Conlang
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Jéhèvca
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Type
Agglutinative
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Initial (SVO)
Tonal
No
Declensions
No
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



Classification and Dialects[]

Jehèvcaé is the main native language of the human population of the moon of JeBa.

Because I am completely new at language-building, it heavily relies on known grammars (french and english). Any help or advice would be greatly appreciated.

Writing System[]

The writting system uses diacritics as vowels. In words beginning with a vowel, the letter ɔ acts as a consonnant with no sound. It is also used if more than 2 vowels follow a consonnant, or in cases of compound words.

Most of the diacritics can't be used with most consonnants using a keyboard, so the characters between brackets act as replacement.

There are 21 consonnants and 11 vowels.

The vowels are named as they sound and the consonnant are named : x-ès (b-x), x-as (y and z), šma (Δ) and zba (ɔ).

Letter b c d ʃ (f) g h ȷ q m n p r
Sound b k d f g h ʒ/ʑ l m n p ʁ/r
Letter s t v w x ı (y) z Δ (š) ɔ ˉ(a) ˘(à) "(ë)
Sound s t v w ç j z ʃ a ã ə
Letter ´(e) `(è) ·(i) ˆ(î) ˚(o) ̉(ö) ˇ(u) ͂ (û)
Sound e ɛ i ɛ̃ o/ɔ ɔ̃ y u


Grammar[]

Nouns[]

Nouns decline in :

- definiteness : suffixe -a (/ø if the word ends with an a) for indefinite (a/an, un), -e/è for definite (the, le/la), -û for a demonstrative pronoun (this/that, ce/cet/cette/ces).

- number : the plural is indicated by the suffixe -n after the definitness mark. ex : sléti-û-n (those gifts). Definite plural is -in (not -en).

- possessive : determiners are build using ts+person vowel (see below)- as a prefixe to the noun. Pronouns are made of ts-PV-y(+n in the plural form).

Verbs[]

The infinitive form ends in -ar, but the within a sentence, the root has the same meaning (if the verb is plurisyllabic).

Persons[]

The person is indicated by a vowel (PV) directly following the root : -a (1st sing;), -o (2nd informal), -e/è (3rd sing.), -û (1st plur.), -i (3rd plur.), -ë (2nd formal).

Tenses[]

There are 4 past tenses, 2 presents, and 2 futures. They add a consonnant after the PV.

- past : perfect : -s, imperfect : -z, pluperfect : -š, definite (only for the 3rd person) : -ts. ex : tš-û-š (we had been thinking).

- present : perfect : no added consonnant, imperfect : -èl- before the PV. ex : stiam-èl-o (you are talking).

- future : perfect : -m, imperfect : -èl- before the PV. ex : izl-èl-a-m (I will be reading).

To indicate something you are about to do, use -om- before the PV.

Moods[]

- Conditionnal : -da (/d) after the PV and tense. ex : yeda (it would be). - Subjunctive : do before conjugated verb, or using object pronouns. (ex : I want you to be better : Hera do yo litir / Sohera d aj(e) litir)

- Imperative : 2 forms : - simple : -r/w to the PV (-or/ow, -ûr/ûw, -ër/ëw). It is the only form available for monosyllabic verbs. -complex : commands a switch of the final letter of the root following this rule : a=o, b=p, c=q, d=t, é=ë, f=h, g=j, h=ø, i=u, j=c, q=p, m=n, n=r, o=ö, p=pr, r=w, s=š, t=z, u=ø, û=à, v=f, w=m, x=ø, y=à, z=zr, š=tr. The 2nd informal person use only the new root, and the 1st plur. and 2nd formal are made by adding their vowel.

ex : lépr-ë (go (formal)).

Participle[]

- Past : there are no compound tenses, so the past participle is only used for the passive voice, where it is self-sufficient : -t after the PV. ex : ol-a-t (I am eaten).

- Present : i root-èr makes the gerund. A qualifier can be made using the suffixe -èrt. ex : tsévayn-èrt (alarming).

Object Pronouns[]

2 types : -Accusative : s+PV- as a prefixe to the verb. -Dative : š+PV-. ex : ša-sé-blûv-o-s (you gave it to me).

Negation[]

The negative form is build using the word la- (no) as a prefixe. Other modifiers include : lao- (not anymore), lae- (not yet), laoxa- (/laxa-)(never), sival- (always), sil- (still).

Irregular Verbs[]

Three verbs have irregular forms : - aje (to be) : ja/ya, jo/yo, jé/yé,..... - ave (to have) : va, vo, vé, ..... - lepar (to go) : pa, po, pé, .... (this verb has a complex imperative form : lépr).

In the third person, those verbs can be used by adding their single-letter root to the subject. ex : tsa-maa-j (my mother is), ibas-û-v (this boat has), vi-é-n-p (the men go). For ajè, only the -j root can be used as a suffixe (never the y).

Syntax[]

Lexicon[]

Example text[]

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