Jxosledus qajo
Head direction
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

General informationEdit

Jxosledu (Jxosledus qajo /ʈʂχɤsle.tɯs qɑʈʂɤ/) is a language spoken by the Aethos (Ädosgero) on the planet Aetho (Ädo), which orbits the stars Ayo and Tiźa. It is a descendant of Proto-Serazi.

Jxosledu is the majority language in the Republican Monarchy of Jxosledu (Jxosledus Äźäruno Hutyudara), the largest Serazian state. The maritime state borders the Great Inner Ocean on the south-eastern side of Aetho's single crescent-shaped supercontinent, and is a major leader in the ongoing industrial revolution of the planet.



postalveolar dorsal uvular glottal
nasal n
stop t t’ k̟ k̟’ q q’
fricative s z ɬ ɕ ʑ χ h
affricate ʈʂ ʈʂ’
approximant l j ɰ̙
  • The postalveolar consonants are all apical, except for /ʈʂ/, /ʈʂ’/, and [ɽ], which are subapical/retroflex.
  • The lax consonants are voiced intervocalically.
  • The glottal transition /h/ takes on certain characteristics of vowels it appears after, namely: after back vowels it becomes [ɣ] and after front vowels it becomes [ʝ] (both devoiced in the coda).
  • The lateral approximant is pronounced [ɽ] intervocalically and never begins a word.
  • /ɰ/ is an unrounded post-velar approximant.


front back
close ɪ ɯ
mid e ɤ
open æ ɑ

Stress Edit

Stress is always on the first syllable of a word with no exceptions. Pitch is even throughout a whole word, the only feature of stress that appears is higher volume.


Native script Edit

Writing direction Edit

The script is written in the same direction as Arabic, right-to-left rows arranged top-to-bottom.

Native Collation Edit

d, t, s, z, j, c, f, l/r, g, k, ś, ź, y, w, n, q, q', x, h, i, e, ä, u, o, a


This page is written using the Latin transliteration, shown below, of the Jxosledu alphabet.

letter a ä c d e f g h i j k l n
phoneme /ɑ/ /æ/ /ʈʂ’/ /t/ /e/ /ɬ/ /k̟/ /h/ /ɪ/ /ʈʂ/ /k̟’/ /l/ /n/
letter o q q' r s ś t u w x y z ź
phoneme /ɤ/ /q/ /q’/ [ɽ] /s/ /ɕ/ /t’/ /ɯ/ /ɰ/ /χ/ /j/ /z/ /ʑ/


  • faroźi [ɬɑɽɤʑɪ], "froth"
  • cq'ara [ʈʂ’q’ɑɽɑ], "screw"
  • äqxd [æqχt], "seven"

Nouns Edit


There are three declension classes for nouns: consonant final, weak vowel final, and strong vowel final. The weak vowels are ä, e, and i and strong vowels are a and u. Weak vowel nouns lose their final vowel when case endings with an initial vowel are applied.

case consonant weak vowel strong vowel
abs -o -0 -0
erg-gen -s -s -s
dat -ey -ey -w
inst-com -ed -ed -d
loc -dä -d -d
equ -ug -ug -gu
adv -ut -ut -tu
voc -i -i -0


case "spirit" "person" "mother" "froth" "ability" "screw"
abs ahaśo gero dädä faroźi kanu cq'ara
erg-gen ahaśs gels dädäs faroźis kanus cq'aras
dat ahaśey gerey dädey faroźey kanuw cq'araw
inst-com ahaśed gered däded faroźed kanud cq'arad
loc ahaśdä geldä dädäd faroźid kanud cq'arad
equ ahaśug gerug dädug faroźug kanugu cq'aragu
adv ahaśut gerut dädut faroźut kanutu cq'aratu
voc ahaśi geri dädi faroźi kanu cq'ara


  • Absolutive: marks the absolutive argument of a verb (mother)
  • Ergative-genitive: marks the ergative argument of a verb, genitives, and possession (mother's)
  • Dative: marks the destination of an action or object (to/for mother)
  • Instrumental-comitative: marks accompaniment and what is used to complete an action (with mother)
  • Locative: marks the location of something (near mother)
  • Equative: marks what an object is like (like mother)
  • Adverbial: marks what something is as and marks adverbs (as a mother)
  • Vocative: marks what is directly referred to (mother!)

Adjectives Edit

Adjectives have a similar declension scheme to consonant-final nouns regardless of what they end in, except that the absolutive, ergative-genitive, and vocative cases receive no ending.

case "enjoyable"
abs -0 orokan
erg-gen -0 orokan
dat -ey orokaney
inst-com -ed orokaned
loc -dä orokandä
equ -ug orokanug
adv -ut orokanut
voc -0 orokan


The personal pronouns decline like regular nouns, with the exception that the consonant-final pronouns have no absolutive -o.

sg pl
1ex fan gaga
1in iśal
2 śu eśe
3prox di zäri
3dist ho zäno


Infinitive/Supine: a-root-a

Personal prefixesEdit

sg pl
1ex f- ga-
1in fa-
2 w/u- uxa-
3 0- al/el/il-

Evidence/Generalness suffixesEdit

direct -e -ne
reportative -źe -niźe
inferential -te -nite
  • The <i> in the gnomic reportative and inferential endings is typically not pronounced except in poetry.

