Progress 62%
Head direction
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

General information[]



Bilabial Labio-dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Alveolo-Palatal Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p pʰ t tʰ k kʰ
Fricative f s z ʒ x h
Affricate ʨ ʨʰ ɕ
Approximant j w
Flap or tap ɾ
Lateral app. l


Front Near-front Central Back
Close i y ɯ u
Close-mid ɔ
Open-mid ɛ
Open a

Writing System[]

Katayü utilizes two scripts:

Hansho Ji 漢制字 (한쏘지; haːn.ɕɔ.ʨi/): Chinese characters with Kata pronunciation.

Honsho Jimu 韓制字母 (혼쏘지무; /hɔːn.ɕɔ.ʨ utilizes the Korean writing system to make words

Hansho Ji[]

Honsho Jimu[]

The 혼쏘지무 is used to make mainly native-Kata (高代) words and particles.  The order of the Jimu is as follows:

IPA Romanization 字母 (jimu) [ʨ]
/a/ a
/ɛ/ e
/i/, /ɪ/ i, i ㅣ;  ̊ is used with /i/; /ɪ/ is pronounced right before an /ːn/  
/ɔ/ o ㅗ; ㅓwhen labialized
/u/ u
/y/  ü ㅡ used with /ːn/ /ːt/ or no final consonant at all.
/ɯ/ eu ㅡ used with all final consonants, must be used with final consonants.  ̊ is used with /ɯ/
/eɪ/ ei
/kʰ/ k
/k/ g
/n/ n
/tʰ/ t
/t/ d
/m/ m
/pʰ/ p
/f/ f ᄑ`
/p/ b
/l/ l
/s/ s
/z/ z ᄉ`
/ɾ/ r ᄅ`
/ʨʰ/ ch
/ʨ/ j
/h/  h
/x/ x ᄒ`
/ɕ/ sh
/ʒ/ zh ᄍ; rarely used, originally used to transcribe Mandarin /ʈ͡ʂ/, /ʒ/ is replaced by /ʨ/ in most words.
/ŋ/ ng
/w/ w ㅗ for ㅘ /wa/ and ㅙ /weɪ/. ㅜ for ㅟ /wi/ ㅝ /wɔ/ and ㅞ /wɛ/
/j/ y add an additional stroke. ㅑ/ja/ ㅖ/jɛ/ ㅛ/jɔ/ ㅠ/ju/ ㅒ/jeɪ/ are the results.
ɯ̥, i̥ eu, i ̊


Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No Yes No No Yes Yes
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No Yes No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes No Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


Subject and Object Possessive Determiners and Pronouns Reflexive Politness
First Person: Singular han 我 hango 我 hanso 我 Neutral
kie 키에 kiego 키에嘅 kieso 키에身 Polite and Formal
First Person: Plural hanmo 我們 hanmogo 我們 hanmoso我們 Neutral
kiemo 키에們 kiemogo 키에們嘅 kiemoso 키에們身 Polite and Formal
Second Person: Singular nei 你 neigo 你 neiso 你 Neutral
sei 새 seigo 새嘅 seiso 새身 Polite and formal
Second Person: Plural neimo 你們 neimogo 你們 neimoso 你們 Neutral
seimo 새們 seimogo 새們嘅 seimunsen 새們身 Polite and Formal
Third Person: Singular kei 其 keigo 其 keiso 其 Neutral (~M)
koi 伊 koigo 伊嘅 koiso 伊身 Neutral (~F)
kai 카이 kaigo 카이嘅 kaiso 카이身 Polite and Formal
Third Person: Plural keimo 其們 keimoo 其們 keimoso 其們 Neutral (~M)
koimo 伊們 koimogo 伊們 koimoso伊們身 Neutral (~F)
kaimo 카이們 kaimogo 카이們嘅 kaimoso카이們身 Polite and Formal



Katayü copula hayo 요 (하요) is used to equate one thing with another. So, the structure is "A = B", or "A is B".


