Consonant inventory: f k m n p q s t v z ɕ ʁ ʃ ʑ ʒ ʥ ʨ χ

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Nasal m n
Stop p t k q
Affricate ʨ ʥ
Fricative f v s z ʃ ʒ ɕ ʑ χ ʁ

Vowel inventory: a e i o u ɔ ɛ ʌ

Front Back
High i u
High-mid e o
Low-mid ɛ ʌ ɔ
Low a

Syllable structure: (C)V ?

Stress pattern: Penultimate — stress is on the second last syllable ?

Word initial consonants: f k m p q s t v z ɕ ʁ ʑ ʒ ʥ χ

Mid-word consonants: f k m n p q s t v z ɕ ʁ ʃ ʑ ʒ ʥ ʨ χ

Word final consonants:

Spelling rules:

Pronunciation Spelling
ɔ aw
ɛ ë
ʌ ö/ü
ʨ ch
ʃ sh
ʒ g
ʁ r
ʥ j
χ kh
ɕ ŝ


Nouns have six cases:

  • Nominative is the doer of a verb: dog bites man.
  • Accusative is the done-to of a verb: man bites dog.
  • Genitive is the possessor of something: dog’s tail hits man.
  • Dative is the recipient of something: man gives ball to dog.
  • Locative is the location of something: man goes to town.
  • Ablative is movement away from something: man walks from town.
Nominative No affix

sisu /siˈsu/

dog (doing the verb)

Accusative Prefix fi-

fisisu /fiˈsisu/

(verb done to) dog

Genitive Prefix fe-

fesisu /feˈsisu/


Dative Prefix zi-

zisisu /ziˈsisu/

to (the/a) dog

Locative Prefix ve-

vesisu /veˈsisu/

near/at/by (the/a) dog

Ablative Prefix ʑe-

ẑesisu /ʑeˈsisu/

from (the/a) dog


Singular Plural
Masculine Prefix χe-

khemönö /χeˈmʌnʌ/

the man

Prefix pe-

pemönö /peˈmʌnʌ/

the men

Feminine Prefix kʌ-

köpüshu /kʌˈpʌʃu/

the woman

Prefix po-

popüshu /poˈpʌʃu/

the women

Neuter Prefix vɛ-

vësisu /vɛˈsisu/

the dog

Prefix ʥa-

jasisu /ʥaˈsisu/

the dogs


Singular Plural
Masculine Prefix ka-

kamönö /kaˈmʌnʌ/

a man

No affix

mönö /mʌˈnʌ/

some men

Feminine Prefix vʌ-

vöpüshu /vʌˈpʌʃu/

a woman

No affix

pöshu /pʌˈʃu/

some women

Neuter Prefix ta-

tasisu /taˈsisu/

a dog

No affix

sisu /siˈsu/

some dogs


Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative Locative Ablative
1st singular gu /ʒu/


qé /qɛ/


i /i/


za /za/

to me

khaw /χɔ/

at me

ta /ta/

from me

2nd singular zi /zi/


pi /pi/


jo /ʥo/


ge /ʒe/

to you

mi /mi/

at you

fo /fo/

from you

3rd singular masc ve /ve/


se /se/


ku /ku/


vu /vu/

to him

fé /fɛ/

at him

té /tɛ/

from him

3rd singular fem tú /tʌ/


pu /pu/


ka /ka/


paw /pɔ/

to her

qu /qu/

at her

ma /ma/

from her

3rd singular neut ke /ke/


mú /mʌ/


ko /ko/


fi /fi/

to it

ẑe /ʑe/

at it

ga /ʒa/

from it

1st plural kaw /kɔ/


fa /fa/


pe /pe/


zo /zo/

to us

qú /qʌ/

at us

mé /mɛ/

from us

2nd plural ẑé /ʑɛ/

you all

khu /χu/

you all

kú /kʌ/

yours (pl)

fe /fe/

to you all

zaw /zɔ/

at you all

mu /mu/

from you all

3rd plural masc ju /ʥu/

they (masc)

