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This language is incomplete. It is currently being worked on (as of Jan 7 2020) but you are free to take a look before it is finished.

Language created Dec 2019.

Irkhilakhu
Irkhilakhu
Type Fusional
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Head direction Initial
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders 3
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 83%
Statistics
Nouns 100%
Verbs 100%
Adjectives 100%
Syntax 50%
Words 8 of 500
Creator Nondescrypt

Classification and DialectsEdit

Classification Edit

Fusional

VSO or SOV, based on speaker preference.

Nominative-Accusative

Head-Initial

Special features:

  • Obviative nouns
  • Phonetically-accurate abjad
  • A few minor instances of reduplication

Dialects Edit

Eston Speech (kh'atshwalhu ngbhu il /çʔat͡ʃʍaɮu ŋβu il/) - By far the most common dialect of Irkhilakhu, it is the version spoken in the capital. It is the dialect described here.

Western Speech (uzada ngbu il /uzada ŋbu il/) - The dialect spoken in the west of the continent. It is the second most common, and differs very little from Eston Speech, only having a few different consonants, vowels, and words.

(to be made - describe changes)

Desvaril - The variant of Irkhilakhu spoken by the people of the desert. It is a good deal closer to Common than all other dialects.

(to be made - describe changes)

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m ŋ
Plosive b t̪      d̪ k g ʔ
Fricative β s̪      z̪ ʃ ç (ɣ) h
Affricate t͡ʃ d͡ʒ
Approximant ʍ ʀ
Lateral fric. ɮ
Lateral app.
  • [ʀ] ~ [ɣ] before front vowels (here, /i/ and /a/)


VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Back
High i u
Low-mid ɜ
Low a

Diphthongs: [a͡u], [u͡a], [ɜ͡a], [i͡ɜ], [u͡ɜ], [i͡u], [ɜ͡u], (in loanwords) [ɜ͡i]

PhonotacticsEdit

  • Penult Stress
  • Max. root syllable is (p.)(f.,s.)(C)V(C)(C)(C-p.,l.) where p = plosive, f = fricative, s = sonorant, and l = lateral

Writing SystemEdit

Irkhilakhu Script Edit

"(name in Irkhilakhu)"Irkhilakhu Script Edit
Additional notes: Edit
  • The script is written from left to right, and consonants of a single word are connected in a similar manner to cursive.
  • Diphthongs are written as combined versions of normal vowel markers, but from the bottom up.
  • Vowels are placed after the consonant which precedes them, and are not disconnected from the consonant. In the case that a word starts with a vowel rather than a consonant, a circle will be placed in that position in the consonant's stead. The position of the circle in relation to the first consonant is up to the artistic interpretation of the writer, but in most cases it will simply occupy the space directly left of said consonant.
  • [t͡ʃ] and [d͡ʒ] are written as combinations of the t and ʃ and the d and ʃ symbols respectively.

Romanization Edit

Letter b bh m t d s z sh kh lh l w
Sound b β m t d s z ʃ ç ɮ l ʍ
Letter k g ng r ' h a i e u j tsh
Sound k g ŋ ʀ ʔ h a i ɜ u d͡ʒ t͡ʃ

The romanization is written completely phonetically.

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

Irkhilakhu nouns can be declined by singular and plural number, definite1, definite2 and indefinite articles, three noun classes, and seven cases.

Definite1 vs Definite2 is defined as if there is a situation in which two of the same object have been introduced and one must differentiate between them. For example, in English, one might say "My uncle was at the party. Then my other uncle came. The first ucle [VP] ... The other uncle [VP] ..." whereas in this language, the first and second are encoded in the definitive article.

The class of the noun is determined by which vowel it ends with. If it ends in a diphthong, the final vowel of the diphthong will determine the class.

Class U declines as follows:

U Singular Plural
Indef. Def.1 Def.2 Indef. Def.1 Def.2
Nominative - -ŋim -ŋisim -s -simb -sisimb
Accusative -k -kim -kisim -ça -çisb
Dative -kud -kum -kisud -sud -çudumb -çudismb
Equative -gɜb -gɜmim -gɜmizm -gzɜm -gɜmb -gɜsimb
Addessive -ʃɜŋ -ʃɜŋim -ʃɜŋsim -sɜŋ -ʃɜmb -simb
Inessive -kuŋ -kuŋim -kuŋsim -çuŋ -çumb -çisumb

((I don't know why, but this chart keeps breaking. If it's all jumbled up, just ignore it I guess.))

Class I declines as follows:

I Singular Plural
Indef. Def. Indef. Def.
Nominative - -t - -t͡ʃ
Accusative -a -at -as -at͡ʃ
Dative -i+um* -tum -um -t͡ʃum
Equative -ɮuk -ɮut -ɮuk -ɮut͡ʃ
Addessive -dɜm -tɜm -dɜm -t͡ʃim
Inessive -dam -tam -dam -t͡ʃam

*Drop the /i/ and replace it with /um/

Due to differences in the historical development of these two classes, i-class has no Def. 2 forms.