先師 (先師; 손씨) teacher

高代語 Romanization Explanation Translation
我오 先師위 係요스̊ han-o sonshi-wi hayo. I(neutral)-sbj teacher-obj copula-polite. I am a teacher.
我워先師위 係唔요스̊ kei-wo sonshi-wi hanoyo. He(neutral)-sbj teacher-obj copula-neg-polite. He is not a teacher.
你워 先師위 係요 스̊니? nei-wo sonshi-wi hayo seuni? You(neutral)-sbj teacher-obj copula-polite ques. Are you a teacher?


Verbs will have attachments [from the list of markers].

The order of attachment is as follows: stem + aspect + tense + negation + misc. + politeness

高代語 IPA Markers
/jo/ Present
(아)라` /(a).ɾa/ Past
위/이 /wi/ /i/ Future
/ka/ Progressive
/ʨu/ Continuous
라` /ɾa/ Perfect
가라` /ka.ɾa/ Perfect Progressive
/nɔ/ Negation
스̊ /sɯ̥/  Polite
/teɪ/ Formal
/mʲɔ/ Verb to noun conversion

Example: 寫요 (寫, 세) to write

Note that all conjugations in the chart below are in the polite form.

















will write




is writing




was writing




will be writing




is writing




was writing



will be writing





have, had, will have written

Perfect Progressive




have, had, will have been writing

Verb to Noun Conversion


one that writes

Sample sentences:

工요 (工, 궁) to work

高代語 Romanization Explanation Translation
我온 욜 先師위 工요。 han-on yol sonshi-wi gongyo. I(neutral)-topic instr. teacher-obj work-(pres.)-polite. I work as a teacher.
我워 욜 寫온 工요。 han-wo yol semyoei-on gongyo. I(neutral)-sbj instr. write-noun person work-(pres.)-polite. I work as one who writes.
워 욜 先師위 工이요。 koi-wo yol sonshi-wi gongiyo. She(neutral)-sbj instr. teacher-obj work-(fut.)-polite. She will work as a teacher.

Compound Verbs[]

For example, 始寫 (sijaseyo) "start writing" or "start to write", the first (helper) verb 始 modifies the second (main) verb, 寫. The first verb will conjugate to whatever is necessary, while the second verb will remain unchanged.

General rule for modification: Take the two unconjugated verbs and attach the "helper" verb's root to the main verb.

Modal Verbs[]

Modal verbs indicate likelihood, ability, permission, and obligation. Modal verbs in Katayü will bind similarly to verbs like the compound verbs. The modal verbs in Katayü are: 會요(wi.jɔ), 能요(nɔːŋ.jɔ), 可요(hɔ.jɔ), 必요(pi.jɔ), 該요(kɔ.jɔ).

會요: possibility 能요: ability(deontic) 可요: ability(epistemic), permission, possibility

必요: obligatory(deontic)

該요: obligatory(epistemic)

To bind modal verbs to the main verb: take the perfect stem of the main verb and place it between the modal verb stem and 요.


' To eat ('食; 코음) ' To sing ('唱; 춍)
會食요 Will eat

요 Will sing

能食요 Able to eat 能唱요 Able to sing
可食요 Can eat, may eat, would eat 唱요 Can sing, may sing, would sing
食요 Must eat 必唱요 Must sing
該食요 Should eat 該唱요 Should sing


唱요 (唱; 춍) to sing 學요 (學; 학) to learn

새워 이夜時에 該唱唔요스̊. sei-wo iyeshi-e kochyongnoyoseu. You(polite)-sbj this night-time oblig.(ep)-sing-neg-polite. You should not sing tonight.
其워 존판 煮요 온 可學요스̊. kei-wo jonyan chuyo


He(neutral)-sbj how cook-polite-topic abil.(ep)-learn-polite. He can learn how to cook.

Adjectives and Adverbs[]

All adjectives are separated into two groups: attributive adjectives and predicative adjectives. All adjectives have a stem; a branch; and, for predicative adjectives, the copula. Their role is to modify a noun or pronoun, so more information about the noun or pronoun is presented. Adjectives conjugate to tense, but do not conjugate to politeness. 

Attributive Adjectives[]

To conjugate, attach the appropriate endings to the stem. Then, to modify a noun or a pronoun, place the link 다 between the adjective and the noun.