ŝú /ɕʌ/

them (masc)

me /me/

theirs (masc)

gaw /ʒɔ/

to them (masc)

ti /ti/

at them (masc)

jaw /ʥɔ/

from them (masc)

3rd plural fem ké /kɛ/

they (fem)

ẑa /ʑa/

them (fem)

faw /fɔ/

theirs (fem)

taw /tɔ/

to them (fem)

re /ʁe/

at them (fem)

ŝe /ɕe/

from them (fem)

3rd plural neut maw /mɔ/

they (neut)

pú /pʌ/

them (neut)

qa /qa/

theirs (neut)

ji /ʥi/

to them (neut)

ŝa /ɕa/

at them (neut)

so /so/

from them (neut)


Main word order: Subject Verb Object (Prepositional phrase). “Mary opened the door with a key” turns into Mary opened the door with a key.

Adjective order: Adjectives are positioned after the noun.

Adposition: prepositions ?


Singular No affix

ŝise /ˈɕise/


Plural Prefix sɔ-

sawŝise /sɔˈɕise/



Definite ma /ma/


Indefinite ŝa /ɕa/

a, some

Uses of definite article that differ from English:

  • Used to talk about countable nouns in general: English’s ‘I like cats’ would translate to ‘I like the cats’
  • Used for languages: ‘The English’

Uses of indefinite article that differ from English:

  • Not used for non-specific countable nouns: non-specific means ‘I am looking for a (any) girl in a red dress’, whereas specific means ‘I am looking for a (particular) girl in a red dress’
  • Not used for non-specific mass (uncountable) nouns: non-specific means ‘Would you like some (any) tea?’ whereas specific means ‘Some tea (a specific amount) fell off the truck’


1st singular pa /pa/

I, me, mine

2nd singular ẑë /ʑɛ/

you, yours

3rd singular masc fo /fo/

he, him, his, it, its

3rd singular fem që /qɛ/

she, her, hers, it, its

1st plural fe /fe/

we, us, ours

2nd plural të /tɛ/

you all, yours (pl)

3rd plural fa /fa/

they, them, theirs

Possessive determiners[]

1st singular jo /ʥo/


2nd singular qi /qi/


3rd singular masc së /sɛ/


3rd singular fem faw /fɔ/


1st plural fö /fʌ/


2nd plural ŝaw /ɕɔ/

your (pl)

3rd plural ki /ki/



Present No affix

guchë /ˈʒuʨɛ/


Past Prefix pe-



Pûcheten uses a standalone particle word for future tense:

Future Particle before the verb: qa -

qa guchë /qa ˈʒuʨɛ/

will learn

Perfect aspect

The perfect aspect in English is exemplified in ‘I have read this book’, which expresses an event that took place before the time spoken but which has an effect on or is in some way still relevant to the present.

Pûcheten uses an affix for the perfect aspect:

Perfect Prefix mo-

moguchë /moˈʒuʨɛ/

have learned


Pûcheten has a base-10 number system:

1 - ẑa

2 - khu

3 - ma

4 - tafe

5 - zanö

6 - reche

7 - ẑi

8 - ge

9 - aw

10 - qaw

11 - ẑa ŝo qaw “one and ten”

100 - peẑümaw “hundred”

101 - peẑümaw ẑa “hundred one”

200 - khu peẑümaw

1000 - fawkhu “thousand”

Derivational morphology[]

Adjective → adverb = Prefix ʥe-

Adjective → noun (the quality of being [adj]) = Prefix ɕɛ-

Adjective → verb (to make something [adj]) = Prefix ma-

Noun → adjective (having the quality of [noun]) = Prefix mʌ-

Noun → adjective relating to noun (e.g. economy → economic) = Prefix ɕo-

Noun to verb = Prefix fe-

Verb → adjective (result of doing [verb]) = Prefix qu-

Tending to = Prefix χe-

Verb → noun (the act of [verb]) = Prefix ʒɛ-

Verb → noun that verb produces (e.g. know → knowledge) = Prefix kʌ-

One who [verb]s (e.g. paint → painter) = Prefix vɔ-

Place of (e.g. wine → winery) = Prefix pa-

Diminutive = Prefix zu-

Augmentative = Prefix χo-