p tu ra şum ra
3p ū/vaj/es ra onho ra

Possessives[edit | edit source]

Possessives are shown by adding the ezafe construct to the pronoun.

s p
1p maje moje
2p tuje şume
3p ūje/vaje/ese onhoje

Determiners[edit | edit source]

These tables below show the use of determiners by the word 'sib' (apple).

Determiners
def. indef.
sg. sib sibi
pl. sibhe sibhei

Demonstratives[edit | edit source]

The most common demonstrative pronouns in Iraniya are:

Demonstratives
prox. dist.
sg. in sib an sib
pl. inhe sibhe anhe sibhe

Verbs[edit | edit source]

Verbs in Iraniya are very complex by their morphology. The stem order of a verb is:

(tense) verb (personal ending) (infinitive/participle/tense/causative marker)

Infinitives[edit | edit source]

Iraniya infinitives end in -dan or -tan. Some examples:

  • xordan (to eat)
  • nocūdan (to drink)
  • raftan (to go)
  • bazadan (to play)

There are two types of stems, the present stem, and the past stem. The past stem is easier to learn, it is formed by simply removing the -an suffix.

Gerund[edit | edit source]

The gerund is formed with the infinitive.

  • xordan (eating (noun))
  • Xordan bijaşaƣma (I love eating.)

Participles[edit | edit source]

Participles in Iraniya usually distinguish between two types: present and perfect.

  • The perfect participle is marked with the suffix -ti. It is active in transitive verbs but passive in intransitive verbs.
    • xorti (eaten)
    • nocūti (drank)
  • The present participle is marked with the suffix -dar.
    • xordar (is eating)
    • nocūdar (is drinking).

Personal endings[edit | edit source]

Personal forms of verbs are usually formed with simple prefixes. The personal suffixes for the non-past are:

  • -am first person singular 'I'
  • -i second person singular 'you'
  • -et third person singular 'he/she/it'
  • -em first person plural 'we'
  • -ed second person plural 'thou'
  • -tu third person plural 'they'

The 2nd and 3rd persons plural may refer to singular persons for added respect or honorific. One major exception is God, for whom plural forms are never used.

The past tenses have very similar endings, except that the 3rd person singular is unmarked:

  • -am first person singular 'I'
  • -i second person singular 'you'
  • - third person singular 'he/she/it'
  • -em first person plural 'we'
  • -ed second person plural 'thou'
  • -tu third person plural 'they'

Tense-Aspect-Mood[edit | edit source]

Iraniya verbs can be conjugated into 2 simple tenses (present, past), 3 grammatical moods (indicative, subjunctive, imperative) and 2 aspects (perfective, imperfective).

Indicative mood[edit | edit source]
Present[edit | edit source]

The present tense talks about the present time. It is formed by the present stem, the prefix bi-, then the personal ending.

  • bixor (eat)
  • ma bixoram (I eat)
Past[edit | edit source]

The past tense talks about the past time. It is formed by the past stem.

  • xord (he/she/it ate)
Imperfect[edit | edit source]

The imperfect talks about ongoing events that were completed in the past time. It is formed by the past stem, and adding the prefix mi-.

  • mixordma (I was eating)
Present perfect[edit | edit source]

The present perfect is used to express a past event that has present consequences. It is formed by removing the infinitive suffix, adding the present, and adding the perfect participle. The personal marker is finally added.

  • Ma bixoramti (I had eaten)
Pluperfect[edit | edit source]

The pluperfect, or past perfect, is used to refer to an action at a time earlier than a time in the past already referred to. It is formed by the perfect participle, and the personal marker.

  • xortti (had ate)
Future[edit | edit source]

The future is formed with the aux. verb xostan ('to want') in the present, and the past stem with personal endings.

  • ma xosam xord - I will eat
  • tu xosi xord - You will eat
  • ū xoset xord - He/she/it will eat
  • mo xosem xord - We will eat
  • şum xosed xord - Thou will eateth
  • onho xostu xord - They will eat
Subjunctive mood[edit | edit source]
Present[edit | edit source]

The present subjunctive is formed from the present stem with personal endings.