Thus, the order: Adj. + 다 + Noun.

When listing multiple adjectives to modify a noun, the order, with n number of adjectives: Adj 1 나 + Adj 2 나......Adj n 다 + Noun.

Negation is applied directly before 다.



高: (高; 카) Great; high (高; 카이) Tall


高다先師. kai-da sonshi. (The) tall teacher.

Predicative Adjectives[]

For predicative adjectives, only the copula shall conjugate. To modify a noun or a pronoun, make a simple sentence with subject (the noun), adjective (with 다 attached) and verb.

Thus, the order: Subject (Noun) + Adj. + 다 + Copula

When listing multiple adjectives in this form, with n amount of adjectives: Noun + Adj 1 나 + Adj 2 나......Adj n 다 + Copula.


先師워 高다 係. sonshi-wo kai-da hayo. (The) teacher is tall.

先師워 高다 係唔. sonshi-wo kai-da hanoyo. (The) teacher is not tall.

先師嘅高단워 平다 係요. sonshikokamo-wo ping-da' hayo. (The) teacher's height is average.

高者워 喜唱요. Kamyo-wo shichyongyo. People that are tall like to sing. // Person that is tall likes to sing.


Adverbs modifiy verbs, adjectives, clauses, sentences and other adverbs. Most adverbs are derived from adejctives. To convert an adjective into an adverb, change 다 into 둘.


The comparisons are varying degrees in emphasis. There are the positives, comparatives, and superlatives.

재 Superlative; 잔 Comparative  

 Slow; 잔 Slower; 재 Slowest

잔아이 highest emphasis of degrees; 감 emphasis of degrees; 일 simple extent

잔아이慢 Too slow, So slow;  Very slow;  Pretty slow


慢 (慢; 만) [to be] slow 行요 (行; 한) to walk 煩 (煩; 한`) [to be] annoying

카이們오 慢둘 行요. kaimun-o man-dul hanyo. They walked slowly.

先師온 잔아이行요, 煩다 係요. sonshi-on janai man-dul hanyo, ban-da hayo. Teacher walks so slowly, it's annoying.

其워 베你이 잔快다 行요, 카, 我예다스̊. kei-wo be-nei-i janpai-da hanyo, ka, hanye-daseu. He walks faster than you, and so do I.

伊온 잔아이쿄애디 係요! koi-on janai kyoei-di hayo! She's so cute!


Proximal (This) Distal (That) Existential (Some) Elective (Any) Universal (Each, Every) Negative (No) Alternative (Other) Interrogative
Adjective i 이 ki 키 son 손 hon 혼 mil 미 no 唔 dei 대 jon 존
Human ito 이人 kito 키人 sonto 손人 honto 혼人 mito 미人 noto 唔人 deito 대人 jonto 존人
Non-Human i 이 ki 키 soni 손이 honi 혼이 mii 미이 noi 唔이 deii 대이 joni 존이
Location ibu 이方 kibu 키方 deibu 손方 honbu 혼方 mibu 미方 nobu 唔方 deibu 대方 jonbu 존方
Time ishi 이時 kishi 키時 sonshi 손時 honshi 혼時 mishi 미時 noshi 唔時 deishi 대時 jonshi 존간
Choice io 이個 kio 키個 sono 손個 hono 혼個 mio 미個 noo 唔個 deio 대個 jono 존個
Manner jonpan 존판
Reason wei 왜

Helping Words[]

Helping words have a variety of purposes. Some act as markers and transitions. Others act as postpositions. In general, helping words are found after the word they are assigned to.


Marker Function
오/워 o/wo Subject Marker
on Topic Marker
이/위 i/wi General and Direct Object Marker
에/웨 e/we Indirect Object Marker
e Location, Time, Direction
yol Instrumental
니/아/메 ni, a, me Question Marker¹ 
be Comparative
da Declarative

Other Helping Words[]

Helping Word Function
so Reflexive
mo Plural Form
ka Conjunctive; and
하이 hai Disjunctive; or
ye Additive; also
나/토 na, to Listing²
지애 jiei Isolating; only
hon Alternate; other
cha Approximate; about, almost
ru Conditional; If...then...
tan "However"
dei Formal
no Negation
di Adjective-Noun and Noun-Noun link

¹ 니, 아, and 에 all serve as question markers. 아 and 메 are used with a slightly negative connoation. 아 is informal, and sometimes implies a mocking tone. While 메 also does this, it may only be used in conjunction with 係. 니 serves as a general question marker.

