Conlang
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Jzocra
Jzocra îlc
Type Fusional
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Head direction Final
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders 3
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 4%
Statistics
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 17%
Words ? of 1500
Creator aschiffer186


Classification and Dialects[]

Jzocra (natively Jzocra îlc /ʒo.'cʁa ɪlk/ [ʒo.'cʁ‿ɪlk]) is a languag based on the idea of "phrase connectivity (ètrezami [ɛ.'tʁez.a.mi])". Words within phrases are as connected phonetically as possible, but large phrases are as separated as possible (i.e. the subject is separated from the object is separated from the verb phonetically).


Phonology[]

Consonants[]

Allophones are shown in paranthesis. The ortography of each sound is given in brackets

Bilabial Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular
Plosive p [b] b [b]

t [t]  d [d]

k [c] g [g]

Nasal m [m] n [n] ɲ [nn] ŋ [ng]
Affricate (t͡ʃ) (d͡ʒ)
Fricative ɸ [f] β [v] s [s]  z [z] ʃ [sh] ʒ [jz] x [x] ʁ [r]
Approximant j [y] w [w]
Flap or tap (ɾ)
Lateral app. l [l]

Vowels[]

Front Near-front Central Back
High i [i] y [ỳ] u [u]
Near-high ɪ [î]
High-mid e [e] ø [ô] o [o]
Mid ə [û]
Low-mid ɛ [è] œ [ê]
Low a [a] ɶ [â] ɑ [à]

Diphthongs[]

The following diphthongs are permitted: /aɪ [ai] aʊ [au] ɔɪ [oi] jV wV/

Allophony[]

/ʃ ʒ/ > [t͡ʃ d͡ʒ] when preceded by /t d/ Vowels tend to be lengthened at the end of words (e.g. Jzocra > [ʒo.'cʁa:]

Some dialects insert an epenthetic [ɾ] or [ʁ] between all vowels.

Phonotatics[]

Syllables[]

Syllables in Jzocra have the following structure:

(C)(C)V(C)(C)

C = consonant, V = vowel or diphthong.

Notes

Two plosives may not follow each other in a syllable onset (e.g. /tpa/  is an invalid syllable).

The last syllable of words is usually either open or ends in /V, ʁ, s, x1, m, n/

An approximant or lateral approximant may not be followed by another consonant in the onset of a sylable (e.g. */lsa/ and */jta/ are invalid syllables).

1subject to rules of morphophonology detailed below.

Stress[]

Stress in Jzocra falls on the second syllable unless the word is monosyllabic in which case it falls on the only syllable.

Morphophonology (ètrezami ilc)[]

Jzocra morphonology is guided by the rules of ètrezami ilc ([ɛ.'tʁez.a.m‿'ilk] meaning "connectiveness"). It describes how sounds function at the boundary of two words. There are two classes of rules. The syllables of words undergoing this process thend to change as well. This rules are not reflected in orthography

Class 1 This rule apply between a determiner in the nominative, accusative, or dative case and another word or between a verb and a conjunction where the phrase on the other side of the conjunction is an independent phrase. A determiner in the nominative, accusative, or dative case usually indicates the end of a large phrase and this should be disconnected from the other words of the sentence to show that it is the end of a phrase. Thus, only rule applies.

1. /V V/ > [ø‿V]

Class 2

These rules apply anywhere else.

1. /ʁ V/ > [x‿V]

2. <x> at the end of words is usually silent. It is pronounced in certain contexts: /Vø V/ > [V‿xV]

For example, vèx ètrezami [vɛx‿ɛ.'tʁez.a.mi] (To be fixed).

3. /i V/ > [ø‿jV] unless V is /i/ (e.g. ètrezami èt [ɛ.'tʁez.a.m‿'jɛt])

4. /u V/ > [ø‿uV] unless V is /u/

5. /V V/ > [ø‿V]   (e.g. ètrezami ilc [`ɛ.'tʁez.a.m‿'ilk])

7. Monophthongization: Diphthongs become monophthongs in certain contexts: /D V/ > [M‿lV] Diphthongs become monophthongs in the following way: /aɪ aʊ ɔɪ jV wV/ > [i, u, o, V, V]

8. /C1 C1/ > [ø‿C1] (Same consonants)

9. /ʁ C / > [ʁa‿C]

10. /n V/ > [ɲ‿V] unless V is /i/ or /ɪ/

11. /n C/ > /n‿eC/

12. /m C/ > /m‿ɛC/

13. /s C/ > /s‿eC/ unless C is a plosive

Grammar[]

Derivational Morphology[]

Drivational morphology is the process of forming words from a single root word. Often times, these words may change the category of the words. In Jzocra, this process is completed almost exclusively through the use of suffixes

Nouns[]

Noun to Verb

-(t)â [-(t)ɶ]

Nouns to Adjunct

-(t)ila [-(t)ila] (A quality of being like this noun)

-(c)ovô [-(k)ovø] (A state of being like this noun)

Noun to Noun

-sỳ [-sy] (Dimninuitive suffix)

-(r)e [-ʁe] (A noun that occurs before this noun)