Class A declines as follows:

A Singular Plural
Indef. Def.1 Def.2 Indef. Def.1 Def.2
Nominative -g -d -dis -d͡ʒ -it͡ʃ
Accusative -kas -das -dais -kʀ -kad͡ʒ -kit͡ʃ
Dative -gau -daud -daudis -gauʀ -gad͡ʒ -gait͡ʃ
Equative -gɜb -gɜbd -gɜbdis -gɜʀ -d͡ʒɜb -it͡ʃɜb
Addessive -ʃɜŋ -ʃɜŋd -ʃɜŋdis -ʃɜŋʀ -d͡ʒɜŋ -it͡ʃɜŋ
Inessive -guŋ -guŋd -guŋdis -guʀ -d͡ʒuŋ -it͡ʃuŋ

A word is always definite before determiners such as "this" or "that."

Genitivity Edit

The genitive is formed by adding a dative pronoun after the noun that possesses the object. This differs from the syntax for actual datives, as the dative is in that case placed before whatever it receives.

For example:

He gave me his coffee = give.NFUT PRO.3.NOM.SING PRO.1.DAT.SING coffee.ACC PRO.3.DAT.SING

Compound Words Edit

To compound two nouns into a single word, take off the final vowel of the first noun and concatenate the result with the second noun. Decline for the structure of the second noun.

Adjectives and Adverbs Edit

Adjectives are always attached to the beginning of a noun, and adverbs to the beginning of verbs. They are not inflected, and simply retain their original forms in all contexts.

The comparative adjective is marked with -su, and the superlative adjective is marked with -susu.

Prepositions Edit

Prepositions come after the noun they describe. The prepositions themselves are attached to the beginning of the word that they describe. For example:

The big man without the small dog = big man.SING.DEF small with.NEG-dog.SING.DEF

VerbsEdit

Verbs are conjugated by two tenses, two aspects, and four moods, as shown in the below charts.

Indicative verb conjugations:

^ is here used to represent infixing. It should go before the final syllable. In the case that there is a one-syllable word, it will simply be added after the initial consonant. If that sequence is unpronounceable, a glottal plosive may be added between the onset of the syllable and the infix.

IND Perfect Habitual
Nonfuture - ⁻^gɮ
Future -ʀ (final vowel backing -- all vowels become /u/) ⁻^gɮ+ʀ (See Perfect Future)

Vowels are backed in the future tense in antiicpation of the /ʀ/

The following chart is for verbs of the desiderative, interrogative, or volitive interrogative moods. The prefixes may be added to any verbs dervied from the above chart.

Desiderative Interrogative Des/Int
ŋli- kʀu- ŋlʀu-

This prefixing is a result of these moods being historically represented simply with a separate word that later melded with the verb that followed it.

Frequentative verb conjugations:

This may be added to any of the Desiderative, Interrogative, or Des/int prefixes.

FREQ Perfect Habitual
Nonfuture -ig ⁻^gɮ+ig
Future -ʀig (final vowel backing -- all vowels become /u/) ⁻^gɮ+ʀig (Exactly what you expect.)

Despite the front vowel, vowels are still backed in the future tense in the frequentative mood, as it by this point has become a standard rule.

Unlike English, frequentatives are productive in this language.

Infinitives Edit

The infinitive is simply formed by adding the prefix l'- before a verb. Syntactically it acts much the same as it would in English.

Past and Present Tense Edit

Irkhilakhu has no distinction between the past and present tense; it only conjugates tense for what has truly occurred and what is yet possible. Thus, if you want to make the destinction between past and present, you can use an adverb. Most commonly, tredbhu "before" and kajuelh "now" are used for this purpose.

Negation Edit

SyntaxEdit

Denoting questions -

Formulated like statement but verb is interrogative (for boolean questions)

Questions that need an answer are just the same way but also with a question word in place of whatever the answer is.

Kuraka.NOM place.ADE.SING.NDEF be.PRES.INT (Where is Kuraka?)

vs.

Kuraka.NOM place.ADE.SING.DEF be.PRES.INT (Is Kuraka at the place/here?)

Kuraka.NOM person.ADE.SING.NDEF be.PRES.INT (Who is Kuraka?)

Event.NOM.SING.DEF time.ADE.SING.NDEF be.PRES.INT (When is the event?)

Thing.NOM reason.ADE.SING.NDEF why is thing????? but why not IS THING THAT REASON?