² 나 is used when a list is has a finite amount of items in its set and is usually used with a list of 10 items or less. 토 is used when the list may be finite or infinite. 토 is placed after the final item mentioned and implies that the list continues.


Basic Numerals[]

The numerals in writing are partially based on the Chinese numerals and the grouping of larger numbers follow the Chinese grouping of ten-thousands rather than thousands. To link numbers to nouns, add the numbers right before the noun. Zeros are usually implied and are not mentioned. Exceptions to that rule include decimals and the listing of numbers.

漢制字 for numerals are commonly used up to 9,999. Once 10,000 or above is used, numerals are more commonly expressed as Honzo Jimu, as it follows the grouping by thousands instead of ten-thousands.

Numeral Hansho Ji Honzo Jimu
0 零 (랑)
1 一 (다이)
2 二 (이)
3 三 (산)
4 四 (시)
5 五 (웅)
6 六 (료 ) 료 
7 七 (차)
8 八 (파 ) 파 
9 九 (쿄) 쿄 
10 十 (소) 삽 
11 十一 (소다이) 삽야
20 廿 (야) 이삽 
21 廿一 (야다이) 이삽양
30 三十 (상삽) 상삽
100 百 (배)
101 百一 (배다이) 배양
1,000 千 (초)
3,201 三千二百一 (상초이배다이) 상초이배양
10,000 萬¹ (만) 삽초 
1,000,000 百萬 (배만)
10,000,000 千萬 (초만) 삽화
100,000,000 億¹ (게) 배화
1,000,000,000 十億 (삽게)
1,000,000,000,000 兆¹ (쪼)

¹These values are usually not used with 漢制字, except for official documents.

Ordinal and Negative Numbers[]

Ordinal number forms are made by adding 第 (대) before the actual numeral.

Negative number forms are made by adding 負 (구) before the numeral.

Numerals are expressed as 漢制字 are used after 9,999.

Decimals and Fractions[]

Decimal number forms are made by adding 팡 between the whole numbers and the decimal places.

Fraction number forms are made in this format: denominator then numerator. So, 상之야 (상주야) would be 1/3. 

Only numerals are expressed as 혼쏘지무 are used.

Sample Sentences[]

English 高代語 Romanization
I love (you)/(it). 我愛요. hanaiyo.
The moon is visible tonight. 月오 이夜時에 요. sünwo-o iyeshi-e nongkiyo.
Gravity is beautiful, and it is a concept that you cannot forget. 重力온 쿄미다카, 唔요다 키는 요. chori-on kyomi-da, ka, sei-wi gominnoyo-da kineun hayo.
Which came first, the chicken or the egg?  존個온 存키요, 雞오 하이 워 스̊? jono-on deiyang-dul shonkiyo, geji-o hai dal-wo seuni?
The sky is blue today. 워 에 藍다 係. ten-o ini-e hal-da hayo.
Since she was precious to him, he would accept her invitation; otherwise, he would have declined. 신스̊카 伊워 其에 愛토다 係라`요, 온 伊嘅왕모온 受요; 소謝卻요. sinseuka koi-wo kei-e aito-da harayo, koikowangmo-on kuishiyo, sowo, kusakeyo. 
His childhood was somewhat deprived. 소時워 센케둘 스̊톤 係라`요. keigososhi-wi senke-dul seuton-da harayo.
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. 미人온 出生에 自做단 카 平다 켄닐위 有요스̊. 예道소 카 善心위 有요, 카, 씨송기愛다 氣워 互둘 該做요스̊. mito-on susen-e chijadan ka ping-da kennil-wi gwoyoseu. yedoso ka sanshinwi gwoyo, ka shisonggiai-da kiwo fu-dul gojayoseu. 

See Also[]

Katayü: Kineun Hanshoji