Verbs[]

Verb to Noun

-(t)auc [-(t)aʊk] (A place where something is done)

-(f)oir [-(ɸ)ɔɪʁ] (A noun that does this verb)

Verb to Verb

Verb to Adjunct

Adjuncts[]

Adjunct to Noun

-(e)mi [-(e)mi] (A state like that adjective)

Adjunct to Verb

-(è)se [-(ɛ)se] (To make something that adjective, intransitive verb)

-(a)rô [-(a)ʁø] (To make something that adjective, transitive verb)

Adjunct to Adjunct

-(m)êx [-(m)œ] (An adjunct slightly similar to this adjunct)

-(î)nor [-(ɪ]noʁ] (An adjunct not similar to this adjunct)

-(z)a [-(z)a] (An adjunct very similar to this adjunct)

-(sh)a [-(ʃ)a] (Turns an adjective into an adverb)

Nouns[]

Nomiantive, Accusative, Dative, Genetive, Ablative, Allative, Locative, Instrumental, Vocative

Determiners[]

Determiners agree in number, gender, and case with their head noun. Determines always follow their head nouns. Articles may rarely stand alone. In this case, they translate as "the/that thing" and "something" depending on whether or not they are definite or indefinite.

Determiners are some of the only words Jzocra that end in a sound other than /V, ʁ, s, x, m, n/ as they are not subject to the rules of ètrezami (except for the class 1 rule) when they are in the nominative, accusative, or dative case.

Articles[]

The two articles in Jzocra are et, èt, êt (indefinite: living, aninmate, and inanimate respectively) and ailc, ilc, îlc (definite: living, animate, and inanimate respectively). They are declined as follows:

et
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative et ez jzez
Accusative ec ecz jzec
Dative le lejz lez
Genetive (l)e
Ablative vex ve
Allative ver er ar
Ablative ven en an
Locative ve
Instrumental ave eve ele
Vocative rex rem em
èt
Nominative èt èz jzè
Accusative èc jzèc
Dative lèz
Genitive (l)è
Ablative vèx vès
Allative vèr èr
Locative
Instrumental îlè
Vocative rèx
êt
Nominative êt êz jzê
Accusative êc jzêc
Dative lêjz lêz
Genitive (l)ê
Ablative vêx vês
Allative vêr êr âr
Locative vên vês
Instrumental ilê
Vocative

When the genitive indefinite article is followed by a word that has a vowel as the first letter, it becomes le/lè/lê (pronounced [l] because of ètrezami). This change; however, is reflected in the orthography

ailc
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative ailc ails ailz
Accusative aile ailø ailè
Dative lai laic laics
Genetive (l)ai
Ablative ailx ailûr
Allative rai re re
Ablative cai cais cair
Locative jzai
Instrumental vai (s)ai aile
Vocative (r)aix rai raim
ilc
Nominative èz jzè
Accusative èc èc jzèc
Dative lèz
Genitive (l)è
Ablative vèx vès
Allative vèr èr
Locative
Instrumental îlè
Vocative rèx
êt
Nominative êt êz jzê
Accusative êc êc jzêc
Dative lêjz lêz
Genitive (l)ê
Ablative vêx vês
Allative vêr êr âr
Locative vên vês
Instrumental ilê
Vocative

Usage of Articles The definite article is used to refer to a(some) particular noun(s), similar to the use of "the" in English. However, there are many uses of the definite article in Jzocra that are not in English. The definite article is also used to express general concepts, to express possession in a genitive phrase (although English sometimes uses "the" in genitive clauses e.g. "hood of the car", it isn't always required. it is always required in Jzocra), when talking about someone, when discussing languages and places, and when standing alone to express "that thing/the thing" (e.g. ailc on its own translates as "that/the (living) thing", ...) The indefinite article use

Verbs[]

Syntax[]

Despite the fact that Jzocra is substantally inflected, the basic sentence order is almost always SOV. Noun phrases, prepositonal phrases, and determinal phrases are always head final in Jocra. Verb phrases are head final unless thecomplement is a relative clause or depended clause or they contain a modifier. If the verb phrase contains a modifier, the modifier is placed after the verb.

Thus typical phrases look like the following (listed with components as they are said from left to right)

Noun Phrase (NP)

Modfier + NP

Postpositional Phrase (PP)

NP/VP/AP + P

Determiner Phrase (DP)

NP + D

Adjunct Phrase (AP)

NP/VP + A

Verb Phrase

(Intransitive Verb): V + (AP)

(Transitive verb, complement is a DP): DP  + V  + (AP)

(Ditransitive verb, complements are DPs): DP + DP + V + (AP)

(Transitive verb, comeplement is a RC or DeC): (AP) + V  + RC/DeC

Relative Clause (RC)

Relative Pronoun + Clause

Dependent Clause (DeC)

Dependent Clause + Conjunction

Independent Clause

Adding dependent clauses inverts the norm word order from SOV to SVDeC.

Subject + (Object) + V + (AP) or Subject + (AP) + V + Dependent/Relative Clause

Lexicon[]

Example text[]

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