Kauf's proto-language
Type Agglutinative
Alignment Ergative
Head direction Initial
Tonal Yes
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders 1
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Progress 0%
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words of 1500
Creator [[User:|]]

Classification and Dialects[]


Welp, that about does it. (c)

Let's say it's a language in some backwater o' da world which was colonized by Brits or some other island 'humpers who had a Windows PC liked to colonize lands and had their own alphabet already. So the orthography will be pretty minimalistic.


By T7 aka Marek Szymonski.

Bilabial Labio-dental Alveolar Retroflex Velar Pharyngeal
Nasal m <m> n nʷ <n nw> ŋ <ng>
Plosive p b <p b> t d tʷ dʷ <t d tw dw> k g kʷ gʷ <k w kw gw>
Fricative ɸ <ф> f <f> s sʷ <s sw> ʂ ʂʷ <sh shw> ħ ħʷ <x xw>
Affricate tɬ tɬʷ <tl tlw> tʂ tʂʷ <ch chw>
Approximant ʋ ʋ̥ <v vh> ɰ ɰ̥ <w wh> ʕ ʕʷ <h hw>
Lateral l lʷ <l lw> ɫ ɫʷ <ll llw>
Lateral fric. ɬ ɬʷ <lh lhw>


Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
High i <i> ɨ <y> ɯ u <eu u>
e ø <e eo>
Mid o <o>
ɛ <e>
Low ɑ ɒ <a aa>

Naturally, there's also a tone system. Every vowel has three tones: high [á], low [à] and neutral [a]. Labialization is triggered by the disappearance of a rounded vowel and by a consonant preceding any tonal rounded vowel (note [ɸ] and [ʋ] are the labialized versions of [f] and [ɰ]- though [ʋ] does occur independently, while [ɸ] does not.

Diphthongs include any vowel followed by any short mid-to-high vowel. The first vowel must be in a different place of articulation than the second.


Legal onsets consist of C, C [+app/lateral], [+obstruent] [+pharyngeal], [+fricative] [+obstruent] ([+app/lateral]), [+obstruent] [+nasal +heterorganic] and nothing.

Nuclei only consist of vowels. Only one tonal vowel may exist per root.

Legal codas include C [+plosive], [-obstruent] C, and nothing.

Both approximants and fricatives agree in voice with a preceding plosive (note that ʕ serves as a voiced ħ and vice versa.) Outside of this rule, voiced fricatives do not exist- approximants, however, do distinguish voicing in independent positions.






Example text[]