(UNFINISHED, IGNORE SYNTAX ^)

What = class i, who = class a/u

LexiconEdit

Number System Edit

Dictionaries Edit

By Letter Edit

English to Irkhilakhu Alphabetical Edit

Common Irkhilakhu PoS
A
and u conj.
B
before tredbhu adv.
C
D
E earth/world irkhikhu n.
east kh'atshu n.
F for/to l'a prep.
G grow bhetang v.
H
I
J
K
L language il n.
long arnga adj.
M
N no ras int.
no/none mak (dif.pos)
now kajuelh adv.
O
P place walhu n.
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W west uzada n.
without mak(maybe)
X
Y yes 'e int.
Z

==== Irkhilakhu to English Abjadical

====

By Part of Speech Edit

Noun Edit

Common Irkhilakhu
A
B
C
D
E earth/world irkhikhu
east kh'atshu
F
G
H
I
J
K
L language il
M
N
O
P place walhu
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W west uzada
X
Y
Z

Verb Edit

Edit

Common Irkhilakhu
A
B
C
D
E
F
G grow bhetang
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

Edit

Adjective Edit

Edit

Common Irkhilakhu
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L long aʀŋa
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

Edit

Adverb Edit

Common Irkhilakhu
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

Determiner Edit

Preposition Edit

Conjunction Edit

English Irkhilakhu
and u

Coordinating: And, but, for, nor, or, so, yet

Pronoun Edit

Navigating this chart:

p. = person; u,i,a = noun classes / genders

IRKHILAKHU Nominative Accusative Dative Equative Addessive Inessive
Sing. 1p. am ma da amgelh ameng amkheng
2p. suz suzu suda sugem sung sukheng
3p. u kusk kuskus kudask kusgem kuskang kukheng
4p. u kusisk kusiskus kusisdu gusim kusing kusikhm
3p. i isuk isukuk idsuk iskum iskeng ikheng
3p. a amkung amkungung amudakng amgung amkung amkhung
4p. a amukhkang amukhkangang amukhangda gungamukhang amakung amakhunga
Pl. 1p. amu mau admu agem ameng amkhengu
2p. sauz suzau sudaz saugelh sungez sungkhez
3p. u/a kusku kuskaus kudasku kusgulh kuwang kuwang
4p. u/a kisku kiskuku kadsku kisgulh kiskung kikhung
3p. i isku iskuku idsku idsgum iskung ikheng

Additional Notes:

  • The 4th person is akin to that of the Algonquian languages, meaning it is used for another person with the same "gender" of pronoun who is either less important to a topic or is introduced later. i-class nouns do not have it, as they developed separately from a- and u-class nouns.
  • Genetivity is denoted in the following manner: "[possessed] [possessor.DAT]," or, directly translated, "the blank to/of blank"
ENGLISH Nominative Accusative Dative Equative Addessive Inessive
Sing. 1p. I Me (to) me like me / (me-like) (on/at/next to) me in me
2p. You You (to) you like you (on/at/next to) you in you
3p. u He/she/it Him/her/it (to) him/her/it like him/her/it (on/at/next to) him/her/it in him/her/it
4p. u He/she/it (other) Him/her/it (other) (to) him/her/it (other) like him/her/it (other) (on/at/next to) him/her/it (other) in him/her/it (other)
3p. i it it (to) it like it (on/at/next to) in it
3p. a He/she/it Him/her/it (to) him/her/it like him/her/it (on/at/next to) him/her/it in him/her/it
4p. a He/she/it (other) Him/her/it (other) (to) him/her/it (other) like him/her/it (other) (on/at/next to) him/her/it (other) in him/her/it (other)
Pl. 1p. We Us (to) us like us (on/at/next to) us in us
2p. Y'all Y'all (to) y'all like y'all (on/at/next to) y'all in y'all
3p. u/a They Them (to) them like them (on/at/next to) them in them
4p. u/a They (other) Them (other) (to) them (other) like them (other) (on/at/next to) them (other) in them (other)
3p. i They (inanimate) Them (inanimate) (to) them (inanimate) like them (inanimate) (on/at/next to) them (inanimate) in them (inanimate)

Additional Notes:

  • When a pronoun is used for someone whose name is not Irkhilakhu in origin, the pronoun assigned to them will be moved to the closest counterpart of an animate vowel. If their name does not end with a vowel, then the last vowel in their name will be used. (For declension of names, any consonants after the final vowel will be dropped before adding Irkhilakhu inflections.)
  • Under the circumstance that the person being referred to's name is not known, one should generally default to the u-class, though defaulting to the a-class is not seen as unacceptable, merely less frequent.
  • Addessive denotes nearby proximity, inessive denotes that something is directly within. Thereby, it is used considerably less than addessive for anything aside from inanimate nouns. If something is far, it is denoted with a phrase akin to "distant of ___."

Interjection Edit

yes - 'e

no - ras

Example textEdit

IRKHILAKHU SCRIPT

Irkhilakhu Coffee

TRANSLITERATION

Lhat kusku da kubhi kudask.

IPA

[ɮat̪ˈ kʰus.ku.daːˈ kʰu.βiˈ ku.daskʰ]

GLOSS

give.NFUT PRO.3.NOM.SING PRO.1.DAT.SING coffee.ACC PRO.3.DAT.SING

ENGLISH

"He gave me his coffee."

Unfinished song:

IRKHILAKHU

Du esu amkung burad irkhakhushengim

Mak tshadrang l’ukbhu, mak lidar l’uskim

Angatch amudakng ada mishagreng lu

Jadit mak ukhngum huskadu


ENGLISH

While he was walking the plains of the earth

No horse to ride, no signs to guide

His pack so laden

The day barely begun

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