  • Ma xorma - I may eat
  • Mo xorem - we may eat
Imperative mood[edit | edit source]
Present[edit | edit source]

The imperative mood is a mood that urges someone to do something. It is formed with the prefix bo-, then the present stem.

  • boxor! (Eat!)

The negative imperative is formed with the prefix no-.

Copula[edit | edit source]

The irregular verb bodan 'to be', can be put into a copula using Iraniya's verb conjugation. This table shows the Iraniya copula.

Verb bodan 'to be' conjugation
TAM Person
ma (I) tu (you) ū/vaj/es (he/she/it) mo (we) şum (thou) onho (they)
Indicative Present am i ost em ed ond
Past budam budi bud budem buded budond
Imperfect budejam budei bude/budest budeim budeid buden
Present perfect budim budij budos budim budid budind
Pluperfect bidem bidei bide bideim bidid bidind
Future xos am xos i xos ost xos em xos ed xos ond
Subjunctive Present ame ije oste eme ede onde
Imperative Present boma! bodi! bod! bodem! boded! bodond!
Causative bomadən bodidən bodən bodemən bodedəm bodondən
Passive şu am şu i şu ost şu em şu ed şu ond


Causatives[edit | edit source]

Causatives are valency-increasing operations that causes a predicate to do or be something e.g. I made him cry. The causative in Iraniya is formed with the suffix -ən to the normal or past stem.

  • -xor- (eating), -xor-ən (making to eat), xoramən (made me eat)

Passive voice[edit | edit source]

The passive voice is a valence-decreasing voice where the object is done by the subject. It is done by placing the conjugation of the verb şudan 'to have' before the verb, and adding the personal ending.

  • şu xor (is eaten)

Adjectives[edit | edit source]

Adjectives typically follow the nouns they modify, using the ezafe construct. However, adjectives can precede nouns by derivational morphology e.g. xob-başt (lit. good luck) (lucky). Adjectives can come in many different orders after a noun and in this case an adjective at the end of a word, is use to generate more emphasis or suspense.

The comparative is marked with the suffix -tьr, and the superlative with the suffix -nitьr. The word 'than' is formed with the preposition əz.

  • Maje gorvi bəzorgtьr ost əz tuje şuh. (My cat is bigger than your dog.)

Syntax[edit | edit source]

Word order[edit | edit source]

Iraniya has a canonical word order of SOV. Modifiers usually follow the noun they modify.

Sentence Johan sibaj xord.
Gloss Johanne apple-ACC-INDEF.SG eat-PST
Part subject object verb
Translation Johanne ate an apple.

If a direct object is included, then Iraniya has a word order of SODV (subject-object-direct object-verb).

Sentence Johan Sama sib did.
Gloss Johanne Sam-ACC apple give-PST
Part subject object direct object verb
Translation Johanne gave the apple to Sam.


Adjectival syntax and clauses[edit | edit source]

The adjective, using the ezafe construction, usually comes after the noun, and in some cases, it can often go before it to increase emphasis.

  • zan-e noz (the cute girl)

Subordinate clauses usually come after co-ordinate clauses. Iraniya is also the few SOV languages to include prepositions.

Negation[edit | edit source]

Negation is formed by the prefix nǝ-.

  • nəxordan (not to eat)
  • nəxorc (did not ate)
  • nəmixord (was not eating)
  • nəgorvi (not a cat)

Forming questions[edit | edit source]

The particle ǝj can make a yes-no question, and it comes after the verb. Other questions can be made by the word order of QOV (question word-object-verb).