Negation Edit

Negation is expressed using the prefix zi- which is placed immediately before the root. ex. fdaye "I did it" > fzidaye "I didn't do it", ukanune "you can" > uzikanune "you can't"


Direct Reportative Inferential
sg pl sg pl sg pl
Episodic 1ex f-e ga-e f-źe ga-źe f-te ga-te
1in fa-e fa-źe fa-te
2 w/u-e uxa-e w/u-źe uxa-źe w/u-te uxa-te
3 0-e al/el/il-e 0-źe al/el/il-źe 0-te al/el/il-te
Gnomic 1ex f-ne ga-ne f-niźe ga-niźe f-nite ga-nite
1in fa-ne fa-niźe fa-nite
2 w/u-ne uxa-ne w/u-niźe uxa-niźe w/u-nite uxa-nite
3 0-ne al/el/il-ne 0-niźe al/el/il-niźe 0-nite al/el/il-nite

adaya "to do"

Direct Reportative Inferential
sg pl sg pl sg pl
Episodic 1ex fdaye gadaye fdayźe gadayźe fdayte gadayte
1in fadaye fadayźe fadayte
2 udaye uxadaye udayźe uxadayźe udayte uxadayte
3 daye aldaye dayźe aldayźe dayte aldayte
Gnomic 1ex fdayne gadayne fdayniźe gadayniźe fdaynite gadaynite
1in fadayne fadayniźe fadaynite
2 udayne uxadayne udayniźe uxadayniźe udaynite uxadaynite
3 dayne aldayne dayniźe aldayniźe daynite aldaynite

aoroa "to like"

Direct Reportative Inferential
sg pl sg pl sg pl
Episodic 1ex foroe gaoroe foroźe gaoroźe forote gaorote
1in faoroe faoroźe faorote
2 woroe uxaoroe woroźe uxaoroźe worote uxaorote
3 oroe aroroe oroźe aroroźe orote arorote
Gnomic 1ex forone gaorone foroniźe gaoroniźe foronite gaoronite
1in faorone faoroniźe faoronite
2 worone uxaorone woroniźe uxaoroniźe woronite uxaoronite
3 orone arorone oroniźe aroroniźe oronite aroronite

Syntax Edit

Sentence-level word order Edit

Modal particles-Verb-Object-Subject

Noun phrases Edit




The Aethos are trichromats, meaning they have three primary colors, but their primary colors are different than the Human red, green, and blue. They have orange, green, and violet

Primary colors Edit

  • dise [tɪ.se.]: orange
  • hetu [he.t’ɤ.]: green
  • asuqli [ɑ.sɯ̽q.lɪ.]: violet

Dark primary colors Edit

  • dise hauj [tɪ.se.hɑ.ɯʈʂ.]: brown, red
  • hetu hauj [he.t’ɤ.hɑ.ɯʈʂ.]: dark green
  • asuqli hauj [ɑ.sɯ̽q.lɪ.hɑ.ɯʈʂ.]: near-UV

Secondary colors Edit

  • śifdo [ɕɪɬ.tɤ.]: greenish yellow
  • neo [ne.ɤ.]: cyan-blue
  • sago [sɑ.k̟ɤ.]: "orange-violet", magenta

Neutral colors Edit

  • haujo [hɑ.ɯ.ʈʂɤ.]: black
  • wayo [ɰ̙ɑ.jɤ.]: white
  • zore [zɤ.ɽe.]: gray


The Jxosledus count in the unheard of base-14 (tetradecimal), rather than base-ten (decimal). This is because the Aethos have eight fingers and six toes.

# name 14+# #*14 #*196
0 gośś disg
1 al areddis disg jäsgä
2 ced cededdis dijed cedjäsgä
3 taro tareddis ditaro tarojäsgä
4 fidda fiddaddis difidda fiddajäsgä
5 yu yuddis diyu yujäsgä
6 iśä iśeddis diiśä iśäjäsgä
7 äqxd äqxdeddis diäqxd äqxdjäsgä
8 oriśä oriśeddis dioriśä oriśäjäsgä
9 ollu olluddis diollu ollujäsgä
10 offidda offiddaddis dioffidda offiddajäsgä
11 oldaro oldareddis dioldaro oldarojäsgä
12 oljed oljededdis dioljed oljedjäsgä
13 oral orareddis dioral oraljäsgä
14 disg dijed jäsgä disjäsgä
  • ex. yudiyuyujäsgä (555) =1055
  • dijedtarojäsgä (320) =616
  • ceddiäqxd (72) =100

Stellar system Edit

The planet Aetho orbits around a close binary pair of stars, so it and its four companions have two suns.

Body Pronunciation Type Color
Ayo /ɑjɤ/ G3-type star yellow
Tiźa /t’ɪʑɑ/ M4-type star red
Fegiho /ɬekɪhɤ/ greenhouse runaway yellow
Ädo /ætɤ/ inhabited terrestrial blue
Käfde /k’æɬte/ gas dwarf lavender
Jarino /ʈʂɑlɪnɤ/ gas giant beige
Juwulhe /ʈʂɯɰɯlhe/ frozen super-earth gray
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