  • Ce tuje nam ost? - What's your name?
Interrogative pronominals[edit | edit source]

The interrogatives of Iraniya are:

Table of interrogatives
Determiner cei
Pronoun Human ce
Non-human ci
Out of many cədm
Pro-adverb Location caç
Source za cec
Goal cec
Time ciç
Manner/state cetr
Reason cir

Relative pronouns[edit | edit source]

There are two relative pronouns in Iraniya, on and cei. On is used for direct clauses (i.e. those where the relativised element is the subject of its clause or the direct object of an inflected verb rather than the copula bodan), while cei is used for indirect clauses.

  • mord on ma didam - the man that I saw

Reduplication[edit | edit source]

Partial initial reduplication of some verbs (mainly onomatopoetic verbs) in Iraniya causes iterative or repeated actions.

  • şuşudan (to gurgle)
  • şuşuşudan (to gurgle repeatedly)

Derivational morphology[edit | edit source]

  • bi- derives from noun X a phrase meaning 'without X'.
  • -an derives from noun/phrase X a noun meaning 'place of X'
  • na- derives from adjective X an adjective meaning 'the opposite of X' or 'lack of X'
  • bə- derives from adjective X an adverb meaning 'X-ly'.
  • -i derives from adjective X an adjective meaning 'act of being X'.
  • di- derives from noun X an adverb meaning 'before/the previous X'.

Examples[edit | edit source]

  • bi-: əv (water), bijəv (without water)
  • -an: nan (bread), nanan (bakery)
  • na-: omid (hope), navomid (hopeless)
  • bə-: kamel (complete), bəkamel (completely)
  • -i: durust (correct), durusti (correctness)
  • di-: roz (day), diroz (yestarday)


Lexicon[edit | edit source]

Names of the language in other languages[edit | edit source]

  • English - Iraniya /aɪˈrænijә/
  • Spanish - lengua iraniyo
  • French - langue d'iragnée
  • German - Iränisch
  • Italian - lingua irannia
  • Mandarin - 以然雅 (yǐrányǎ)
  • Japanese - イラニヤ (iraniya)
  • Korean - 일안이야 (ilaniya)
  • Russian - Ирания
  • Arabic - الإيرانية (al-iraniya)
  • Vietnamese - î rán ỵa
  • Polish - Iranija
  • Hebrew - יִרַנִיַ (iraniya)
  • Swedish - Iranskå
  • Dutch - ireenisk
  • Greek - ιρανϊα
  • Portuguese - iranião
  • Romanian - irania
  • Swahili - Kiraniya
  • Welsh - iranea
  • Croatian - iranja
  • Serbian - Ирања
  • Danish - iransk
  • Hawaiian - 'ilania
  • Norwegian - iranisk
  • Hindi - इरनिय
  • Basque - Iraniak
  • Hungarian - iranya
  • Finnish - iranejaa
  • Latin - iraniā
  • Inukitut - ᐃᓚᓂᔭ (ilanija)
  • Punjabi - ਇਰਨਿਯ
  • Nahuatl - ilaniatl
  • Bulgarian - Ираней
  • Galician - irane
  • Esperanto - Iranĉa
  • Fijian - ilanja (borrowed from Esperanto)
  • Zulu - isIraneya
  • Afrikaans - iraansje
  • Malay - Behasa Iraneye
  • Tagalog - Iraniyo
  • Swiss (Schweiz) - Irenisch
  • Luxembourgish - Iranïee
  • Somali - Iraniyaa
  • Amharic - ኢረኒየ
  • Bosnian - iranija
  • Samoan - 'ilani
  • Bengali - ইরনিয
  • Mexican Spanish - iranicha
  • Austrian (Österreich) - Ireenische

Words[edit | edit source]

  • a, an (indef. article) - jak (lit. one)
  • abacus - cartaƣ
  • ability - ƣodr
  • above, over - ferez, alel
  • absolute - kameli (lit. completeness)
  • to act - omol kartan
  • to adopt - pozriftan
  • after - gəz
  • again - baz
  • against - moxlef
  • air - şijo (m.)
  • (to) align - ǝxattan
  • all - təmam
  • alphabet - əlifba
  • alone, lone, only - təha
  • also - hem
  • altar - çamaca (f.)
  • America - Amerika
  • ancient, antique - qadam
  • and - o
  • anger, wrath - ƣǝzve
  • angry, wrathful - ƣǝzvena
  • answer - sadij
  • (to) answer - sadij dedan (lit. answer to)
  • antique - antik
  • (to) appear, seem - xǝsmadan
  • apple - sib
  • arch - taq
  • to argue, dispute - baz kartan
  • around - perav
  • astronaut - astronot
  • author - navs
  • authority - qattal
  • away - dour
  • back (to a previous state) - paşt
  • balance - tədal
  • banana - kil
  • band - band
  • base, foundation - pagoh
  • to base, found - xəvardan
  • based - asas
  • bare - baraxnə
  • to be - bodan (for forms, see Copula)
  • beak - manqar
  • bear - xors
  • to bear, avert - bordan
  • to beat - zandan
  • to become - şodan
  • to believe - bavar kartan
  • big - bәzorg
  • bird - pәrәnd
  • to blow - vәzidan
  • to boast, brag - laf zadan
  • boat - keşti (f.)
  • body, torso - betin
  • bone - ustuxon
  • book - kiteb
  • border, limit - marz
  • bottom - tax
  • bow (n.) - kəmən
  • to bow - xamidan
  • bread - nan
  • to break - şikastan
  • breath - nafs
  • to breathe - nafs keşdan
  • bridge - pul
  • to bring - avardan
  • brother - bəradr
  • brotherhood - bəbəradr
  • buffalo - gavmiş
  • by - ba
  • bye, goodbye, farewell - xoda hafz
  • camel - şotr
  • to carve, sculpt - tarşidan
  • cat - gorvi
  • cave - kaf
  • certain - hatim
  • change - taƣir
  • to change - taƣir kartan
  • chaos - aşab
  • to check - bazdaştan
  • cheese - penir
  • child - bacce
  • clay - rus
  • clock - sot
  • cloud - badl
  • cold (adj.) - sord
  • cold (n.) - sorm
  • color - roñ
  • colossal - ƶend
  • to come - omodan
  • comma - ūrgol
  • to command - formodan
  • commandment, order - formon
  • common - şuj
  • to complete, finish - kamel kartan
  • complete, finished - kamel
  • completely - bəkamel
  • completion - itmem
  • to confuse - maƣvaş kardan
  • confused - dərhum
  • confusion - eƣtişaş
  • to connect (transitive) - pevistan
  • conscience - victun
  • consistency, constancy, regularity - sazgari (m)
  • consistent, constant, regular - sazgar
  • to continue (intransitive), endure, go on - dame didan
  • copy - kopi
  • to copy, duplicate, imitate - kopi kartan
  • correct, right - durust
  • cosmic, universal - kohijn
  • cosmos, universe - kohijnan (m)
  • to count - şumurdan
  • to create - jaçd kartan
  • to cross, traverse - gozitan
  • to cry - giristan
  • cure - dərmon
  • curl - holq
  • curse, spell - nefrin
  • to cut - bordan
  • daughter - doxter
  • day - roz
  • desert - bijəvan
  • to dig - kəndan
  • dignity - itibər
  • dog - şuh
  • dolphin - delfin
  • down - pajn
  • dress - ƣamiz
  • to drink - noşidan
  • dry - xoşk
  • each - ham
  • egg - taxm
  • eight - oxt
  • elephant - fil
  • eleven - jazdax
  • to endow - şodastan
  • equal - borobər
  • eye - oin
  • eyelash - moƶi
  • father - pədr
  • figure, being - şokol
  • fire - otoş
  • fish - mahij
  • five - panc
  • flower - gol
  • four - cor
  • free - ozod
  • frog - korbok
  • game - boz
  • girl - zan
  • goat - bez
  • good - xob
  • grass - ulv
  • great - ali
  • hand - dost
  • happy - xuşal
  • hat - topi
  • he/she/it - es
  • head (chief) - sor
  • head (body) - koloh
  • hope - omid
  • horse - asb
  • house - xon
  • I - ma
  • in - dar
  • into - beh
  • to join - peivestan
  • joint - mufsal
  • just (adj.) - odol
  • just - çoxt
  • to kill - koştan
  • kind (n.) - nov
  • kind (adj.) - mehrәban
  • knife - kort
  • leaf - borg
  • magic - cadu
  • to make - şoxtan
  • monkey - bandar
  • morning - sobh
  • mother - mədr
  • museum - mūz
  • nine - noi
  • no - nə
  • north - şam
  • of - əz
  • one - jak
  • other - digr
  • paper - kaƣaz
  • penguin - pingvin
  • person - odəm
  • purple - camin
  • reason - sabub
  • red - lal
  • reservoir - jəvan
  • right (dir.) - rost
  • right (n.) - hoƣoƣ
  • rocket - roket
  • sausage - sosiz
  • seven - xoft
  • sheep - gūsfənd
  • (to) shine - deraxşidan
  • should - ta
  • sing - sarudan
  • sister - xohor
  • six - cix
  • snail - holzon
  • snake - mar
  • spirit - roh
  • squeeze - fişar
  • squirrel - sençab
  • sting - neş
  • to sting - gezidan
  • store - dukon
  • sun - xarş
  • table - miz
  • to take - girəftan
  • telephone - telefon
  • ten - dax
  • they - onho
  • thou - şum
  • three - tin
  • tooth - denti
  • towards - sū
  • train - ƣətar
  • twelve - doidax
  • two - doi
  • unhappy - ƣumkis
  • unusual - gurdi
  • up - bul
  • vegetable - sobzi
  • to wake - bidr şudan
  • water - əv
  • we - mo
  • will - hoxət
  • wind - bad
  • wine - vin
  • with - bu
  • yes - or
  • yesterday - diroz
  • you - tu

Sample phrases[edit | edit source]

Phrase Iraniya
Good day (frm.) Solam mo aleikom
Hello (inf.) Hei
How are you? Cetr tu i?
I'm... Am...
How old are you? Cend tu i?
Where do you live? Caç zendig mikari?
Thanks. Mersi.
I love you. Ma tu ra biasaƣam
Sorry Bebəxsid.
Very good. Bisər xob.
I'm from... Əz am...
Goodbye (frm.) Xoda hafz
Bye (inf.) Cav (from ciao)


Example texts[edit | edit source]

Iraniya Pronunciation Gloss Translation
Ma şokoliza-e rus o borghe-e kil şoxtamti. /ˈmɑː ˌ↘︎ʃo.ko.líːzɑ ˈe ˌrʊːs ˈ↗︎o ˌboɾg.he ˈe ˌkiːl ˈʃox.tɑːm.ti/ 1SG figure-PL.GEN clay and leaf-PL.GEN banana make-1SG.PERF I made the figures from clay and banana leaves.
Dur goşu bəsan. /ˈdʊ́ːr ˌgo.ʃʊ́ː ˈbæ.sɑ́ːn/ door open-PST.3SG easy-ADV The door opened easily.
Nokari əv binoşi gəz mixordi mahij. /ˈ↗︎no.kǽr ˌ↘︎æv ˈ↗︎biː.no.ʃí ˌdɑːr ˈpiː ˌmiː.xor.díː ˈmɑː.híːj/ do-NEG.IMP.2SG water drink-PRES.2SG after eat-IMPF.2SG fish Don't drink water after eating fish.
Soti xərob ost. /ˈsotíː ˌxærób ˈóst/ clock-DEF broken be-PRE The clock is broken.
Ma nanan es ra girəftam diroz. /ˈmɑː ˌ↘︎nɑːnɑ́ːn ˈes ↗︎rɑː ˌgiːræftɑ́ːm ˈdíːroz/ 1SG bread-place Wei take-PST.1SG previous-day I took Wei to the bakery yesterday.

See also[edit | edit source]

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